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  • Neuroinformatics
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ngoc Buu Tran; Sook-Jeong Lee;

    The demand for environmentally friendly foods with high nutritional value and low carbon emissions is increasing with the aging of the global population and the crisis of food resources. Edible insects are becoming increasingly well-known as such foods. This study evaluated the effects and mechanisms of Gryllus bimaculatus (Cricket) (Gb) and Oxya chinensis sinuosa (Grasshopper) (Ocs) extracts on epilepsy. A pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizure mouse model was used for the study, and Gb and Ocs extracts were administered for 29 days on alternate days at concentrations of 8 g/kg and 16 g/kg. The integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and brain edema was measured using the perfusion of Evans blue dye and brain water content. Gb and Ocs extracts prevented BBB permeabilization and cerebral edema through increasing the expression of tight junction-associated proteins in the endothelial cells and reducing water content in PTZ-treated mice. Additionally, Gb and Ocs extracts protected neurons from oxidative stress and apoptosis in different brain areas. These protective effects were demonstrated through the restoration of the expression of neuronal nuclear protein and postsynaptic density protein-95, thus increasing the levels of glutathione and superoxide dismutase, decreasing lipid peroxidation, and recovering apoptosis-associated proteins, such as Bax, cleaved PARP, and cleaved caspase-3, in epileptic mice. In addition, Gb and Ocs extracts rescued PTZ-induced hyperexcitable neurons to control mice level, as supported by the restored expression of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter 1, the metabotropic glutamate receptors–GRM2/3, and BDNF. This study suggested that Gb and Ocs extracts are novel medicinal candidates that can help ameliorate epilepsy by improving BBB health and preventing oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PLoS ONEarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2023
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PLoS ONEarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      PLoS ONE
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      PLoS ONE
      Article . 2023
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Chen Makranz; Asael Lubotzky; Hai Zemmour; Ruth Shemer; +12 Authors

    Background Radiotherapy has an important role in the treatment of brain metastases but carries risk of short and/or long-term toxicity, termed radiation-induced brain injury (RBI). As the diagnosis of RBI is crucial for correct patient management, there is an unmet need for reliable biomarkers for RBI. The aim of this proof-of concept study is to determine the utility of brain-derived circulating free DNA (BncfDNA), identified by specific methylation patterns for neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes, as biomarkers brain injury induced by radiotherapy. Methods Twenty-four patients with brain metastases were monitored clinically and radiologically before, during and after brain radiotherapy, and blood for BncfDNA analysis (98 samples) was concurrently collected. Sixteen patients were treated with whole brain radiotherapy and eight patients with stereotactic radiosurgery. Results During follow-up nine RBI events were detected, and all correlated with significant increase in BncfDNA levels compared to baseline. Additionally, resolution of RBI correlated with a decrease in BncfDNA. Changes in BncfDNA were independent of tumor response. Conclusions Elevated BncfDNA levels reflects brain cell injury incurred by radiotherapy. further research is needed to establish BncfDNA as a novel plasma-based biomarker for brain injury induced by radiotherapy.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PLoS ONEarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2023
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PLoS ONEarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      PLoS ONE
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      PLoS ONE
      Article . 2023
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Harm J. van der Horn; Myrthe E. de Koning; Koen Visser; Marius G. J. Kok; +8 Authors

    Research has shown that maladaptive personality characteristics, such as Neuroticism, are associated with poor outcome after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). The current exploratory study investigated the neural underpinnings of this process using dynamic functional network connectivity (dFNC) analyses of resting-state (rs) fMRI, and diffusion MRI (dMRI). Twenty-seven mTBI patients and 21 healthy controls (HC) were included. After measuring the Big Five personality dimensions, principal component analysis (PCA) was used to obtain a superordinate factor representing emotional instability, consisting of high Neuroticism, moderate Openness, and low Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. Persistent symptoms were measured using the head injury symptom checklist at six months post-injury; symptom severity (i.e., sum of all items) was used for further analyses. For patients, brain MRI was performed in the sub-acute phase (~1 month) post-injury. Following parcellation of rs-fMRI using independent component analysis, leading eigenvector dynamic analysis (LEiDA) was performed to compute dynamic phase-locking brain states. Main patterns of brain diffusion were computed using tract-based spatial statistics followed by PCA. No differences in phase-locking state measures were found between patients and HC. Regarding dMRI, a trend significant decrease in fractional anisotropy was found in patients relative to HC, particularly in the fornix, genu of the corpus callosum, anterior and posterior corona radiata. Visiting one specific phase-locking state was associated with lower symptom severity after mTBI. This state was characterized by two clearly delineated communities (each community consisting of areas with synchronized phases): one representing an executive/saliency system, with a strong contribution of the insulae and basal ganglia; the other representing the canonical default mode network. In patients who scored high on emotional instability, this relationship was even more pronounced. Dynamic phase-locking states were not related to findings on dMRI. Altogether, our results provide preliminary evidence for the coupling between personality and dFNC in the development of long-term symptoms after mTBI.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PLoS ONEarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2023
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PLoS ONEarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      PLoS ONE
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      PLoS ONE
      Article . 2023
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ashish Gupta; Braj Bhushan; Laxmidhar Behera;

