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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Lijun, Bai; Bo, Yin; Shuoyan, Lei; Tianhui, Li; +8 Authors

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI)-associated damage to hub regions can lead to disrupted modular structures of functional brain networks and may result in widespread cognitive and behavioral deficits. The spatial layout of brain connections and modules is essential for understanding the reorganization of brain networks to trauma. We investigated the roles of hubs in inter-subnetwork information coordination and integration using participation coefficients (PCs) in 74 patients with acute mTBI and 51 matched healthy controls. In some brain networks, such as default mode network (DMN) and frontoparietal network (FPN), mild TBI patients had decreased PC levels, while this measure was saliently increased in patients in other networks, such as the visual network. The hub disruption index was defined as the gradient of a straight line fitted to scatterplots of individual mTBI in participation coefficient versus mean participation coefficient of healthy groups. There was a trend of radical reorganization of some efficient "hub" nodes in patients (κ = -0.15), compared with controls (κ close to 0). The PC of brain hubs can also differentiate mTBI patients from controls with an 88% accuracy, and decreased PC levels in FPN can predict patient' s worse cognitive information processing speed (

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Journal of Neurotrau...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Journal of Neurotrauma
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Mary Ann Liebert TDM
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Journal of Neurotrau...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Journal of Neurotrauma
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: Ting, Li; Arthur, Liesz;

    AbstractTranslational stroke research has long been focusing on neuroprotective strategies to prevent secondary tissue injury and promote recovery after acute ischemic brain injury. The inflammatory response to stroke has more recently emerged as a key pathophysiological pathway contributing to stroke outcome. It is now accepted that the inflammatory response is functionally involved in all phases of the ischemic stroke pathophysiology. The immune response is therefore considered a breakthrough target for ischemic stroke treatment. On one side, stroke induces a local neuroinflammatory response, in which the inflammatory activation of glial, endothelial and brain-invading cells contributes to lesion progression after stroke. On the other side, ischemic brain injury perturbs systemic immune homeostasis and results in long-lasting changes of systemic immunity. Here, we briefly summarize current concepts in local neuroinflammation and the systemic immune responses after stroke, and highlight two promising therapeutic strategies for poststroke inflammation.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ibrar Muhammad, Khan; Safir Ullah, Khan; Hari Siva Sai, Sala; Munir Ullah, Khan; +5 Authors

    The tumor microenvironment (TME), which includes both cellular and non-cellular elements, is now recognized as one of the major regulators of the development of primary tumors, the metastasis of which occurs to specific organs, and the response to therapy. Development of immunotherapy and targeted therapies have increased knowledge of cancer-related inflammation Since the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCB) limit immune cells from entering from the periphery, it has long been considered an immunological refuge. Thus, tumor cells that make their way “to the brain were believed to be protected from the body’s normal mechanisms of monitoring and eliminating them. In this process, the microenvironment and tumor cells at different stages interact and depend on each other to form the basis of the evolution of tumor brain metastases. This paper focuses on the pathogenesis, microenvironmental changes, and new treatment methods of different types of brain metastases. Through the systematic review and summary from macro to micro, the occurrence and development rules and key driving factors of the disease are revealed, and the clinical precision medicine of brain metastases is comprehensively promoted. Recent research has shed light on the potential of TME-targeted and potential treatments for treating Brain metastases, and we’ll use that knowledge to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these approaches.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Frontiers in Immunol...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Frontiers in Immunology
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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      Frontiers in Immunology
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: Jinping Cheng; Jingru Jiang; Baixuan He; Wei-Jye Lin; +23 Authors

