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  • Neuroinformatics
  • Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Laurence Dion-Albert; Katarzyna A. Dudek; Scott J. Russo; Matthew Campbell; +1 Authors

    The neurovascular unit (NVU) is a dynamic center for substance exchange between the blood and the brain, making it an essential gatekeeper for central nervous system (CNS) homeostasis. Recent evidence supports a role for the NVU in modulating brain function and cognition. In addition, alterations in NVU processes are observed in response to stress, although the mechanisms via which they can affect mood and cognitive functions remain elusive. Here, we summarize recent studies of neurovascular regulation of emotional processes and cognitive function, including under stressful conditions. We also highlight relevant RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) databases aiming to profile the NVU along with innovative tools to study and manipulate NVU function that can be exploited in the context of cognition and stress research throughout development, aging, or brain disorders.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Trends in Neuroscien...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Trends in Neurosciences
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC ND
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Trends in Neuroscien...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Trends in Neurosciences
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Avinash R, Vaidya; Maia S, Pujara; Michael, Petrides; Elisabeth A, Murray; +1 Authors

    Studies of humans with focal brain damage and non-human animals with experimentally induced brain lesions have provided pivotal insights into the neural basis of behavior. As the repertoire of neural manipulation and recording techniques expands, the utility of studying permanent brain lesions bears re-examination. Studies on the effects of permanent lesions provide vital data about brain function that are distinct from those of reversible manipulations. Focusing on work carried out in humans and nonhuman primates, we address the inferential strengths and limitations of lesion studies, recent methodological developments, the integration of this approach with other methods, and the clinical and ecological relevance of this research. We argue that lesion studies are essential to the rigorous assessment of neuroscience theories.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Trends in Cognitive ...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2019
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Trends in Cognitive Sciences
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Trends in Cognitive ...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2019
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Lihong Lu; Joe Steinman; John G. Sled; Haojie Mao;

    Abstract Cerebral blood vessels play an important role in brain metabolic activity in general and following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in particular. However, the extent to which TBI alters microvessel structure is not well understood. Specifically, how intracranial mechanical responses produced during impacts relate to vascular damage needs to be better studied. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the biomechanical mechanisms and thresholds of brain microvascular injury. Detailed microvascular damage of mouse brain was quantified using Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ex vivo Serial Two-Photon Tomography (STPT) in seven mice that had undergone controlled cortical impact. Mechanical strains were investigated through finite element (FE) modeling of the mouse brain. We then compared the post-injury vessel density map with FE-predicted strain and found a moderate correlation between the vessel length density and the predicted peak maximum principal strains (MPS) (R2 = 0.52). High MPS was observed at the impact regions with low vessel length density, supporting the mechanism of strain-triggered microvascular damage. Using logistic regression, the MPS corresponding to a 50% probability of injury was found to be 0.17. Given the literature reporting MPS of over 0.2 in the human brain for mild TBI/concussion cases, it is highly recommended to consider microvascular damage when investigating mild TBI/concussion in the future.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Journal of Biomechan...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Journal of Biomechanics
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Journal of Biomechan...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Journal of Biomechanics
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Lina K. Klein; Guido Maiello; Kevin M. Stubbs; Daria Proklova; +4 Authors

    AbstractSelecting suitable grasps on three-dimensional objects is a challenging visuomotor computation, which involves combining information about an object (e.g., its shape, size, and mass) with information about the actor’s body (e.g., the optimal grasp aperture and hand posture for comfortable manipulation). Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain networks associated with these distinct aspects during grasp planning and execution. Human participants viewed and then executed preselected grasps on L-shaped objects made of wood and/or brass. By leveraging a computational approach that accurately predicts human grasp locations, we selected grasp points that disentangled the role of multiple grasp-relevant factors: grasp axis, grasp size, and object mass. Representational Similarity Analysis revealed that grasp axis was encoded along dorsal-stream regions during grasp planning. Grasp size was first encoded in ventral-stream areas during grasp planning, then in premotor regions during grasp execution. Object mass was encoded in ventral-stream and (pre)motor regions only during grasp execution. Premotor regions further encoded visual predictions of grasp comfort, whereas the ventral stream encoded grasp comfort during execution, suggesting its involvement in haptic evaluation. These shifts in neural representations thus capture the sensorimotor transformations that allow humans to grasp objects.Significance StatementGrasping requires integrating object properties with constraints on hand and arm postures. Using a computational approach that accurately predicts human grasp locations by combining such constraints, we selected grasps on objects that disentangled the relative contributions of object mass, grasp size, and grasp axis during grasp planning and execution in a neuroimaging study. Our findings reveal a greater role of dorsal-stream visuomotor areas during grasp planning, and surprisingly, increasing ventral stream engagement during execution. We propose that during planning, visuomotor representations initially encode grasp axis and size. Perceptual representations of object material properties become more relevant instead as the hand approaches the object and motor programs are refined with estimates of the grip forces required to successfully lift the object.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Neuroscie...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Journal of Neuroscience
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC SA
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Neuroscie...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Journal of Neuroscience
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Daniel J. Gale; Corson N. Areshenkoff; Dominic P. Standage; Joseph Y. Nashed; +4 Authors

