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  • Neuroinformatics
  • Mémoires en Sciences de l'Information et de la Communication

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: P. Sorrentino; S. Petkoski; M. Sparaco; E. Troisi Lopez; +7 Authors

    Two structurally connected brain regions are more likely to interact, with the lengths of the structural bundles, their widths, myelination, and the topology of the structural connectome influencing the timing of the interactions. We introduce anin vivoapproach for measuring functional delays across the whole brain in humans (of either sex) using magneto/electroencephalography (MEG/EEG) and integrating them with the structural bundles. The resulting topochronic map of the functional delays/velocities shows that larger bundles have faster velocities. We estimated the topochronic map in multiple sclerosis patients, who have damaged myelin sheaths, and controls, demonstrating greater delays in patients across the network and that structurally lesioned tracts were slowed down more than unaffected ones. We provide a novel framework for estimating functional transmission delaysin vivoat the single-subject and single-tract level.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTThis article provides a straightforward way to estimate patient-specific delays and conduction velocities in the CNS, at the individual level, in healthy and diseased subjects. To do so, it uses a principled way to merge magnetoencephalography (MEG)/electroencephalography (EEG) and tractography.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Neuroscie...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Journal of Neuroscience
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC SA
    Data sources: Sygma; Crossref
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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  • Authors: Le Floch, Maxime; Ali, Pauline; Asfar, Marine; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Dolores; +2 Authors

    International audience; Background Falls are frequent and severe in older adults, especially among those with cognitive impairments due to altered motor control. Which brain areas are affected among fallers remains yet not elucidated. The objective of this cross-sectional analysis was to determine whether the history of falls correlated with focal brain volume reductions in older adults. Methods Participants from the MERE study ( n = 208; mean, 71.9 ± 5.9 years; 43% female; 38% cognitively healthy, 41% with mild cognitive impairment and 21% with dementia) were asked about their history of falls over the preceding year and received a 1.5-Tesla MRI scan of the brain. Cortical gray and white matter subvolumes were automatically segmented using Statistical Parametric Mapping. Age, gender, use of psychoactive drugs, cognitive status, and total intracranial volume were used as covariates. Results Fifty-eight participants (28%) reported history of falls. Fallers were older ( P = 0.001), used more often psychoactive drugs ( P = 0.008) and had more often dementia ( P = 0.004) compared to non-fallers. After adjustment, we found correlations between the history of falls and brain subvolumes; fallers exhibiting larger gray matter subvolumes in striatum, principally in bilateral caudate nucleus, than non-fallers. By stratifying on cognitive status, these neuroanatomical correlates were retrieved only in participants with MCI or dementia. There were no correlations with the subvolumes of white matter. Conclusion Older fallers had larger subvolumes in bilateral striatum than non-fallers, principally within the caudate nucleus. This suggests a possible brain adaptative mechanism of falls in people with neurocognitive decline.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Charly Caredda; Eric Van Reeth; Laurent Mahieu-Williame; Raphaël Sablong; +5 Authors

    International audience; Complementary technique to preoperative fMRI and electrical brain stimulation (EBS) for glioma resection could improve dramatically the surgical procedure and patient care. Intraoperative RGB optical imaging is a technique for localizing functional areas of the human cerebral cortex that can be used during neurosurgical procedures. However, it still lacks robustness to be used with neurosurgical microscopes as a clinical standard. In particular, a robust quantification of biomarkers of brain functionality is needed to assist neurosurgeons. We propose a methodology to evaluate and optimize intraoperative identification of brain functional areas by RGB imaging. This consist in a numerical 3D brain model based on Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate intraoperative optical setups for identifying functional brain areas. We also adapted fMRI Statistical Parametric Mapping technique to identify functional brain areas in RGB videos acquired for 12 patients. Simulation and experimental results were consistent and showed that the intraoperative identification of functional brain areas is possible with RGB imaging using deoxygenated hemoglobin contrast. Optical functional identifications were consistent with those provided by EBS and preoperative fMRI. We also demonstrated that a halogen lighting may be particularity adapted for functional optical imaging. We showed that an RGB camera combined with a quantitative modeling of brain hemodynamics biomarkers can evaluate in a robust way the functional areas during neurosurgery and serve as a tool of choice to complement EBS and fMRI.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NeuroImagearrow_drop_down
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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2023
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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NeuroImagearrow_drop_down
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      NeuroImage
      Article . 2023
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      NeuroImage
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Boussichas, Matthieu;