    Radiation-induced brain injury (RIBI) is a debilitating sequela after radiotherapy to treat head and neck cancer, and 20 to 30% of patients with RIBI fail to respond to or have contraindications to the first-line treatments of bevacizumab and corticosteroids. Here, we reported a Simon’s minmax two-stage, single-arm, phase 2 clinical trial (NCT03208413) to assess the efficacy of thalidomide in patients with RIBI who were unresponsive to or had contraindications to bevacizumab and corticosteroid therapies. The trial met its primary endpoint, with 27 of 58 patients enrolled showing ≥25% reduction in the volume of cerebral edema on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery–magnetic resonance imaging (FLAIR-MRI) after treatment (overall response rate, 46.6%; 95% CI, 33.3 to 60.1%). Twenty-five (43.1%) patients demonstrated a clinical improvement based on the Late Effects Normal Tissues–Subjective, Objective, Management, Analytic (LENT/SOMA) scale, and 36 (62.1%) experienced cognitive improvement based on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scores. In a mouse model of RIBI, thalidomide restored the blood-brain barrier and cerebral perfusion, which were attributed to the functional rescue of pericytes secondary to elevation of platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ) expression by thalidomide. Our data thus demonstrate the therapeutic potential of thalidomide for the treatment of radiation-induced cerebral vasculature impairment.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Lei, An; Qiu, Lu; Ke, Wang; Yousheng, Wang;

    The impact of host–microbiome interactions on cognitive health and disease has received increasing attention. Microbial-derived metabolites produced in the gut are one of crucial mechanisms of the gut–brain axis interaction, showing attractive perspectives. Urolithins (Uros) are gut microbial-derived metabolites of ellagitannins and ellagic acid, whose biotransformation varies considerably between individuals and decreases greatly with age. Recently, accumulating evidence has suggested that Uros may have specific advantages in preventing brain aging including favorable blood–brain barrier permeability, selective brain distribution, and increasingly supporting data from preclinical and clinical studies. However, the usability of Uros in diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases remains elusive. In this review, we aim to present the comprehensive achievements of Uros in age-related brain dysfunctions and neurodegenerative diseases and discuss their prospects and knowledge gaps as functional food, drugs, or biomarkers against brain aging.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Nutrientsarrow_drop_down
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    Nutrients
    Article . 2023
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    Nutrients
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Nutrientsarrow_drop_down
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      Nutrients
      Article . 2023
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Nutrients
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Yan, He; Zhiqiang, Yan; Wenjia, Zhang; Jie, Dong; +1 Authors

    The difference between sleep and wakefulness is critical for human health. Sleep takes up one third of our lives and remains one of the most mysterious conditions; it plays an important role in memory consolidation and health restoration. Distinct neural behaviors take place under awake and asleep conditions, according to neuroimaging studies. While disordered transitions between wakefulness and sleep accompany brain disease, further investigation of their specific characteristics is required. In this study, the difference is objectively quantified by means of network controllability. We propose a new pipeline using a public intracranial stereo-electroencephalography (stereo-EEG) dataset to unravel differences in the two conditions in terms of system neuroscience. Because intracranial stereo-EEG records neural oscillations covering large-scale cerebral areas, it offers the highest temporal resolution for recording neural behaviors. After EEG preprocessing, the EEG signals are band-passed into sub-slow (0.1‍-‍1 Hz), delta (1‍-‍4 Hz), theta (4‍-‍8 Hz), alpha (8‍-‍13 Hz), beta (13‍-‍30 Hz), and gamma (30‍-‍45 Hz) band oscillations. Then, dynamic functional connectivity is extracted from time-windowed EEG neural oscillations through phase-locking value (PLV) and non-overlapping sliding time windows. Next, average and modal network controllability are implemented on these time-varying brain networks. Based on this preliminary study, it appears that significant differences exist in the dorsolateral frontal-parietal network (FPN), salience network (SN), and default-mode network (DMN). The combination of network controllability and dynamic functional networks offers new insight for characterizing distinctions between awake and asleep stages in the brain. In other words, network controllability captures the underlying brain dynamics under both awake and asleep conditions.睡眠和清醒之间的差异对人类的健康至关重要,清醒和睡眠之间的转换紊乱伴随脑部疾病,因此需要深入研究其具体特征。本研究引入网络可控性揭示大脑脑电活动中频率成分的功能特异性。具体来说,我们采用一个公开的颅内立体脑电图数据集。首先,记录受试者清醒和睡眠条件下的脑电信号,经过降噪、伪迹去除等预处理方法,通过带通滤波提取亚慢波(0.1~1 Hz)、δ(1~4 Hz)、θ(4~8 Hz)、α(8~13 Hz)、β(13~30 Hz)和γ(30~45 Hz)波段振荡。其次,利用锁相值(PLV)和不重叠滑动时间窗从时间窗脑电神经振荡中提取动态功能连通性。最后,在这些时变大脑网络上计算平均和模态网络的可控性。初步结果显示,清醒和睡眠状态下,不同频段脑电活动在额顶网络(FPN)、显著网络(SN)和默认模式网络(DMN)存在显著差异,即不同频率成分的脑电信号以不同网络控制策略参与大脑清醒和睡眠。网络可控性揭示了清醒和睡眠条件下的潜在大脑动力学,网络可控性和动态功能网络的结合为表征大脑清醒和睡眠阶段的区别提供了新的度量方法。.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2023
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Xiande Wang; Cheng Wu; Shiming Liu; Deqing Peng;

