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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Carl D. Reimers;

    Abstract In most countries, brain death is defined as the irreversible and complete loss of (clinically ascertainable) function of the entire brain, including the brain stem. It is characterized by an irreversible loss of the capacity for consciousness, combined with loss of motor responses to painful stimuli, irreversible loss of brain stem reflexes and loss of the capacity to breathe. The diagnosis can be made clinically based on at least two examinations separated by a time interval, which depends on the cause of the underlying brain damage, the patient’s age and national conventions. Ancillary tests can confirm and speed the diagnosis of irreversible loss of brain function. Conventional angiography is the most sensitive technique, but relatively expensive, and because of potential side-effects not allowed for diagnosis in all countries. Electroencephalography and transcranial Doppler ultrasonography are alternative methods. Other techniques, for example evoked potentials, radionuclide techniques and magnetic resonance studies, are less valuable or need to be validated.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Best Practice & Rese...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Best Practice & Research Clinical Anaesthesiology
    Article . 1999 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Best Practice & Rese...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Best Practice & Research Clinical Anaesthesiology
      Article . 1999 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier TDM
      Data sources: Crossref
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Vimala N. Bharadwaj; Connor Copeland; Ethan Mathew; Jason M. Newbern; +4 Authors

    The development of effective therapeutics for brain disorders is challenging, in particular, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) severely limits access of the therapeutics into the brain parenchyma. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) may lead to transient BBB permeability that affords a unique opportunity for therapeutic delivery via intravenous administration ranging from macromolecules to nanoparticles (NPs) for developing precision therapeutics. In this regard, we address critical gaps in understanding the range/size of therapeutics, delivery window(s), and moreover, the potential impact of biological factors for optimal delivery parameters. Here we show, for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that 24-h postfocal TBI female mice exhibit a heightened macromolecular tracer and NP accumulation compared with male mice, indicating sex-dependent differences in BBB permeability. Furthermore, we report for the first time the potential to deliver NP-based therapeutics within 3 days after focal injury in both female and male mice. The delineation of injury-induced BBB permeability with respect to sex and temporal profile is essential to more accurately tailor time-dependent precision and personalized nanotherapeutics. IMPACT STATEMENT: In this study, we identified a sex-dependent temporal profile of blood/brain barrier disruption in a preclinical mouse model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) that contributes to starkly different macromolecule and nanoparticle delivery profiles post-TBI. The implications and potential impact of this work are profound and far reaching as it indicates that a demand of true personalized medicine for TBI is necessary to deliver the right therapeutic at the right time for the right patient.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ bioRxivarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    bioRxiv
    Preprint . 2019
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2020
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Tissue Engineering Part A
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Mary Ann Liebert TDM
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ bioRxivarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      bioRxiv
      Preprint . 2019
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2020
      Data sources: PubMed Central
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Tissue Engineering Part A
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Mary Ann Liebert TDM
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: White, Anthony R.;

    Metals have many essential functions in the brain and a large body of evidence supports important roles for altered metal stasis in many brain disorders. However, despite this evidence, acceptance of metals as key mediators of brain dysfunction is largely lacking in mainstream biomedicine. This editorial will outline the possible reasons for this and suggest potential means to improve the acceptance of metals as central players in brain disease.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2016
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology
    Article
    License: CC BY
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    BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.go...
    Other literature type . 2016
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2016
      Data sources: PubMed Central
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology
      Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.go...
      Other literature type . 2016
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ellen Parker; Refat Aboghazleh; Griffin Mumby; Ronel Veksler; +22 Authors