    L'émigration de travailleurs issus des pays en développement vers ceux dits développés est relativement plus qualifiée que la moyenne mondiale des travailleurs. Ceci engendre pour certains de ces PED une perte directe en capital humain non-négligeable. Une vision "optimiste" (Stark(1997)) vise à imaginer une possible compensation de cette perte par le fait qu'il existerait un phénomène d'incitation à la scolarisation lorsque le taux d'émigration augmente. Nous construisons un modèle théorique de « Brain gain » afin de déterminer si le niveau actuel d'émigration qualifiée des pays en développement est trop élevé, et si l'effet d'incitation imaginé par Stark existe. Théoriquement, une augmentation de l'émigration des travailleurs éduqués peutêtre bénéfique si le taux d'émigration qualifiée reste relativement faible. Il existe un taux optimal qui maximise les bénéfices de ces départs mais les résultats montrent que ce type d'émigration est aujourd'hui trop élevé dans les pays en développement. Ces bénéfices proviennent essentiellement de l'effet du retour des migrants. L'analyse économétrique montre qu'une plus grande ouverture des frontières des pays développés aux travailleurs émigrants qualifiés a un effet nul sur les taux d'inscription dans le secondaire et le supérieur, et un effet négatif sur le niveau d'éducation global des pays en développement. Si nous admettons qu'une augmentation de l'émigration qualifiée peut être bénéfique sous certaines conditions, nous ne soutenons pas l'idée d'un éventuel « Brain gain à la Stark ».

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    Authors: Bernhardt, Boris C.; Smallwood, Jonathan; Keilholz, Shella; Margulies, Daniel S.;

    International audience

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NeuroImagearrow_drop_down
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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
    Data sources: Sygma; Crossref
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    NeuroImage
    Other literature type . 2022
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NeuroImagearrow_drop_down
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      NeuroImage
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier TDM
      Data sources: Sygma; Crossref
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      NeuroImage
      Other literature type . 2022
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Denis A. Engemann; Apolline Mellot; Richard Höchenberger; Hubert Banville; +4 Authors

    AbstractPopulation-level modeling can define quantitative measures of individual aging by applying machine learning to large volumes of brain images. These measures of brain age, obtained from the general population, helped characterize disease severity in neurological populations, improving estimates of diagnosis or prognosis. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) and Electroencephalography (EEG) have the potential to further generalize this approach towards prevention and public health by enabling assessments of brain health at large scales in socioeconomically diverse environments. However, more research is needed to define methods that can handle the complexity and diversity of M/EEG signals across diverse real-world contexts. To catalyse this effort, here we propose reusable benchmarks of competing machine learning approaches for brain age modeling. We benchmarked popular classical machine learning pipelines and deep learning architectures previously used for pathology decoding or brain age estimation in 4 international M/EEG cohorts from diverse countries and cultural contexts, including recordings from more than 2500 participants. Our benchmarks were built on top of the M/EEG adaptations of the BIDS standard, providing tools that can be applied with minimal modification on any M/EEG dataset provided in the BIDS format. Our results suggest that, regardless of whether classical machine learning or deep learning was used, the highest performance was reached by pipelines and architectures involving spatially aware representations of the M/EEG signals, leading to R^2 scores between 0.60-0.71. Hand-crafted features paired with random forest regression provided robust benchmarks even in situations in which other approaches failed. Taken together, this set of benchmarks, accompanied by open-source software and high-level Python scripts, can serve as a starting point and quantitative reference for future efforts at developing M/EEG-based measures of brain aging. The generality of the approach renders this benchmark reusable for other related objectives such as modeling specific cognitive variables or clinical endpoints.Highlights- We provide systematic reusable benchmarks for brain age from M/EEG signals- The benchmarks were carried out on M/EEG from four countries > 2500 recordings- We compared machine learning pipelines capable of handling the non-linear regression task of relating biomedical outcomes to M/EEG dynamics, based on classical machine learning and deep learning- Next to data-driven methods we benchmarked template-based source localization as a practical tool for generating features less affected by electromagnetic field spread- The benchmarks are built on top of the MNE ecosystem and the braindecode package and can be applied on any M/EEG dataset presented in the BIDS format

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    Article . 2022
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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2021
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      NeuroImage
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2021
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  • Authors: Ducreux, D.; Dhermain, F.; Fillard, Pierre;

    International audience; Functional MRI is a technique of imaging which is developing fast as it allows non-aggressive evaluation of brain functions. Diffusion, perfusion and activation are each used to study brain responsiveness to a given task. As a pretherapeutic routine investigation, in brain tumours, it can be helpful as an additional tool to morphological MRI in evaluating the prognosis of patients.