    Although apparently paradoxical, sad music has been effective in coping with sad life experiences. The underpinning brain neural correlates of this are not well explored. We performed Electroencephalography (EEG) source-level analysis for the brain during a sad autobiographical recall (SAR) and upon exposure to sad music. We specifically investigated the Cingulate cortex complex and Parahippocampus (PHC) regions, areas prominently involved in emotion and memory processing. Results show enhanced alpha band lag phase-synchronization in the brain during sad music listening, especially within and between the Posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and (PHC) compared to SAR. This enhancement was lateralized for alpha1 and alpha2 bands in the left and right hemispheres, respectively. We also observed a significant increase in alpha2 brain current source density (CSD) during sad music listening compared to SAR and baseline resting state in the region of interest (ROI). Brain during SAR condition had enhanced right hemisphere lateralized functional connectivity and CSD in gamma band compared to sad music listening and baseline resting state. Our findings show that the brain during the SAR state had enhanced gamma-band activity, signifying increased content binding capacity. At the same time, the brain is associated with an enhanced alpha band activity while sad music listening, signifying increased content-specific information processing. Thus, the results suggest that the brain’s neural correlates during sad music listening are distinct from the SAR state as well as the baseline resting state and facilitate enhanced content-specific information processing potentially through three-channel neural pathways—(1) by enhancing the network connectivity in the region of interest (ROI), (2) by enhancing local cortical integration of areas in ROI, and (3) by enhancing sustained attention. We argue that enhanced content-specific information processing possibly supports the positive experience during sad music listening post a sad experience in a healthy population. Finally, we propose that sadness has two different characteristics under SAR state and sad music listening.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PLoS ONEarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2021
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PLoS ONEarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      PLoS ONE
      Article . 2021
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      PLoS ONE
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Jenifer Kalafatovich; Minji Lee; Seong-Whan Lee;

    Many studies have focused on understanding memory processes due to their importance in daily life. Differences in timing and power spectra of brain signals during encoding task have been linked to later remembered items and were recently used to predict memory retrieval performance. However, accuracies remain low when using non-invasive methods for acquiring brain signals, mainly due to the low spatial resolution. This study investigates the prediction of successful retrieval using estimated source activity corresponding either to cortical or subcortical structures through source localization. Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals were recorded while participants performed a declarative memory task. Frequency-time analysis was performed using signals from encoding and retrieval tasks to confirm the importance of neural oscillations and their relationship with later remembered and forgotten items. Significant differences in the power spectra between later remembered and forgotten items were found before and during the presentation of the stimulus in the encoding task. Source activity estimation revealed differences in the beta band power over the medial parietal and medial prefrontal areas prior to the presentation of the stimulus, and over the cuneus and lingual areas during the presentation of the stimulus. Additionally, there were significant differences during the stimuli presentation during the retrieval task. Prediction of later remembered items was performed using surface potentials and estimated source activity. The results showed that source localization increases classification performance compared to the one using surface potentials. These findings support the importance of incorporating spatial features of neural activity to improve the prediction of memory retrieval.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PLoS ONEarrow_drop_down
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    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2021
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PLoS ONEarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      PLoS ONE
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      PLoS ONE
      Article . 2021
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Hirokatsu Shimizu; Ramesh Srinivasan;