    Abstract The mechanisms underlying the complications of mild traumatic brain injury, including post-concussion syndrome, post-impact catastrophic death, and delayed neurodegeneration remain poorly understood. This limited pathophysiological understanding has hindered the development of diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and has prevented the advancement of treatments for the sequelae of mild traumatic brain injury. We aimed to characterize the early electrophysiological and neurovascular alterations following repetitive mild traumatic brain injury and sought to identify new targets for the diagnosis and treatment of individuals at risk of severe post-impact complications. We combined behavioural, electrophysiological, molecular, and neuroimaging techniques in a rodent model of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury. In humans, we used dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI to quantify blood–brain barrier dysfunction after exposure to sport-related concussive mild traumatic brain injury. Rats could clearly be classified based on their susceptibility to neurological complications, including life-threatening outcomes, following repetitive injury. Susceptible animals showed greater neurological complications and had higher levels of blood–brain barrier dysfunction, transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signalling, and neuroinflammation compared to resilient animals. Cortical spreading depolarizations were the most common electrophysiological events immediately following mild traumatic brain injury and were associated with longer recovery from impact. Triggering cortical spreading depolarizations in mild traumatic brain injured rats (but not in controls) induced blood–brain barrier dysfunction. Treatment with a selective TGFβ receptor inhibitor prevented blood–brain barrier opening and reduced injury complications. Consistent with the rodent model, blood–brain barrier dysfunction was found in a subset of human athletes following concussive mild traumatic brain injury. We provide evidence that cortical spreading depolarization, blood–brain barrier dysfunction, and pro-inflammatory TGFβ signalling are associated with severe, potentially life-threatening outcomes following repetitive mild traumatic brain injury. Diagnostic-coupled targeting of TGFβ signalling may be a novel strategy in treating mild traumatic brain injury.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Brainarrow_drop_down
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    Brain
    Other literature type . Article . 2021 . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Brain
    Article
    License: CC BY NC
    Data sources: UnpayWall
    Brain
    Article . 2021
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Brainarrow_drop_down
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      Brain
      Other literature type . Article . 2021 . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY NC
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Brain
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      Brain
      Article . 2021
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    Authors: Eric Peter Thelin; Keri L.H. Carpenter; Peter J. Hutchinson; Adel Helmy;

    Injuries to the central nervous system continue to be vast contributors to morbidity and mortality; specifically, traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the most common cause of death during the first four decades of life. Several modalities are used to monitor patients suffering from TBI in order to prevent detrimental secondary injuries. The microdialysis (MD) technique, introduced during the 1990s, presents the treating physician with a robust monitoring tool for brain chemistry in addition to conventional intracranial pressure monitoring. Nevertheless, some limitations remain, such as limited spatial resolution. Moreover, while there have been several attempts to develop new potential pharmacological therapies in TBI, there are currently no available drugs which have shown clinical efficacy that targets the underlying pathophysiology, despite various trials investigating a plethora of pharmaceuticals. Specifically in the brain, MD is able to demonstrate penetration of the drug through the blood-brain barrier into the brain extracellular space at potential site of action. In addition, the downstream effects of drug action can be monitored directly. In the future, clinical MD, together with other monitoring modalities, can identify specific pathological substrates which require tailored treatment strategies for patients suffering from TBI.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ The AAPS Journalarrow_drop_down
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    The AAPS Journal
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    Apollo
    Other literature type . 2017
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Apollo
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    The AAPS Journal
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    Apollo
    Article . 2017
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
    The AAPS Journal
    Article . 2016
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ The AAPS Journalarrow_drop_down
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      The AAPS Journal
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      Apollo
      Other literature type . 2017
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      The AAPS Journal
      Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Apollo
      Article . 2017
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      The AAPS Journal
      Article . 2016
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    Authors: Vimala N. Bharadwaj; Duong T. Nguyen; Vikram D. Kodibagkar; Sarah E. Stabenfeldt;

    AbstractBrain injuries affect a large patient population with major physical and emotional suffering for patients and their relatives; at a significant cost to the society. Effective diagnostic and therapeutic options available for brain injuries are limited by the complex brain injury pathology involving blood–brain barrier (BBB). Brain injuries, including ischemic stroke and brain trauma, initiate BBB opening for a short period of time, which is followed by a second reopening for an extended time. The leaky BBB and/or the alterations in the receptor expression on BBB may provide opportunities for therapeutic delivery via nanoparticles (NPs). The approaches for therapeutic interventions via NP delivery are aimed at salvaging the pericontusional/penumbra area for possible neuroprotection and neurovascular unit preservation. The focus of this progress report is to provide a survey of NP strategies employed in cerebral ischemia and brain trauma and finally provide insights for improved NP‐based diagnostic/treatment approaches.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2017
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    Advanced Healthcare Materials
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    Advanced Healthcare Materials
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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      Europe PubMed Central
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      Advanced Healthcare Materials
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    Authors: Yohann Thenaisie; Chiara Palmisano; Andrea Canessa; Bart J. Keulen; +13 Authors