    Brain cancer is the most aggressive one among various cancers. It has a drastic impact on people's lives because of the failure in treatment efficacy of the currently employed strategies. Various strategies used to relieve pain in brain cancer patients and to prolong survival time include radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and surgery. Nevertheless, several inevitable limitations are accompanied by such treatments due to unsatisfactory curative effects. Generally, the treatment of cancers is very challenging due to many reasons including drugs' intrinsic factors and physiological barriers. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB) are the two additional hurdles in the way of therapeutic agents to brain tumors delivery. Combinatorial and targeted therapies specifically in cancer show a very promising role where nanocarriers' based formulations are designed primarily to achieve tumor-specific drug release. A dual-targeting strategy is a versatile way of chemotherapeutics delivery to brain tumors that gets the aid of combined ligands and mediators that cross the BBB and reaches the target site efficiently. In contrast to single targeting where one receptor or mediator is targeted, the dual-targeting strategy is expected to produce a multiple-fold increase in therapeutic efficacy for cancer therapy, especially in brain tumors. In a nutshell, a dual-targeting strategy for brain tumors enhances the delivery efficiency of chemotherapeutic agents via penetration across the blood-brain barrier and enhances the targeting of tumor cells. This review article highlights the ongoing status of the brain tumor therapy enhanced by nanoparticle based delivery with the aid of dual-targeting strategies. The future perspectives in this regard have also been highlighted.

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    Drug Delivery
    Article . 2022
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    Drug Delivery
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      Drug Delivery
      Article . 2022
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      Drug Delivery
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Le Zhang; Jiayidaer Badai; Guan Wang; Xufang Ru; +8 Authors

    IntroductionCentral nervous system (CNS) diseases, such as neurodegenerative disorders and brain diseases caused by acute injuries, are important, yet challenging to study due to disease lesion locations and other complexities.MethodsUtilizing the powerful method of spatial transcriptome analysis together with novel algorithms we developed for the study, we report here for the first time a 3D trajectory map of gene expression changes in the brain following acute neural injury using a mouse model of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). IVH is a common and representative complication after various acute brain injuries with severe mortality and mobility implications.ResultsOur data identified three main 3D global pseudospace-time trajectory bundles that represent the main neural circuits from the lateral ventricle to the hippocampus and primary cortex affected by experimental IVH stimulation. Further analysis indicated a rapid response in the primary cortex, as well as a direct and integrated effect on the hippocampus after IVH stimulation.DiscussionThese results are informative for understanding the pathophysiological changes, including the spatial and temporal patterns of gene expression changes, in IVH patients after acute brain injury, strategizing more effective clinical management regimens, and developing novel bioinformatics strategies for the study of other CNS diseases. The algorithm strategies used in this study are searchable via a web service (www.combio-lezhang.online/3dstivh/home).