    AbstractDecoding brain activity related to specific tasks, such as imagining something, is important for brain computer interface (BCI) control. While decoding of brain signals, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals and electroencephalography (EEG) signals, during observing visual images and while imagining images has been previously reported, further development of methods for improving training, performance, and interpretation of brain data was the goal of this study. We applied a Sinc-EEGNet to decode brain activity during perception and imagination of EEG stimuli, and added an attention module to extract the importance of each electrode or frequency band. We also reconstructed images from brain activity by using a generative adversarial network (GAN). By combining the EEG recorded during a visual task (perception) and imagination task, we have successfully boosted the accuracy of classifying EEG data in the imagination task and improved the quality of reconstruction by GAN. Our result indicates that the brain activity evoked during the visual task is present in the imagination task and can be used for better classification of the imagined image. By using the attention module, we can derive the spatial weights in each frequency band and contrast spatial or frequency importance between tasks from our model. Imagination tasks are classified by low frequency EEG signals over temporal cortex, while perception tasks are classified by high frequency EEG signals over occipital and frontal cortex. Combining data sets in training results in a balanced model improving classification of the imagination task without significantly changing performance in the visual task. Our approach not only improves performance and interpretability but also potentially reduces the burden on training since we can improve the accuracy of classifying a relatively hard task with high variability (imagination) by combining with the data of the relatively easy task, observing visual images.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PLoS ONEarrow_drop_down
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    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2022
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    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      PLoS ONE
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Sandra E. Rakers; Edith J. Liemburg; Harm J. van der Horn; Jan Cees de Groot; +2 Authors

    To investigate the impact of frontal macro-structural lesions on intrinsic network measures, we examined brain network function during resting-state fMRI in patients with frontal lesions in the subacute phase after mild to moderate traumatic brain injury. Additionally, network function was related to neuropsychological performances. 17 patients with frontal lesions, identified on admission CT after mild to moderate trauma, were compared to 30 traumatic brain injury patients without frontal lesions and 20 healthy controls. Three months post-injury, we acquired fMRI scans and neuropsychological assessments (measuring frontal executive functions and information processing speed). Using independent component analysis, the activity of and connectivity between network components (largely located in the prefrontal cortex) and relations with neuropsychological measures were examined and compared across groups. The analysis yielded five predominantly frontal components: anterior and posterior part of the default mode network, left and right frontoparietal network and salience network. No significant differences concerning fMRI measures were found across groups. However, the frontal lesions group performed significantly worse on neuropsychological tests than the other two groups. Additionally, the frontal lesions group showed a significant positive association of stronger default mode network–salience network connectivity with better executive performances. Our findings suggest that, on fMRI level, frontal network measures are not largely affected by frontal lesions following a mild to moderate traumatic brain injury. Yet, patients with damage to the frontal structures did show poorer executive abilities which might to some degree be related to altered frontal network connectivity between the default mode network and salience network.

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    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2022
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      PLoS ONE
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      PLoS ONE
      Article . 2022
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    Authors: Ruth Maria Ingendoh; Ella S. Posny; Angela Heine;

    Binaural beats are an auditory phenomenon that occurs when two tones of different frequencies, which are presented separately to each ear, elicit the sensation of a third tone oscillating at the difference frequency of the two tones. Binaural beats can be perceived in the frequency range of about 1–30 Hz, a range that coincides with the main human EEG frequency bands. The brainwave entrainment hypothesis, which assumes that external stimulation at a certain frequency leads to the brain’s electrocortical activity oscillating at the same frequency, provides the basis for research on the effects of binaural beat stimulation on cognitive and affective states. Studies, particularly in more applied fields, usually refer to neuroscientific research demonstrating that binaural beats elicit systematic changes in EEG parameters. At first glance, however, the available literature on brainwave entrainment effects due to binaural beat stimulation appears to be inconclusive at best. The aim of the present systematic review is, thus, to synthesize existing empirical research. A sample of fourteen published studies met our criteria for inclusion. The results corroborate the impression of an overall inconsistency of empirical outcomes, with five studies reporting results in line with the brainwave entrainment hypothesis, eight studies reporting contradictory, and one mixed results. What is to be noticed is that the fourteen studies included in this review were very heterogeneous regarding the implementation of the binaural beats, the experimental designs, and the EEG parameters and analyses. The methodological heterogeneity in this field of study ultimately limits the comparability of research outcomes. The results of the present systematic review emphasize the need for standardization in study approaches so as to allow for reliable insight into brainwave entrainment effects in the future.

