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  • Neuroinformatics
  • Knowmad Institut

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Luciana Monteiro Moura; Vinicius Leati de Rossi Ferreira; Rafael Maffei Loureiro; Joselisa Péres Queiroz de Paiva; +5 Authors

    The Zika virus (ZIKV) attracted attention due to one striking characteristic: the ability to cross the placental barrier and infect the fetus, possibly causing severe neurodevelopmental disruptions included in the Congenital Zika Syndrome (CZS). Few years after the epidemic, the CZS incidence has begun to decline. However, how ZIKV causes a diversity of outcomes is far from being understood. This is probably driven by a chain of complex events that relies on the interaction between ZIKV and environmental and physiological variables. In this review, we address open questions that might lead to an ill-defined diagnosis of CZS. This inaccuracy underestimates a large spectrum of apparent normocephalic cases that remain underdiagnosed, comprising several subtle brain abnormalities frequently masked by a normal head circumference. Therefore, new models using neuroimaging and artificial intelligence are needed to improve our understanding of the neurobiology of ZIKV and its true impact in neurodevelopment.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Frontiers in Neuroscience
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Frontiers in Neuroscience
    Article
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: UnpayWall
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    DOAJ-Articles
    Article . 2021
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2021
      Data sources: PubMed Central
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Neuroscience
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Neuroscience
      Article
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      DOAJ-Articles
      Article . 2021
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: J L, Waddington;

    Much evidence points to the importance of intra uterine events in the etiology of schizophrenia and suggests a complex interplay between dysfunctional and intact neurons in the pathophysiology of the disorder. This article contrasts what is known of the topographies of metabolic and structural brain abnormalities in schizophrenia at differing stages of the illness. From these contrasts, a schema is elaborated by which subtle neurodevelopmental perturbation in early to middle gestation might give rise to functional and structural abnormalities that ultimately release the diagnostic symptoms of schizophrenia. An interaction between those mechanisms mediating the expression of psychosis and the initially subtle stages of normal aging is posited to act on the substrate of a brain that is already developmentally compromised. Such a process might masquerade as "progression" in the absence of any active disease directly attributable to the original etiological event.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Schizophrenia Bullet...arrow_drop_down
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    Schizophrenia Bulletin
    Article . 1993 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Schizophrenia Bullet...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Schizophrenia Bulletin
      Article . 1993 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: Dajiang Zhu; Neda Jahanshad; Brandalyn C. Riedel; Liang Zhan; +3 Authors

    There is rapidly growing interest in analyzing brain connectivity at the population level, to detect factors that affect brain networks and fiber architecture. Even so, we still lack a fundamental model of brain fiber tracts and white matter (WM) connectivity, making it challenging to identify representative and diagnostically informative patterns. To bridge this gap, we introduce a framework to learn structural connectivity patterns from diffusion tensor images (DTI) of the brain. This novel strategy encodes key WM tracts from multiple individuals into a large matrix. An efficient sparse learning algorithm is used to find a structural "basis" (dictionary). The dictionary is then decoded to generate representations of actual WM tracts in individuals. We applied our method to the most recent DTI dataset from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), including data from 230 participants. With this method, we identified significantly different WM patterns for distinct diagnostic groups. Moreover, the locations of significant WM differences are consistent with prior findings of structural brain abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease (AD).

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Pablo Najt; Helen L. Richards; Dónal G. Fortune;