    Sensorimotor learning is a dynamic, systems-level process that involves the combined action of multiple neural systems distributed across the brain. Although we understand a great deal about the specialized cortical systems that support specific components of action (such as reaching), we know less about how cortical systems function in a coordinated manner to facilitate adaptive behaviour. To address this gap in knowledge, our study measured human brain activity using functional MRI (fMRI) while participants performed a classic sensorimotor adaptation task, and used a manifold learning approach to describe how behavioural changes during adaptation relate to changes in the landscape of cortical activity. During early adaptation, we found that areas in parietal and premotor cortex exhibited significant contraction along the cortical manifold, which was associated with their increased covariance with regions in higher-order association cortex, including both the default mode and fronto-parietal networks. By contrast, during late adaptation, when visuomotor errors had been largely reduced, we observed a significant expansion of visual cortex along the cortical manifold, which was associated with its reduced covariance with association cortex and its increased intraconnectivity. Lastly, we found that individuals who learned more rapidly exhibited greater covariance between regions in the sensorimotor and association cortices during early adaptation. Together, these findings are consistent with a view that sensorimotor adaptation depends on changes in the integration and segregation of neural activity across more specialized regions of unimodal cortex with regions in association cortex implicated in higher-order processes. More generally, they lend support to an emerging line of evidence implicating regions of the default mode network in task-based performance.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Proceedings of the N...arrow_drop_down
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    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Proceedings of the N...arrow_drop_down
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      Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Sheena A. Josselyn; Susumu Tonegawa;

    BACKGROUND: The idea that memory is stored as enduring changes in the brain dates back at least to the time of Plato and Aristotle (circa 350 BCE), but its scientific articulation emerged in the 20th century when Richard Semon introduced the term “engram” to describe the neural substrate for storing and recalling memories. Essentially, Semon proposed that an experience activates a population of neurons that undergo persistent chemical and/or physical changes to become an engram. Subsequent reactivation of the engram by cues available at the time of the experience induces memory retrieval. After Karl Lashley failed to find the engram in a rat brain, studies attempting to localize an engram were largely abandoned. Spurred by Donald O. Hebb’s theory that augmented synaptic strength and neuronal connectivity are critical for memory formation, many researchers showed that enhanced synaptic strength was correlated with memory. Nonetheless, the causal relationship between these enduring changes in synaptic connectivity with a specific, behaviorally identifiable memory at the level of the cell ensemble (an engram) awaited further advances in experimental technologies. ADVANCES: The resurgence in research examining engrams may be linked to two complementary studies that applied intervention strategies to target individual neurons in an engram supporting a specific memory in mice. One study showed that ablating the subset of lateral amygdala neurons allocated to a putative engram disrupted subsequent memory retrieval (loss of function). The second study showed that artificially reactivating a subset of hippocampal dentate gyrus neurons that were active during a fearful experience (and, therefore, part of a putative engram) induced memory retrieval in the absence of external retrieval cues (gain of function). Subsequent findings from many labs used similar strategies to identify engrams in other brain regions supporting different types of memory. There are several recent advances in engram research. First, eligible neurons within a given brain region were shown to compete for allocation to an engram, and relative neuronal excitability determines the outcome of this competition. Excitability-based competition also guides the organization of multiple engrams in the brain and determines how these engrams interact. Second, research examining the nature of the off-line, enduring changes in engram cells (neurons that are critical components of an engram) found increased synaptic strength and spine density in these neurons as well as preferential connectivity to other downstream engram cells. Therefore, both increased intrinsic excitability and synaptic plasticity work hand in hand to form engrams, and these mechanisms are also implicated in memory consolidation and retrieval processes. Third, it is now possible to artificially manipulate memory encoding and retrieval processes to generate false memories, or even create a memory in mice without any natural sensory experience (implantation of a memory for an experience that did not occur). Fourth, “silent” engrams were discovered in amnesic mice; artificial reactivation of silent engrams induces memory retrieval, whereas natural cues cannot. Endogenous engram silencing may contribute to the change in memory over time (e.g., systems memory consolidation) or in different circumstances (e.g., fear memory extinction). These findings suggest that once formed, an engram may exist in different states (from silent to active) on the basis of their retrievability. Although initial engram studies focused on single brain regions, an emerging concept is that a given memory is supported by an engram complex, composed of functionally connected engram cell ensembles dispersed across multiple brain regions, with each ensemble supporting a component of the overall memory. OUTLOOK: The ability to identify and manipulate engram cells and brainwide engram complexes has introduced an exciting new era of memory research. The findings from many labs are beginning to define an engram as the basic unit of memory. However, many questions remain. In the short term, it is critical to characterize how information is stored in an engram, including how engram architecture affects memory quality, strength, and precision; how multiple engrams interact; how engrams change over time; and the role of engram silencing in these processes. The long-term goal of engram research is to leverage the fundamental findings from rodent engram studies to understand how information is acquired, stored, and used in humans and facilitate the treatment of human memory, or other information-processing, disorders. The development of low- to noninvasive technology may enable new human therapies based on the growing knowledge of engrams in rodents.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2020
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    DSpace@MIT
    Article . 2020
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    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      DSpace@MIT
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      Science
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Danyyl Ippolitov; Leanne Arreza; Maliha Nuzhat Munir; Sabine Hombach-Klonisch;