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    Frontiers in Immunology
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Frontiers in Immunology
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Rongchun, Xing; Jin, Cheng; Jiangtao, Yu; Shaoping, Li; +2 Authors

    Currently, no specific and standard treatment for traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been developed. Therefore, studies on new therapeutic drugs for TBI treatment are urgently needed. Trifluoperazine (TFP) is a therapeutic agent for the treatment of psychiatric disorders that reduces edema of the central nervous system. However, the specific working mechanism of TFP is not fully understood in TBI. In this study, the immunofluorescence co-localization analysis revealed that the area and intensity covered by Aquaporin4 (AQP4) on the surface of brain cells (astrocyte endfeet) increased significantly after TBI. In contrast, TFP treatment reversed these phenomena. This finding showed that TFP inhibited AQP4 accumulation on the surface of brain cells (astrocyte endfeet). The tunel fluorescence intensity and fluorescence area were lower in the TBI+TFP group compared to the TBI group. Additionally, the brain edema, brain defect area, and modified neurological severity score (mNSS) were lower in the TBI+TFP. The RNA-seq was performed on the cortical tissues of rats in the Sham, TBI, and TBI+TFP groups. A total of 3774 genes differently expressed between the TBI and the Sham group were identified. Of these, 2940 genes were up-regulated and 834 genes were down-regulated. A total of 1845 differently expressed genes between the TBI+TFP and TBI group were also identified, in which 621 genes were up-regulated and 1224 genes were down-regulated. Analysis of the common differential genes in the three groups showed that TFP could reverse the expression of apoptosis and inflammation genes. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis revealed that the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were highly enriched in the signaling pathways regulating inflammation. In conclusion, TFP alleviates brain edema after TBI by preventing the accumulation of AQP4 on the surface of brain cells. Generally, TFP alleviates apoptosis and inflammatory response induced by TBI, and promotes the recovery of nerve function in rats after TBI. Thus, TFP is a potential therapeutic agent for TBI treatment.

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    International Journal of Medical Sciences
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      International Journal of Medical Sciences
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Jian Zhang; Yi Chang;

    Background Prior studies have shown abnormal brain functional network changes in patients with acute ischemic stroke. However, the alterations of dynamic functional network connectivity (FNC) in brainstem strokes have not been elucidated. Purpose To assess alterations of static and dynamic FNCs and determine the relationships between these and upper limb movement performance in patients with acute brainstem ischemic stroke. Material and Methods In total, 50 patients with acute brainstem ischemic stroke and 50 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled in the present study and underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Independent component analysis was conducted to assess static and dynamic FNC patterns based on seven resting-state networks, namely, the default mode network (DMN), executive control network (ECN), attention network (AN), somatomotor network (SMN), visual network (VN), auditory network (AUN), and cerebellum network (CN). Results Compared with controls, patients with acute brainstem ischemic stroke exhibited wide aberrations of static FNC, including increased FNC in DMN–ECN, DMN–VN, ECN–VN, ECN–AN and AN–AUN pairs. Patients with acute brainstem ischemic stroke showed aberrant dynamic FNC in State 1, involving increased FNC aberrance in the DMN with AN, DMN with ECN, and reduced FNC in SMN–VN pairs. In State 5, patients with acute brainstem ischemic stroke showed increased FNC in DMN–VN and AN–AUN, and decreased FNC in AN–SMN pairs. Conclusion This study suggests that static and dynamic FNC impairment and aberrant connections exist in acute brainstem ischemic stroke, which expands what is known regarding the relationship between stroke and FNC from static and dynamic perspectives.

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    Acta Radiologica
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 2023
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      Acta Radiologica
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Lijun, Bai; Bo, Yin; Shuoyan, Lei; Tianhui, Li; +8 Authors

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI)-associated damage to hub regions can lead to disrupted modular structures of functional brain networks and may result in widespread cognitive and behavioral deficits. The spatial layout of brain connections and modules is essential for understanding the reorganization of brain networks to trauma. We investigated the roles of hubs in inter-subnetwork information coordination and integration using participation coefficients (PCs) in 74 patients with acute mTBI and 51 matched healthy controls. In some brain networks, such as default mode network (DMN) and frontoparietal network (FPN), mild TBI patients had decreased PC levels, while this measure was saliently increased in patients in other networks, such as the visual network. The hub disruption index was defined as the gradient of a straight line fitted to scatterplots of individual mTBI in participation coefficient versus mean participation coefficient of healthy groups. There was a trend of radical reorganization of some efficient "hub" nodes in patients (κ = -0.15), compared with controls (κ close to 0). The PC of brain hubs can also differentiate mTBI patients from controls with an 88% accuracy, and decreased PC levels in FPN can predict patient' s worse cognitive information processing speed (