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    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2022
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    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      PLoS ONE
      Article . 2022
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      PLoS ONE
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Markus Weichenberger; Marion U. Bug; Rüdiger Brühl; Bernd Ittermann; +2 Authors

    Air-conducted ultrasound (> 17.8 kHz; US) is produced by an increasing number of technical devices in our daily environment. While several studies indicate that exposure to US in public spaces can lead to subjective symptoms such as ‘annoyance’ or ‘difficulties in concentration’, the effects of US on brain activity are poorly understood. In the present study, individual hearing thresholds (HT) for sounds in the US frequency spectrum were assessed in 21 normal-hearing participants. The effects of US were then investigated by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). 15 of these participants underwent three resting-state acquisitions, two with a 21.5 kHz tone presented monaurally at 5 dB above (ATC) and 10 dB below (BTC) the HT and one without auditory stimulation (NTC), as well as three runs of an n-back working memory task involving similar stimulus conditions (n-ATC, n-BTC, n-NTC). Comparing data gathered during n-NTC vs. fixation, we found that task performance was associated with the recruitment of regions within the cognitive control network, including prefrontal and parietal areas as well as the cerebellum. Direct contrasts of the two stimulus conditions (n-ATC & n-BTC) vs. n-NTC showed no significant differences in brain activity, irrespective of whether a whole-brain or a region of interest approach with primary auditory cortex as the seed was used. Likewise, no differences were found when the resting-state runs were compared. However, contrast analysis (n-BTC vs. n-ATC) revealed a strong activation in bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, triangular part) only when US was presented below the HT (p < 0.001, cluster > 30). In addition, IFG activation was also associated with faster reaction times during n-BTC (p = 0.033) as well as with verbal reports obtained after resting-state, i.e., the more unpleasant sound was perceived during BTC vs. ATC, the higher activation in bilateral IFG was and vice versa (p = 0.003). While this study provides no evidence for activation of primary auditory cortex in response to audible US (even though participants heard the sounds), it indicates that US can lead to changes in the cognitive control network and affect cognitive performance only when presented below the HT. Activation of bilateral IFG could reflect an increase in cognitive demand when focusing on task performance in the presence of slightly unpleasant and/or distracting US that may not be fully controllable by attentional mechanisms.

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    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2021
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    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    MPG.PuRe
    Article . 2022
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    Authors: Salih, Ahmed; Galazzo, Ilaria Boscolo; Petersen, Steffen E.; Lekadir, Karim; +3 Authors

    Recent evidence suggests that shorter telomere length (TL) is associated with neuro degenerative diseases and aging related outcomes. The causal association between TL and brain characteristics represented by image derived phenotypes (IDPs) from different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) modalities remains unclear. Here, we use two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) to systematically assess the causal relationships between TL and 3,935 brain IDPs. Overall, the MR results suggested that TL was causally associated with 193 IDPs with majority representing diffusion metrics in white matter tracts. 68 IDPs were negatively associated with TL indicating that longer TL causes decreasing in these IDPs, while the other 125 were associated positively (longer TL leads to increased IDPs measures). Among them, ten IDPs have been previously reported as informative biomarkers to estimate brain age. However, the effect direction between TL and IDPs did not reflect the observed direction between aging and IDPs: longer TL was associated with decreases in fractional anisotropy and increases in axial, radial and mean diffusivity. For instance, TL was positively associated with radial diffusivity in the left perihippocampal cingulum tract and with mean diffusivity in right perihippocampal cingulum tract. Our results revealed a causal role of TL on white matter integrity which makes it a valuable factor to be considered when brain age is estimated and investigated.

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    Other literature type . Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2021
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ngoc Buu Tran; Sook-Jeong Lee;