    Brain tissue contains the highest number of perivascular pericytes compared to other organs. Pericytes are known to regulate brain perfusion and to play an important role within the neurovascular unit (NVU). The high phenotypic and functional plasticity of pericytes make this cell type a prime candidate to aid physiological adaptations but also propose pericytes as important modulators in diverse pathologies in the brain. This review highlights known phenotypes of pericytes in the brain, discusses the diverse markers for brain pericytes, and reviews current in vitro and in vivo experimental models to study pericyte function. Our current knowledge of pericyte phenotypes as it relates to metastatic growth patterns in breast cancer brain metastasis is presented as an example for the crosstalk between pericytes, endothelial cells, and metastatic cells. Future challenges lie in establishing methods for real-time monitoring of pericyte crosstalk to understand causal events in the brain metastatic process.

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    Cells
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Cells
    Article . 2022
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      Cells
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      Cells
      Article . 2022
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Michel-Pierre Coll; Hocine Slimani; Choong-Wan Woo; Tor D. Wager; +3 Authors

    Pain is a primary driver of action. We often must voluntarily accept pain to gain rewards. Conversely, we may sometimes forego potential rewards to avoid associated pain. In this study, we investigated how the brain represents the decision value of future pain. Participants (n = 57) performed an economic decision task, choosing to accept or reject offers combining various amounts of pain and money presented visually. Functional MRI (fMRI) was used to measure brain activity throughout the decision-making process. Using multivariate pattern analyses, we identified a distributed neural representation predicting the intensity of the potential future pain in each decision and participants’ decisions to accept or avoid pain. This neural representation of the decision value of future pain included negative weights located in areas related to the valuation of rewards and positive weights in regions associated with saliency, negative affect, executive control, and goal-directed action. We further compared this representation to future monetary rewards, physical pain, and aversive pictures and found that the representation of future pain overlaps with that of aversive pictures but is distinct from experienced pain. Altogether, the findings of this study provide insights on the valuation processes of future pain and have broad potential implications for our understanding of disorders characterized by difficulties in balancing potential threats and rewards.

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    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Olivia M. G. Aguiar; Tim R. Chow; Helen Chong; Omid Vakili; +1 Authors

    AbstractImproved evidence on the most common and severe types of head impacts in ice hockey can guide efforts to preserve brain health through improvements in protective gear, rink design, player training, and rules of play. In this observational cohort study of men’s university hockey, we compared video evidence on the circumstances of 234 head impacts to measures of head impact severity (peak linear accelerations and rotational velocities) from helmet-mounted sensors (GForceTracker). Videos were analyzed with a validated questionnaire, and paired with helmet sensor data. Shoulder-to-head impacts were more common than hand- or elbow-, but there were no differences in head impact severity between upper limb contact sites (p ≥ 0.2). Head-to-glass impacts were nearly four times more common, and just as severe as head-to-board impacts (p ≥ 0.4). Head impacts resulting in major penalties (versus no penalty), or visible signs of concussion (versus no signs), involved greater head rotational velocities (p = 0.038 and 0.049, respectively). Head impacts occurred most often to the side of the head, along the boards to players in their offensive zone without puck possession. Head impact severity did not differ between cases where the head was (versus was not) the primary site of contact (p ≥ 0.6). Furthermore, penalties were called in only 4% of cases where the head was the initial point of contact. Accordingly, rules that focus on primary targeting of the head, while important and in need of improved enforcement, offer a limited solution.