    Abstract Objective. Technical advances in deep brain stimulation (DBS) are crucial to improve therapeutic efficacy and battery life. We report the potentialities and pitfalls of one of the first commercially available devices capable of recording brain local field potentials (LFPs) from the implanted DBS leads, chronically and during stimulation. The aim was to provide clinicians with well-grounded tips on how to maximize the capabilities of this novel device, both in everyday practice and for research purposes. Approach. We collected clinical and neurophysiological data of the first 20 patients (14 with Parkinson’s disease (PD), five with dystonia, one with chronic pain) that received the Percept™ PC in our centres. We also performed tests in a saline bath to validate the recordings quality. Main results. The Percept PC reliably recorded the LFP of the implanted site, wirelessly and in real time. We recorded the most promising clinically useful biomarkers for PD and dystonia (beta and theta oscillations) with and without stimulation. Furthermore, we provide an open-source code to facilitate export and analysis of data. Critical aspects of the system are presently related to contact selection, artefact detection, data loss, and synchronization with other devices. Significance. New technologies will soon allow closed-loop neuromodulation therapies, capable of adapting stimulation based on real-time symptom-specific and task-dependent input signals. However, technical aspects need to be considered to ensure reliable recordings. The critical use by a growing number of DBS experts will alert new users about the currently observed shortcomings and inform on how to overcome them.

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    Journal of Neural Engineering
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    Journal of Neural Engineering
    Other literature type . 2021
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    NARCIS; Journal of Neural Engineering
    Other literature type . Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      Other literature type . Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Freitas, Catarina; Farzan, Faranak; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro;

    Sustaining brain and cognitive function across the lifespan must be one of the main biomedical goals of the twenty-first century. We need to aim to prevent neuropsychiatric diseases and, thus, to identify and remediate brain and cognitive dysfunction before clinical symptoms manifest and disability develops. The brain undergoes a complex array of changes from developmental years into old age, putatively the underpinnings of changes in cognition and behavior throughout life. A functionally “normal” brain is a changing brain, a brain whose capacity and mechanisms of change are shifting appropriately from one time-point to another in a given individual's life. Therefore, assessing the mechanisms of brain plasticity across the lifespan is critical to gain insight into an individual's brain health. Indexing brain plasticity in humans is possible with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), which, in combination with neuroimaging, provides a powerful tool for exploring local cortical and brain network plasticity. Here, we review investigations to date, summarize findings, and discuss some of the challenges that need to be solved to enhance the use of TMS measures of brain plasticity across all ages. Ultimately, TMS measures of plasticity can become the foundation for a brain health index (BHI) to enable objective correlates of an individual's brain health over time, assessment across diseases and disorders, and reliable evaluation of indicators of efficacy of future preventive and therapeutic interventions.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2013
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    Frontiers in Neuroscience
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    Frontiers in Neuroscience
    Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
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      Frontiers in Neuroscience
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      Frontiers in Neuroscience
      Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Hong Chen; Georgiana Zong Xin Yang; Hoheteberhan Getachew; Camilo Acosta; +2 Authors

    AbstractThe objective of this study was to unveil the potential mechanism of focused ultrasound (FUS)-enhanced intranasal (IN) brain drug delivery and assess its feasibility in the delivery of therapeutic molecules. Delivery outcomes of fluorescently-labeled dextrans to mouse brains by IN administration either before or after FUS sonication were compared to evaluate whether FUS enhances IN delivery by active pumping or passive diffusion. Fluorescence imaging of brain slices found that IN administration followed by FUS sonication achieved significantly higher delivery than IN administration only, while pre-treatment by FUS sonication followed by IN administration was not significantly different from IN administration only. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a promising neurotrophic factor for the treatment of many central nervous system diseases, was delivered by IN followed by FUS to demonstrate the feasibility of this technique and compared with the established FUS technique where drugs are injected intravenously. Immunohistochemistry staining of BDNF revealed that FUS-enhanced IN delivery achieved similar locally enhanced delivery as the established FUS technique. This study suggested that FUS enhances IN brain drug delivery by FUS-induced active pumping of the drug and demonstrated that FUS-enhanced IN delivery is a promising technique for noninvasive and localized delivery of therapeutic molecules to the brain.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2016
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    Scientific Reports
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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    Scientific Reports
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    https://doi.org/10.7916/d8862n...
    Other literature type . 2016
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    Authors: Hart, Michael G; Romero-Garcia, Rafael; Price, Stephen J; Suckling, John;