    The demand for environmentally friendly foods with high nutritional value and low carbon emissions is increasing with the aging of the global population and the crisis of food resources. Edible insects are becoming increasingly well-known as such foods. This study evaluated the effects and mechanisms of Gryllus bimaculatus (Cricket) (Gb) and Oxya chinensis sinuosa (Grasshopper) (Ocs) extracts on epilepsy. A pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizure mouse model was used for the study, and Gb and Ocs extracts were administered for 29 days on alternate days at concentrations of 8 g/kg and 16 g/kg. The integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and brain edema was measured using the perfusion of Evans blue dye and brain water content. Gb and Ocs extracts prevented BBB permeabilization and cerebral edema through increasing the expression of tight junction-associated proteins in the endothelial cells and reducing water content in PTZ-treated mice. Additionally, Gb and Ocs extracts protected neurons from oxidative stress and apoptosis in different brain areas. These protective effects were demonstrated through the restoration of the expression of neuronal nuclear protein and postsynaptic density protein-95, thus increasing the levels of glutathione and superoxide dismutase, decreasing lipid peroxidation, and recovering apoptosis-associated proteins, such as Bax, cleaved PARP, and cleaved caspase-3, in epileptic mice. In addition, Gb and Ocs extracts rescued PTZ-induced hyperexcitable neurons to control mice level, as supported by the restored expression of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter 1, the metabotropic glutamate receptors–GRM2/3, and BDNF. This study suggested that Gb and Ocs extracts are novel medicinal candidates that can help ameliorate epilepsy by improving BBB health and preventing oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis.

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    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2023
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      PLoS ONE
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      PLoS ONE
      Article . 2023
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    Authors: Chen Makranz; Asael Lubotzky; Hai Zemmour; Ruth Shemer; +12 Authors

    Background Radiotherapy has an important role in the treatment of brain metastases but carries risk of short and/or long-term toxicity, termed radiation-induced brain injury (RBI). As the diagnosis of RBI is crucial for correct patient management, there is an unmet need for reliable biomarkers for RBI. The aim of this proof-of concept study is to determine the utility of brain-derived circulating free DNA (BncfDNA), identified by specific methylation patterns for neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes, as biomarkers brain injury induced by radiotherapy. Methods Twenty-four patients with brain metastases were monitored clinically and radiologically before, during and after brain radiotherapy, and blood for BncfDNA analysis (98 samples) was concurrently collected. Sixteen patients were treated with whole brain radiotherapy and eight patients with stereotactic radiosurgery. Results During follow-up nine RBI events were detected, and all correlated with significant increase in BncfDNA levels compared to baseline. Additionally, resolution of RBI correlated with a decrease in BncfDNA. Changes in BncfDNA were independent of tumor response. Conclusions Elevated BncfDNA levels reflects brain cell injury incurred by radiotherapy. further research is needed to establish BncfDNA as a novel plasma-based biomarker for brain injury induced by radiotherapy.

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    PLoS ONE
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    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2023
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      PLoS ONE
      Article . 2023
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    Authors: Harm J. van der Horn; Myrthe E. de Koning; Koen Visser; Marius G. J. Kok; +8 Authors

    Research has shown that maladaptive personality characteristics, such as Neuroticism, are associated with poor outcome after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). The current exploratory study investigated the neural underpinnings of this process using dynamic functional network connectivity (dFNC) analyses of resting-state (rs) fMRI, and diffusion MRI (dMRI). Twenty-seven mTBI patients and 21 healthy controls (HC) were included. After measuring the Big Five personality dimensions, principal component analysis (PCA) was used to obtain a superordinate factor representing emotional instability, consisting of high Neuroticism, moderate Openness, and low Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. Persistent symptoms were measured using the head injury symptom checklist at six months post-injury; symptom severity (i.e., sum of all items) was used for further analyses. For patients, brain MRI was performed in the sub-acute phase (~1 month) post-injury. Following parcellation of rs-fMRI using independent component analysis, leading eigenvector dynamic analysis (LEiDA) was performed to compute dynamic phase-locking brain states. Main patterns of brain diffusion were computed using tract-based spatial statistics followed by PCA. No differences in phase-locking state measures were found between patients and HC. Regarding dMRI, a trend significant decrease in fractional anisotropy was found in patients relative to HC, particularly in the fornix, genu of the corpus callosum, anterior and posterior corona radiata. Visiting one specific phase-locking state was associated with lower symptom severity after mTBI. This state was characterized by two clearly delineated communities (each community consisting of areas with synchronized phases): one representing an executive/saliency system, with a strong contribution of the insulae and basal ganglia; the other representing the canonical default mode network. In patients who scored high on emotional instability, this relationship was even more pronounced. Dynamic phase-locking states were not related to findings on dMRI. Altogether, our results provide preliminary evidence for the coupling between personality and dFNC in the development of long-term symptoms after mTBI.

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