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    Scientific Reports
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Scientific Reports
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Beatriz Herrera; Jacob A. Westerberg; Michelle S. Schall; Alexander Maier; +3 Authors

    AbstractEvent-related potentials (ERP) are among the most widely measured indices for studying human cognition. While their timing and magnitude provide valuable insights, their usefulness is limited by our understanding of their neural generators at the circuit level. Inverse source localization offers insights into such generators, but their solutions are not unique. To address this problem, scientists have assumed the source space generating such signals comprises a set of discrete equivalent current dipoles, representing the activity of small cortical regions. Based on this notion, theoretical studies have employed forward modeling of scalp potentials to understand how changes in circuit-level dynamics translate into macroscopic ERPs. However, experimental validation is lacking because it requires in vivo measurements of intracranial brain sources. Laminar local field potentials (LFP) offer a mechanism for estimating intracranial current sources. Yet, a theoretical link between LFPs and intracranial brain sources is missing. Here, we present a forward modeling approach for estimating mesoscopic intracranial brain sources from LFPs and predict their contribution to macroscopic ERPs. We evaluate the accuracy of this LFP-based representation of brain sources utilizing synthetic laminar neurophysiological measurements and then demonstrate the power of the approach in vivo to clarify the source of a representative cognitive ERP component. To that end, LFP was measured across the cortical layers of visual area V4 in macaque monkeys performing an attention demanding task. We show that area V4 generates dipoles through layer-specific transsynaptic currents that biophysically recapitulate the ERP component through the detailed forward modeling. The constraints imposed on EEG production by this method also revealed an important dissociation between computational and biophysical contributors. As such, this approach represents an important bridge from the mesoscopic activity of cortical columns to the patterns of EEG we measure at the scalp.HighlightsCognitive EEG production was accurately modeled from empirically measured cortical activity in awake macaques.V4 laminar activity plausibly generates the attention-related signal indexed by the EEG.Models demonstrate the importance of biophysical geometry in cognitive EEG production.

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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2022
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      NeuroImage
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2022
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Laurence Dion-Albert; Katarzyna A. Dudek; Scott J. Russo; Matthew Campbell; +1 Authors

    The neurovascular unit (NVU) is a dynamic center for substance exchange between the blood and the brain, making it an essential gatekeeper for central nervous system (CNS) homeostasis. Recent evidence supports a role for the NVU in modulating brain function and cognition. In addition, alterations in NVU processes are observed in response to stress, although the mechanisms via which they can affect mood and cognitive functions remain elusive. Here, we summarize recent studies of neurovascular regulation of emotional processes and cognitive function, including under stressful conditions. We also highlight relevant RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) databases aiming to profile the NVU along with innovative tools to study and manipulate NVU function that can be exploited in the context of cognition and stress research throughout development, aging, or brain disorders.

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    Trends in Neurosciences
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Trends in Neuroscien...arrow_drop_down
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      Trends in Neurosciences
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Avinash R, Vaidya; Maia S, Pujara; Michael, Petrides; Elisabeth A, Murray; +1 Authors

    Studies of humans with focal brain damage and non-human animals with experimentally induced brain lesions have provided pivotal insights into the neural basis of behavior. As the repertoire of neural manipulation and recording techniques expands, the utility of studying permanent brain lesions bears re-examination. Studies on the effects of permanent lesions provide vital data about brain function that are distinct from those of reversible manipulations. Focusing on work carried out in humans and nonhuman primates, we address the inferential strengths and limitations of lesion studies, recent methodological developments, the integration of this approach with other methods, and the clinical and ecological relevance of this research. We argue that lesion studies are essential to the rigorous assessment of neuroscience theories.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Trends in Cognitive ...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2019
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Trends in Cognitive Sciences
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Trends in Cognitive ...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2019
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Trends in Cognitive Sciences
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Lihong Lu; Joe Steinman; John G. Sled; Haojie Mao;

    Abstract Cerebral blood vessels play an important role in brain metabolic activity in general and following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in particular. However, the extent to which TBI alters microvessel structure is not well understood. Specifically, how intracranial mechanical responses produced during impacts relate to vascular damage needs to be better studied. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the biomechanical mechanisms and thresholds of brain microvascular injury. Detailed microvascular damage of mouse brain was quantified using Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ex vivo Serial Two-Photon Tomography (STPT) in seven mice that had undergone controlled cortical impact. Mechanical strains were investigated through finite element (FE) modeling of the mouse brain. We then compared the post-injury vessel density map with FE-predicted strain and found a moderate correlation between the vessel length density and the predicted peak maximum principal strains (MPS) (R2 = 0.52). High MPS was observed at the impact regions with low vessel length density, supporting the mechanism of strain-triggered microvascular damage. Using logistic regression, the MPS corresponding to a 50% probability of injury was found to be 0.17. Given the literature reporting MPS of over 0.2 in the human brain for mild TBI/concussion cases, it is highly recommended to consider microvascular damage when investigating mild TBI/concussion in the future.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Journal of Biomechan...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Journal of Biomechanics
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
    Data sources: Crossref
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