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  • Neuroinformatics
  • Wellcome Trust

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Eva Zatloukalova; Michal Mikl; Daniel Joel Shaw; Radek Marecek; +5 Authors

    AbstractThe phenomenon of déjà vu (DV) has intrigued scientists for decades, yet its neurophysiological underpinnings remain elusive. Brain regions have been identified in which morphometry differs between healthy individuals according to the frequency of their DV experiences. This study built upon these findings by assessing if and how neural activity in these and other brain regions also differ with respect to DV experience. Resting‐state fMRI was performed on 68 healthy volunteers, 44 of whom reported DV experiences (DV group) and 24 who did not (NDV group). Using multivariate analyses, we then assessed the (fractional) amplitude of low‐frequency fluctuations (fALFF/ALFF), a metric that is believed to index brain tissue excitability, for five discrete frequency bands within sets of brain regions implicated in DV and those comprising the default mode network (DMN). Analyses revealed significantly lower values of fALFF/ALFF for specific frequency bands in the DV relative to the NDV group, particularly within mesiotemporal structures, bilateral putamina, right caudatum, bilateral superior frontal cortices, left lateral parietal cortex, dorsal and ventral medial prefrontal cortex, and the posterior cingulate cortex. The pattern of differences in fALFF/ALFF measures between the brains of individuals who have experienced DV and those who have not provides new neurophysiological insights into this phenomenon, including the potential role of the DMN. We suggest that the erroneous feeling of familiarity arises from a temporary disruption of cortico‐subcortical circuitry together with the upregulation of cortical excitability.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggre...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    European Journal of Neuroscience
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Wiley Online Library User Agreement
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggre...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      European Journal of Neuroscience
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Wiley Online Library User Agreement
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Xu, Tianbo; Jha, Ashwani; Nachev, Parashkev;

    Lesion-deficit mapping remains the most powerful method for localising function in the human brain. As the highest court of appeal where competing theories of cerebral function conflict, it ought to be held to the most stringent inferential standards. Though at first sight elegantly transferable, the mass-univariate statistical framework popularized by functional imaging is demonstrably ill-suited to the task, both theoretically and empirically. The critical difficulty lies with the handling of the data's intrinsically high dimensionality. Conceptual opacity and computational complexity lead lesion-deficit mappers to neglect two distinct sets of anatomical interactions: those between areas unified by function, and those between areas unified by the natural pattern of pathological damage. Though both are soluble through high-dimensional multivariate analysis, the consequences of ignoring them are radically different. The former will bleach and coarsen a picture of the functional anatomy that is nonetheless broadly faithful to reality; the latter may alter it beyond all recognition. That the field continues to cling to mass-univariate methods suggests the latter problem is misidentified with the former, and that their distinction is in need of elaboration. We further argue that the vicious effects of lesion-driven interactions are not limited to anatomical localisation but will inevitably degrade purely predictive models of function such as those conceived for clinical prognostic use. Finally, we suggest there is a great deal to be learnt about lesion-mapping by simulation-based modelling of lesion data, for the fundamental problems lie upstream of the experimental data themselves. Highlights • Neglecting two dimensionalities—lesion and functional anatomy—distorts lesion maps. • Lesion dimensionality is critical, mandating high-dimensional multivariate methods. • Simulations based on real lesion data applied to synthetic ground truths are needed. • Anatomical fidelity matters for clinical outcome prediction as for spatial inference.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2018
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2018
      Data sources: PubMed Central
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Claudia Modenato; Kuldeep Kumar; Clara Moreau; Sandra Martin-Brevet; +28 Authors