    Abstract Background There is increasing evidence that SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) not only affects the respiratory tract but also influence the central nervous system (CNS), resulting in neurological symptoms such as loss of smell and taste. Growing literature indicates largely distributed brain alterations encompassing subcortical micro- and macro-bleeds, cerebral swelling and haemorrhage in gray and white matter tissue. A systematic review was performed to synthesise the potential evidence of the brain correlates of SARS-CoV-2. Methods A literature search was conducted using electronic databases for studies reporting neuroimaging abnormalities in SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals. Identified case series, cohort studies, and case control studies on SARS-CoV-2 effects on the brain were critically appraised for methodological quality. A narrative synthesis of the findings from the included studies is presented. Results Twenty-seven studies were included in the review, including 5 case series, 8 cohort studies and 14 case control studies. The findings revealed predominant involvement of the olfactory system with disruptions across four olfactory structures. Abnormalities also extended to the corpus callosum, cingulate cortex, and insula, jointly implicating the olfactory brain network. Conclusion Alterations in olfactory areas, along with neighbouring brain regions, including prefrontal and limbic regions were associated to contraction of SARS-CoV-2. Viral infection could either trigger systemic reactions, or use the olfactory's unique anatomical organisation as an environmental entry zone to directly impact on the CNS.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Brain, Behavior, & Immunity - Health
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2021
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      Brain, Behavior, & Immunity - Health
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Maoxue Tang; Guangping Gao; Carlos B. Rueda; Hang Yu; +16 Authors

    Haploinsufficiency of the SLC2A1 gene and paucity of its translated product, the glucose transporter-1 (Glut1) protein, disrupt brain function and cause the neurodevelopmental disorder, Glut1 deficiency syndrome (Glut1 DS). There is little to suggest how reduced Glut1 causes cognitive dysfunction and no optimal treatment for Glut1 DS. We used model mice to demonstrate that low Glut1 protein arrests cerebral angiogenesis, resulting in a profound diminution of the brain microvasculature without compromising the blood–brain barrier. Studies to define the temporal requirements for Glut1 reveal that pre-symptomatic, AAV9-mediated repletion of the protein averts brain microvasculature defects and prevents disease, whereas augmenting the protein late, during adulthood, is devoid of benefit. Still, treatment following symptom onset can be effective; Glut1 repletion in early-symptomatic mutants that have experienced sustained periods of low brain glucose nevertheless restores the cerebral microvasculature and ameliorates disease. Timely Glut1 repletion may thus constitute an effective treatment for Glut1 DS. Glut1-deficiency syndrome is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by low brain glucose and epileptic seizures. Tang et al. show that in model mice, low Glut1 leads to defects of the brain vasculature, and that AAV9-based gene therapy at pre- or early-symptomatic stages prevents the defects and mitigates disease.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2017
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    Nature Communications
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    Nature Communications
    Article . 2017
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    Nature Communications
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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    https://doi.org/10.7916/d89c76...
    Other literature type . 2017
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2017
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      Article . 2017
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    Authors: Tiril P. Gurholt; Tiril P. Gurholt; Tiril P. Gurholt; Unn K. Haukvik; +10 Authors

    AbstractSchizophrenia is a severe mental disorder with often a chronic course. Neuroimaging studies report brain abnormalities in both white and gray matter structures. However, the relationship between microstructural white matter differences and volumetric subcortical structures is not known.We investigated 30 long-term treated patients with schizophrenia (mean age 51.1±7.9 years, illness duration 27.6±8.0 years) and 42 healthy controls (mean age 54.1±9.1 years) using 3 T diffusion and structural magnetic resonance imaging. The free-water imaging method was used to model the diffusion signal, and subcortical volumes were obtained from FreeSurfer. We applied multiple linear regression to investigate associations between (i) patient status and regional white matter microstructure, (ii) medication dose or clinical symptoms on white matter microstructure in patients, and (iii) for interactions between subcortical volumes and diagnosis for microstructural white matter regions showing significant patient-control differences.The patients had significantly decreased free-water corrected fractional anisotropy (FAt), explained by decreased axial diffusivity and increased radial diffusivity (RDt) bilaterally in the anterior corona radiata (ACR) and the left anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC) compared to controls. In the fornix, the patients had significantly increased RDt. In patients, positive symptoms were associated with localized increased free-water and negative symptoms with localized decreased FAt and increased RDt. There were significant interactions between patient status and several subcortical structures on white matter microstructure and the free-water compartment for left ACR and fornix, and limited to the free-water compartment for right ACR and left ALIC. The Cohen’s d effect sizes were medium to large (0.61 to 1.20, absolute values).The results suggest a specific pattern of frontal white matter axonal degeneration and demyelination and fornix demyelination that is attenuated in the presence of larger structures of the limbic system in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Findings warrants replication in larger samples.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ bioRxivarrow_drop_down
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    bioRxiv
    Preprint . 2019
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Frontiers in Psychiatry
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    Frontiers in Psychiatry
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Frontiers in Psychiatry
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    Authors: Scarmeas, Nikolaos; Zarahn, Eric; Anderson, Karen E.; Honig, Lawrence S.; +5 Authors