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Journal of Neurotrau...arrow_drop_down
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    Journal of Neurotrauma
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Mary Ann Liebert TDM
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Journal of Neurotrauma
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: Ting, Li; Arthur, Liesz;

    AbstractTranslational stroke research has long been focusing on neuroprotective strategies to prevent secondary tissue injury and promote recovery after acute ischemic brain injury. The inflammatory response to stroke has more recently emerged as a key pathophysiological pathway contributing to stroke outcome. It is now accepted that the inflammatory response is functionally involved in all phases of the ischemic stroke pathophysiology. The immune response is therefore considered a breakthrough target for ischemic stroke treatment. On one side, stroke induces a local neuroinflammatory response, in which the inflammatory activation of glial, endothelial and brain-invading cells contributes to lesion progression after stroke. On the other side, ischemic brain injury perturbs systemic immune homeostasis and results in long-lasting changes of systemic immunity. Here, we briefly summarize current concepts in local neuroinflammation and the systemic immune responses after stroke, and highlight two promising therapeutic strategies for poststroke inflammation.

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    Authors: Ibrar Muhammad, Khan; Safir Ullah, Khan; Hari Siva Sai, Sala; Munir Ullah, Khan; +5 Authors

    The tumor microenvironment (TME), which includes both cellular and non-cellular elements, is now recognized as one of the major regulators of the development of primary tumors, the metastasis of which occurs to specific organs, and the response to therapy. Development of immunotherapy and targeted therapies have increased knowledge of cancer-related inflammation Since the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCB) limit immune cells from entering from the periphery, it has long been considered an immunological refuge. Thus, tumor cells that make their way “to the brain were believed to be protected from the body’s normal mechanisms of monitoring and eliminating them. In this process, the microenvironment and tumor cells at different stages interact and depend on each other to form the basis of the evolution of tumor brain metastases. This paper focuses on the pathogenesis, microenvironmental changes, and new treatment methods of different types of brain metastases. Through the systematic review and summary from macro to micro, the occurrence and development rules and key driving factors of the disease are revealed, and the clinical precision medicine of brain metastases is comprehensively promoted. Recent research has shed light on the potential of TME-targeted and potential treatments for treating Brain metastases, and we’ll use that knowledge to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these approaches.

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    Frontiers in Immunology
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Frontiers in Immunology
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  • Authors: Jinping Cheng; Jingru Jiang; Baixuan He; Wei-Jye Lin; +23 Authors

    Radiation-induced brain injury (RIBI) is a debilitating sequela after radiotherapy to treat head and neck cancer, and 20 to 30% of patients with RIBI fail to respond to or have contraindications to the first-line treatments of bevacizumab and corticosteroids. Here, we reported a Simon’s minmax two-stage, single-arm, phase 2 clinical trial (NCT03208413) to assess the efficacy of thalidomide in patients with RIBI who were unresponsive to or had contraindications to bevacizumab and corticosteroid therapies. The trial met its primary endpoint, with 27 of 58 patients enrolled showing ≥25% reduction in the volume of cerebral edema on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery–magnetic resonance imaging (FLAIR-MRI) after treatment (overall response rate, 46.6%; 95% CI, 33.3 to 60.1%). Twenty-five (43.1%) patients demonstrated a clinical improvement based on the Late Effects Normal Tissues–Subjective, Objective, Management, Analytic (LENT/SOMA) scale, and 36 (62.1%) experienced cognitive improvement based on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scores. In a mouse model of RIBI, thalidomide restored the blood-brain barrier and cerebral perfusion, which were attributed to the functional rescue of pericytes secondary to elevation of platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ) expression by thalidomide. Our data thus demonstrate the therapeutic potential of thalidomide for the treatment of radiation-induced cerebral vasculature impairment.

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