    AbstractBackgroundCopy Number Variants (CNVs) associated with autism and schizophrenia have large effects on brain anatomy. Yet, neuroimaging studies have been conducted one mutation at a time. We hypothesize that neuropsychiatric CNVs may exert general effects on brain morphometry because they confer risk for overlapping psychiatric conditions.MethodsWe analyzed T1-weighted MRIs and characterized shared patterns on brain anatomy across 8 neuropsychiatric CNVs. Clinically ascertained samples included 1q21.1 (n=48), 16p11.2 (n=156), or 22q11.2 (n=96) and 331 non-carriers. Non-clinically ascertained samples from the UK Biobank included 1q21.1 (n=19), 16p11.2 (n=8), 22q11.2 (n=9), 15q11.2 (n=148) and 965 non-carriers. Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and univariate models were used to interrogate brain morphometry changes across 8 CNVs.ResultsEight CNVs affect regional brain volumes along two main gene-morphometry dimensions identified by CCA. While fronto-temporal regions contributed to dimension 1, dimension 2 was driven by subcortical, parietal and occipital regions. Consistently, voxel-wise whole-brain analyses identified the same regions involved in patterns of alteration present across the 4 deletions and duplications. These neuroanatomical patterns are similar to those observed in cross-psychiatric disorder meta-analyses. Deletions and duplications at all 4 loci show mirror effects at either the global and/or the regional level.ConclusionNeuropsychiatric CNVs share neuroanatomical signatures characterized by a parsimonious set of brain dimensions. The latter may underlie the risk conferred by CNVs for a similar spectrum of neuropsychiatric conditions.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ medRxivarrow_drop_down
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    medRxiv
    Preprint . 2020
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    https://www.medrxiv.org/conten...
    Preprint
    License: CC BY
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ medRxivarrow_drop_down
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      medRxiv
      Preprint . 2020
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Olga Kopach; Dmitri A. Rusakov; Sergiy Sylantyev;

    AbstractBrain ischemic stroke is among the leading causes of death and long-term disability. New treatments that alleviate brain cell damage until blood supply is restored are urgently required. The emerging focus of anti-stroke strategies has been on blood-brain-barrier permeable drugs that exhibit multiple sites of action. Here, we combine single-cell electrophysiology with live-cell imaging to find that β-Alanine (β-Ala) protects key physiological functions of brain cells that are exposed to acute stroke-mimicking conditions in ex vivo brain preparations. β-Ala exerts its neuroprotective action through several distinct pharmacological mechanisms, none of which alone could reproduce the neuroprotective effect. Since β-Ala crosses the blood-brain barrier and is part of a normal human diet, we suggest that it has a strong potential for acute stroke treatment and facilitation of recovery.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Cell Death and Disea...arrow_drop_down
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    Cell Death and Disease
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Cell Death and Disea...arrow_drop_down
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      Cell Death and Disease
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: J M, Kilner; R N, Lemon;

    Mirror neurons were discovered over twenty years ago in the ventral premotor region F5 of the macaque monkey. Since their discovery much has been written about these neurons, both in the scientific literature and in the popular press. They have been proposed to be the neuronal substrate underlying a vast array of different functions. Indeed so much has been written about mirror neurons that last year they were referred to, rightly or wrongly, as “The most hyped concept in neuroscience”. Here we try to cut through some of this hyperbole and review what is currently known (and not known) about mirror neurons.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2013
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2013
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    Authors: Elisabeth, Engl; Renaud, Jolivet; Catherine N, Hall; David, Attwell;

    Energy use in the brain constrains its information processing power, but only about half the brain's energy consumption is directly related to information processing. Evidence for which non-signalling processes consume the rest of the brain's energy has been scarce. For the first time, we investigated the energy use of the brain's main non-signalling tasks with a single method. After blocking each non-signalling process, we measured oxygen level changes in juvenile rat brain slices with an oxygen-sensing microelectrode and calculated changes in oxygen consumption throughout the slice using a modified diffusion equation. We found that the turnover of the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton, followed by lipid synthesis, are significant energy drains, contributing 25%, 22% and 18%, respectively, to the rate of oxygen consumption. In contrast, protein synthesis is energetically inexpensive. We assess how these estimates of energy expenditure relate to brain energy use in vivo, and how they might differ in the mature brain.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2016
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2016
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    Authors: Parashkev, Nachev;
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2014
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    Brain
    Article . 2014
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2014
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      Brain
      Article . 2014
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    Authors: Younes A Tabi; Masud Husain;