    BACKGROUND: Neurosurgical management of brain tumors has entered a paradigm of supramarginal resections that demands thorough understanding of peritumoral functional effects. Historically, the effects of tumors have been believed to be local, and long-range effects have not been considered. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that tumors affect the brain globally, producing long-range gradients in cortical function. METHODS: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were acquired from 11 participants with glioblastoma and split into discovery and validation datasets in a single-center prospective cohort study. Fractal complexity was computed with a wavelet-based estimator of the Hurst exponent. Distance-related effects of the tumors were tested with a tumor mask-dilation technique and parcellation of the underlying Hurst maps. RESULTS: Fractal complexity demonstrates a penumbra of suppression in the peritumoral region. At a global level, as distance from the tumor increases, this initial suppression is balanced by a subsequent overactivity before finally normalizing. These effects were best fit by a quadratic model and were consistent across different network construction pipelines. The Hurst exponent was correlated with graph theory measures of centrality including network robustness, but graph theory measures did not demonstrate distance-dependent effects. CONCLUSION: This work provides evidence supporting the theory that focal brain tumors produce long-range gradients in function. Consequently, the effects of focal lesions need to be interpreted in terms of the global changes on functional complexity and network architecture rather than purely in terms of functional localization. Determining whether peritumoral changes represent potential plasticity may facilitate extended resection of tumors without functional cost.

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    Apollo
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    Apollo
    Article . 2018
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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      Apollo
      Other literature type . 2019
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Apollo
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      Apollo
      Article . 2018
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Carl D. Reimers;

    Abstract In most countries, brain death is defined as the irreversible and complete loss of (clinically ascertainable) function of the entire brain, including the brain stem. It is characterized by an irreversible loss of the capacity for consciousness, combined with loss of motor responses to painful stimuli, irreversible loss of brain stem reflexes and loss of the capacity to breathe. The diagnosis can be made clinically based on at least two examinations separated by a time interval, which depends on the cause of the underlying brain damage, the patient’s age and national conventions. Ancillary tests can confirm and speed the diagnosis of irreversible loss of brain function. Conventional angiography is the most sensitive technique, but relatively expensive, and because of potential side-effects not allowed for diagnosis in all countries. Electroencephalography and transcranial Doppler ultrasonography are alternative methods. Other techniques, for example evoked potentials, radionuclide techniques and magnetic resonance studies, are less valuable or need to be validated.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Best Practice & Rese...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Best Practice & Research Clinical Anaesthesiology
    Article . 1999 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Best Practice & Rese...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Best Practice & Research Clinical Anaesthesiology
      Article . 1999 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier TDM
      Data sources: Crossref
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Vimala N. Bharadwaj; Connor Copeland; Ethan Mathew; Jason M. Newbern; +4 Authors

    The development of effective therapeutics for brain disorders is challenging, in particular, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) severely limits access of the therapeutics into the brain parenchyma. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) may lead to transient BBB permeability that affords a unique opportunity for therapeutic delivery via intravenous administration ranging from macromolecules to nanoparticles (NPs) for developing precision therapeutics. In this regard, we address critical gaps in understanding the range/size of therapeutics, delivery window(s), and moreover, the potential impact of biological factors for optimal delivery parameters. Here we show, for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that 24-h postfocal TBI female mice exhibit a heightened macromolecular tracer and NP accumulation compared with male mice, indicating sex-dependent differences in BBB permeability. Furthermore, we report for the first time the potential to deliver NP-based therapeutics within 3 days after focal injury in both female and male mice. The delineation of injury-induced BBB permeability with respect to sex and temporal profile is essential to more accurately tailor time-dependent precision and personalized nanotherapeutics. IMPACT STATEMENT: In this study, we identified a sex-dependent temporal profile of blood/brain barrier disruption in a preclinical mouse model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) that contributes to starkly different macromolecule and nanoparticle delivery profiles post-TBI. The implications and potential impact of this work are profound and far reaching as it indicates that a demand of true personalized medicine for TBI is necessary to deliver the right therapeutic at the right time for the right patient.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ bioRxivarrow_drop_down
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    bioRxiv
    Preprint . 2019
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2020
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Tissue Engineering Part A
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Mary Ann Liebert TDM
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ bioRxivarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      bioRxiv
      Preprint . 2019
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2020
      Data sources: PubMed Central
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art de