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    Authors: Igor Khalin; Nagappanpillai Adarsh; Martina Schifferer; Antonia Wehn; +4 Authors

    International audience; The curren lack of understanding about how nanocarriers cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in the healthy and injured brain is hindering clinical translation of nanoscale brain-targeted drug-delivery systems. Here, we investigate the bio-distribution of lipid nano-emulsion droplets (LNDs) of two sizes (30-and 80-nm) in the mouse brain after traumatic brain injury (TBI). We prepared highly fluorescent LNDs by loading them with octadecyl rhodamine B and a bulky hydrophobic counter-ion, tetraphenylborate. Using in vivo 2-photon and confocal imaging, we studied the circulation kinetics and bio-distribution of LNDs in the healthy and injured mouse brain. We found that after TBI, LNDs of both sizes accumulated at vascular occlusions, where specifically 30-nm LNDs extravasated into the brain parenchyma and reached neurons. The vascular occlusions were not associated with bleedings, but instead surrounded by processes of activated microglia, suggesting a specific opening of the BBB. Finally, correlative lightelectron microscopy revealed 30-nm LNDs in endothelial vesicles, while 80-nm particles remained in the vessel lumen, indicating size-selective vesicular transport across the BBB via vascular occlusions. As such, the vascular occlusions or microthrombi appeared to be a "gate" for nanocarriers through the BBB that open the exclusive new approach of brain targeting.

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    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Célia, Loriette; Julian L, Amengual; Suliann, Ben Hamed;

    One of the major challenges in system neurosciences consists in developing techniques for estimating the cognitive information content in brain activity. This has an enormous potential in different domains spanning from clinical applications, cognitive enhancement to a better understanding of the neural bases of cognition. In this context, the inclusion of machine learning techniques to decode different aspects of human cognition and behavior and its use to develop brain–computer interfaces for applications in neuroprosthetics has supported a genuine revolution in the field. However, while these approaches have been shown quite successful for the study of the motor and sensory functions, success is still far from being reached when it comes to covert cognitive functions such as attention, motivation and decision making. While improvement in this field of BCIs is growing fast, a new research focus has emerged from the development of strategies for decoding neural activity. In this review, we aim at exploring how the advanced in decoding of brain activity is becoming a major neuroscience tool moving forward our understanding of brain functions, providing a robust theoretical framework to test predictions on the relationship between brain activity and cognition and behavior.

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    Frontiers in Neuroscience
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      Frontiers in Neuroscience
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  • Authors: Congedo, Marco; Goyat, Matthieu; Tarrin, Nicolas; Ionescu, Gelu; +6 Authors

    International audience; We have developed the prototype of a pure-BCI video game based on the well known vintage video game "Space Invaders". In our "Brain Invaders" a number of aliens are displayed in a grid and the player has to destroy a particular alien, the target, only by concentrating on it. The game makes use of a stateof- the art P300 oddball paradigm to select the alien to be destroyed at a regular pace, based on current probabilities assigned to each alien by a learning machine continuously analyzing and classifying the user's electroencephalographic stream (the Open-ViBE platform). As compared to the standard P300- speller paradigm our game may optionally use: 1) flashing items in random groups and no longer by rows and columns; 2) variable inter-stimulus intervals drawn from an exponential distribution; 3) magnification of flashed target items. Preliminary tests show an excellent transfer rate, since starting with 36 aliens on the screen, one to three repetitions typically suffice to destroy the target alien. Our development is completely open-source and will continue to improve further the signal processing and classification algorithms, besides the paradigm itself, the gameplay and the BCI ergonomy, in order to achieve a "Plug & Play" video game suitable for the large public of gamers.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: P. Sorrentino; S. Petkoski; M. Sparaco; E. Troisi Lopez; +7 Authors

    Two structurally connected brain regions are more likely to interact, with the lengths of the structural bundles, their widths, myelination, and the topology of the structural connectome influencing the timing of the interactions. We introduce anin vivoapproach for measuring functional delays across the whole brain in humans (of either sex) using magneto/electroencephalography (MEG/EEG) and integrating them with the structural bundles. The resulting topochronic map of the functional delays/velocities shows that larger bundles have faster velocities. We estimated the topochronic map in multiple sclerosis patients, who have damaged myelin sheaths, and controls, demonstrating greater delays in patients across the network and that structurally lesioned tracts were slowed down more than unaffected ones. We provide a novel framework for estimating functional transmission delaysin vivoat the single-subject and single-tract level.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTThis article provides a straightforward way to estimate patient-specific delays and conduction velocities in the CNS, at the individual level, in healthy and diseased subjects. To do so, it uses a principled way to merge magnetoencephalography (MEG)/electroencephalography (EEG) and tractography.