    The notion of specific assessments of the function of a particular lobe of the brain is in many ways archaic. Advances in our understanding of brain network function have revealed that brain functions are underpinned by large-scale networks with long range connections between cortical distant regions. It would, therefore, be more correct to discuss the contributions of parietal areas to specific functions. Nevertheless, in clinical practice, as we show here, simple bedside assessment can still often point towards parietal dysfunction, or at least reveal an impairment in a function to which parietal regions normally contribute.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Practical Neurologyarrow_drop_down
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    Practical Neurology
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Practical Neurology
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Heather Hulme; Lynsey M. Meikle; Nicole Strittmatter; John Swales; +7 Authors

    Microbes exert influence across the microbiome-gut-brain axis through neurotransmitter production, induction of host immunomodulators, or the release or induction of other microbial or host molecules. Here, we used mass spectrometry imaging (MSI), a label-free imaging tool, to map molecular changes in the gut and brain in germ-free, antibiotic-treated and control mice. We determined spatial distribution and relative quantification of neurotransmitters and their precursors in response to the microbiome. Using untargeted MSI, we detected a significant change in the levels of four identified small molecules in the brains of germ-free animals compared to controls. However, antibiotic treatment induced no significant changes in these same metabolites in the brain after 1 week of treatment. This work exemplifies the utility of MSI as a tool for the study of known and discovery of novel, mediators of microbiome-gut-brain axis communication.

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    Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggre...arrow_drop_down
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      Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Robin A A, Ince; Nicola J, van Rijsbergen; Gregor, Thut; Guillaume A, Rousselet; +3 Authors

    The model of the brain as an information processing machine is a profound hypothesis in which neuroscience, psychology and theory of computation are now deeply rooted. Modern neuroscience aims to model the brain as a network of densely interconnected functional nodes. However, to model the dynamic information processing mechanisms of perception and cognition, it is imperative to understand brain networks at an algorithmic level--i.e. as the information flow that network nodes code and communicate. Here, using innovative methods (Directed Feature Information), we reconstructed examples of possible algorithmic brain networks that code and communicate the specific features underlying two distinct perceptions of the same ambiguous picture. In each observer, we identified a network architecture comprising one occipito-temporal hub where the features underlying both perceptual decisions dynamically converge. Our focus on detailed information flow represents an important step towards a new brain algorithmics to model the mechanisms of perception and cognition.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2015
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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      Article . 2015
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Eva Zatloukalova; Michal Mikl; Daniel Joel Shaw; Radek Marecek; +5 Authors

    AbstractThe phenomenon of déjà vu (DV) has intrigued scientists for decades, yet its neurophysiological underpinnings remain elusive. Brain regions have been identified in which morphometry differs between healthy individuals according to the frequency of their DV experiences. This study built upon these findings by assessing if and how neural activity in these and other brain regions also differ with respect to DV experience. Resting‐state fMRI was performed on 68 healthy volunteers, 44 of whom reported DV experiences (DV group) and 24 who did not (NDV group). Using multivariate analyses, we then assessed the (fractional) amplitude of low‐frequency fluctuations (fALFF/ALFF), a metric that is believed to index brain tissue excitability, for five discrete frequency bands within sets of brain regions implicated in DV and those comprising the default mode network (DMN). Analyses revealed significantly lower values of fALFF/ALFF for specific frequency bands in the DV relative to the NDV group, particularly within mesiotemporal structures, bilateral putamina, right caudatum, bilateral superior frontal cortices, left lateral parietal cortex, dorsal and ventral medial prefrontal cortex, and the posterior cingulate cortex. The pattern of differences in fALFF/ALFF measures between the brains of individuals who have experienced DV and those who have not provides new neurophysiological insights into this phenomenon, including the potential role of the DMN. We suggest that the erroneous feeling of familiarity arises from a temporary disruption of cortico‐subcortical circuitry together with the upregulation of cortical excitability.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggre...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    European Journal of Neuroscience
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      European Journal of Neuroscience
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Xu, Tianbo; Jha, Ashwani; Nachev, Parashkev;