    Background: Cognitive reserve (CR) is the ability of an individual to cope with advancing brain pathological abnormalities so that he or she remains free of symptoms. Epidemiological data and evidence from positron emission tomography suggest that it may be mediated through education or IQ. Objective: To investigate CR-mediated differential brain activation in Alzheimer disease (AD) subjects compared with healthy elderly persons. Participants: Using radioactive water positron emission tomography, we scanned 12 AD patients and 17 healthy elderly persons while performing a serial recognition memory task for nonverbalizable shapes under 2 conditions: low demand, in which one shape was presented in each study trial, and titrated demand, in which the study list length was adjusted so that each subject recognized shapes at approximately 75% accuracy. Positron emission tomographic scan acquisition included the encoding and recognition phases. A CR factor score that summarized years of education, National Adult Reading Test estimated IQ, and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale���Revised vocabulary subtest score (explaining 71% of the total variance) was used as an index of CR. Voxel-wise, multiple regression analyses were performed with the "activation" difference (titrated demand���low demand) as the dependent variables and the CR factor score as the independent one. Brain regions where regression slopes differed between the 2 groups were identified. Results: The slopes were significantly more positive for the AD patients in the left precentral gyrus and in the left hippocampus and significantly more negative in the right fusiform, right middle occipital, left superior occipital, and left middle temporal gyri. Conclusion: Brain regions where systematic relationships (slopes) between subjects' education-IQ and brain activation differ as a function of disease status may mediate the differential ability to cope with (ie, delay or modify) clinical manifestations of AD.

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    https://doi.org/10.7916/d8r211...
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    Archives of Neurology
    Article . 2004 . Peer-reviewed
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      Archives of Neurology
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    Authors: Nikolaos, Koutsouleris; Gisela J E, Schmitt; Christian, Gaser; Ronald, Bottlender; +7 Authors

    BackgroundStructural brain abnormalities have been described in individuals with an at-risk mental state for psychosis. However, the neuroanatomical underpinnings of the early and late at-risk mental state relative to clinical outcome remain unclear.AimsTo investigate grey matter volume abnormalities in participants in a putatively early or late at-risk mental state relative to their prospective clinical outcome.MethodVoxel-based morphometry of magnetic resonance imaging data from 20 people with a putatively early at-risk mental state (ARMS–E group) and 26 people with a late at-risk mental state (ARMS–L group) as well as from 15 participants with at-risk mental states with subsequent disease transition (ARMS–T group) and 18 participants without subsequent disease transition (ARMS–NT group) were compared with 75 healthy volunteers.ResultsCompared with healthy controls, ARMS–L participants had grey matter volume losses in frontotemporolimbic structures. Participants in the ARMS–E group showed bilateral temporolimbic alterations and subtle prefrontal abnormalities. Participants in the ARMS–T group had prefrontal alterations relative to those in the ARMS–NT group and in the healthy controls that overlapped with the findings in the ARMS–L group.ConclusionsBrain alterations associated with the early at-risk mental state may relate to an elevated susceptibility to psychosis, whereas alterations underlying the late at-risk mental state may indicate a subsequent transition to psychosis.