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    Journal of Neuroscience
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC SA
    Data sources: Sygma; Crossref
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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  • Authors: Le Floch, Maxime; Ali, Pauline; Asfar, Marine; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Dolores; +2 Authors

    International audience; Background Falls are frequent and severe in older adults, especially among those with cognitive impairments due to altered motor control. Which brain areas are affected among fallers remains yet not elucidated. The objective of this cross-sectional analysis was to determine whether the history of falls correlated with focal brain volume reductions in older adults. Methods Participants from the MERE study ( n = 208; mean, 71.9 ± 5.9 years; 43% female; 38% cognitively healthy, 41% with mild cognitive impairment and 21% with dementia) were asked about their history of falls over the preceding year and received a 1.5-Tesla MRI scan of the brain. Cortical gray and white matter subvolumes were automatically segmented using Statistical Parametric Mapping. Age, gender, use of psychoactive drugs, cognitive status, and total intracranial volume were used as covariates. Results Fifty-eight participants (28%) reported history of falls. Fallers were older ( P = 0.001), used more often psychoactive drugs ( P = 0.008) and had more often dementia ( P = 0.004) compared to non-fallers. After adjustment, we found correlations between the history of falls and brain subvolumes; fallers exhibiting larger gray matter subvolumes in striatum, principally in bilateral caudate nucleus, than non-fallers. By stratifying on cognitive status, these neuroanatomical correlates were retrieved only in participants with MCI or dementia. There were no correlations with the subvolumes of white matter. Conclusion Older fallers had larger subvolumes in bilateral striatum than non-fallers, principally within the caudate nucleus. This suggests a possible brain adaptative mechanism of falls in people with neurocognitive decline.

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    Authors: Charly Caredda; Eric Van Reeth; Laurent Mahieu-Williame; Raphaël Sablong; +5 Authors

    International audience; Complementary technique to preoperative fMRI and electrical brain stimulation (EBS) for glioma resection could improve dramatically the surgical procedure and patient care. Intraoperative RGB optical imaging is a technique for localizing functional areas of the human cerebral cortex that can be used during neurosurgical procedures. However, it still lacks robustness to be used with neurosurgical microscopes as a clinical standard. In particular, a robust quantification of biomarkers of brain functionality is needed to assist neurosurgeons. We propose a methodology to evaluate and optimize intraoperative identification of brain functional areas by RGB imaging. This consist in a numerical 3D brain model based on Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate intraoperative optical setups for identifying functional brain areas. We also adapted fMRI Statistical Parametric Mapping technique to identify functional brain areas in RGB videos acquired for 12 patients. Simulation and experimental results were consistent and showed that the intraoperative identification of functional brain areas is possible with RGB imaging using deoxygenated hemoglobin contrast. Optical functional identifications were consistent with those provided by EBS and preoperative fMRI. We also demonstrated that a halogen lighting may be particularity adapted for functional optical imaging. We showed that an RGB camera combined with a quantitative modeling of brain hemodynamics biomarkers can evaluate in a robust way the functional areas during neurosurgery and serve as a tool of choice to complement EBS and fMRI.

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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2023
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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2023
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      NeuroImage
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Boussichas, Matthieu;

    L'émigration de travailleurs issus des pays en développement vers ceux dits développés est relativement plus qualifiée que la moyenne mondiale des travailleurs. Ceci engendre pour certains de ces PED une perte directe en capital humain non-négligeable. Une vision "optimiste" (Stark(1997)) vise à imaginer une possible compensation de cette perte par le fait qu'il existerait un phénomène d'incitation à la scolarisation lorsque le taux d'émigration augmente. Nous construisons un modèle théorique de « Brain gain » afin de déterminer si le niveau actuel d'émigration qualifiée des pays en développement est trop élevé, et si l'effet d'incitation imaginé par Stark existe. Théoriquement, une augmentation de l'émigration des travailleurs éduqués peutêtre bénéfique si le taux d'émigration qualifiée reste relativement faible. Il existe un taux optimal qui maximise les bénéfices de ces départs mais les résultats montrent que ce type d'émigration est aujourd'hui trop élevé dans les pays en développement. Ces bénéfices proviennent essentiellement de l'effet du retour des migrants. L'analyse économétrique montre qu'une plus grande ouverture des frontières des pays développés aux travailleurs émigrants qualifiés a un effet nul sur les taux d'inscription dans le secondaire et le supérieur, et un effet négatif sur le niveau d'éducation global des pays en développement. Si nous admettons qu'une augmentation de l'émigration qualifiée peut être bénéfique sous certaines conditions, nous ne soutenons pas l'idée d'un éventuel « Brain gain à la Stark ».

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