    Lesion-deficit mapping remains the most powerful method for localising function in the human brain. As the highest court of appeal where competing theories of cerebral function conflict, it ought to be held to the most stringent inferential standards. Though at first sight elegantly transferable, the mass-univariate statistical framework popularized by functional imaging is demonstrably ill-suited to the task, both theoretically and empirically. The critical difficulty lies with the handling of the data's intrinsically high dimensionality. Conceptual opacity and computational complexity lead lesion-deficit mappers to neglect two distinct sets of anatomical interactions: those between areas unified by function, and those between areas unified by the natural pattern of pathological damage. Though both are soluble through high-dimensional multivariate analysis, the consequences of ignoring them are radically different. The former will bleach and coarsen a picture of the functional anatomy that is nonetheless broadly faithful to reality; the latter may alter it beyond all recognition. That the field continues to cling to mass-univariate methods suggests the latter problem is misidentified with the former, and that their distinction is in need of elaboration. We further argue that the vicious effects of lesion-driven interactions are not limited to anatomical localisation but will inevitably degrade purely predictive models of function such as those conceived for clinical prognostic use. Finally, we suggest there is a great deal to be learnt about lesion-mapping by simulation-based modelling of lesion data, for the fundamental problems lie upstream of the experimental data themselves. Highlights • Neglecting two dimensionalities—lesion and functional anatomy—distorts lesion maps. • Lesion dimensionality is critical, mandating high-dimensional multivariate methods. • Simulations based on real lesion data applied to synthetic ground truths are needed. • Anatomical fidelity matters for clinical outcome prediction as for spatial inference.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2018
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2018
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Claudia Modenato; Kuldeep Kumar; Clara Moreau; Sandra Martin-Brevet; +28 Authors

    AbstractBackgroundCopy Number Variants (CNVs) associated with autism and schizophrenia have large effects on brain anatomy. Yet, neuroimaging studies have been conducted one mutation at a time. We hypothesize that neuropsychiatric CNVs may exert general effects on brain morphometry because they confer risk for overlapping psychiatric conditions.MethodsWe analyzed T1-weighted MRIs and characterized shared patterns on brain anatomy across 8 neuropsychiatric CNVs. Clinically ascertained samples included 1q21.1 (n=48), 16p11.2 (n=156), or 22q11.2 (n=96) and 331 non-carriers. Non-clinically ascertained samples from the UK Biobank included 1q21.1 (n=19), 16p11.2 (n=8), 22q11.2 (n=9), 15q11.2 (n=148) and 965 non-carriers. Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and univariate models were used to interrogate brain morphometry changes across 8 CNVs.ResultsEight CNVs affect regional brain volumes along two main gene-morphometry dimensions identified by CCA. While fronto-temporal regions contributed to dimension 1, dimension 2 was driven by subcortical, parietal and occipital regions. Consistently, voxel-wise whole-brain analyses identified the same regions involved in patterns of alteration present across the 4 deletions and duplications. These neuroanatomical patterns are similar to those observed in cross-psychiatric disorder meta-analyses. Deletions and duplications at all 4 loci show mirror effects at either the global and/or the regional level.ConclusionNeuropsychiatric CNVs share neuroanatomical signatures characterized by a parsimonious set of brain dimensions. The latter may underlie the risk conferred by CNVs for a similar spectrum of neuropsychiatric conditions.

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    medRxiv
    Preprint . 2020
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Preprint . 2020
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/