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    The British Journal of Psychiatry
    Article . 2009 . Peer-reviewed
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      The British Journal of Psychiatry
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    Authors: Jenna C. Carlson; Nichole Nidey; Azeez Butali; Carmen Buxó Martinez; +15 Authors

    AbstractNonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P) is the most common craniofacial birth defect in humans and is notable for its apparent sexual dimorphism where approximately twice as many males are affected as females. The sources of this disparity are largely unknown, but interactions between genetic and sex effects are likely contributors. We examined gene‐by‐sex (G × S) interactions in a worldwide sample of 2,142 NSCL/P cases and 1,700 controls recruited from 13 countries. First, we performed genome‐wide joint tests of the genetic (G) and G × S effects genome‐wide using logistic regression assuming an additive genetic model and adjusting for 18 principal components of ancestry. We further interrogated loci with suggestive results from the joint test ( p < 1.00 × 10 −5) by examining the G × S effects from the same model. Out of the 133 loci with suggestive results ( p < 1.00 × 10 −5) for the joint test, we observed one genome‐wide significant G × S effect in the 10q21 locus (rs72804706; p = 6.69 × 10 −9; OR = 2.62 CI [1.89, 3.62]) and 16 suggestive G × S effects. At the intergenic 10q21 locus, the risk of NSCL/P is estimated to increase with additional copies of the minor allele for females, but the opposite effect for males. Our observation that the impact of genetic variants on NSCL/P risk differs for males and females may further our understanding of the genetic architecture of NSCL/P and the sex differences underlying clefts and other birth defects.

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    bioRxiv
    Preprint . 2018
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    Genetic Epidemiology
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2018
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      Genetic Epidemiology
      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2018
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    Authors: Chang, Linda; Shoptaw, Steven; Normand, Jacques;

    Abstract The session, “HIV and other Infectious Diseases,” was chaired by Dr. Jacques Normand, Director of the AIDS Research Program of the US National Institute on Drug Abuse. The two presenters (and their presentation topics) were: Dr. Linda Chang (“Neural Correlates of Cognitive Deficits and Training Effects on Brain Function in HIV-infected Individuals”) and Dr. Steven Shoptaw (“HIV Prevention in Substance Users”).

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    Other literature type . 2013
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    Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
    Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier Non-Commercial
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
      Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier Non-Commercial
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17 Research products (1 rule applied)
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Luciana Monteiro Moura; Vinicius Leati de Rossi Ferreira; Rafael Maffei Loureiro; Joselisa Péres Queiroz de Paiva; +5 Authors

    The Zika virus (ZIKV) attracted attention due to one striking characteristic: the ability to cross the placental barrier and infect the fetus, possibly causing severe neurodevelopmental disruptions included in the Congenital Zika Syndrome (CZS). Few years after the epidemic, the CZS incidence has begun to decline. However, how ZIKV causes a diversity of outcomes is far from being understood. This is probably driven by a chain of complex events that relies on the interaction between ZIKV and environmental and physiological variables. In this review, we address open questions that might lead to an ill-defined diagnosis of CZS. This inaccuracy underestimates a large spectrum of apparent normocephalic cases that remain underdiagnosed, comprising several subtle brain abnormalities frequently masked by a normal head circumference. Therefore, new models using neuroimaging and artificial intelligence are needed to improve our understanding of the neurobiology of ZIKV and its true impact in neurodevelopment.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Frontiers in Neuroscience
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Frontiers in Neuroscience
    Article
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: UnpayWall
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    DOAJ-Articles
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2021
      Data sources: PubMed Central
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Neuroscience
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Neuroscience
      Article
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: UnpayWall
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      DOAJ-Articles
      Article . 2021
      Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: J L, Waddington;

    Much evidence points to the importance of intra uterine events in the etiology of schizophrenia and suggests a complex interplay between dysfunctional and intact neurons in the pathophysiology of the disorder. This article contrasts what is known of the topographies of metabolic and structural brain abnormalities in schizophrenia at differing stages of the illness. From these contrasts, a schema is elaborated by which subtle neurodevelopmental perturbation in early to middle gestation might give rise to functional and structural abnormalities that ultimately release the diagnostic symptoms of schizophrenia. An interaction between those mechanisms mediating the expression of psychosis and the initially subtle stages of normal aging is posited to act on the substrate of a brain that is already developmentally compromised. Such a process might masquerade as "progression" in the absence of any active disease directly attributable to the original etiological event.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Schizophrenia Bullet...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Schizophrenia Bulletin
    Article . 1993 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Crossref
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    73
    citations73
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Schizophrenia Bullet...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, con