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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Kreepa G. Kooblall; Mark Stevenson; Michelle Stewart; Lachlan Harris; +24 Authors

    The nuclear factor I/X (NFIX) gene encodes a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor whose mutations lead to two allelic disorders characterized by developmental, skeletal, and neural abnormalities, namely, Malan syndrome (MAL) and Marshall–Smith syndrome (MSS).NFIXmutations associated with MAL mainly cluster in exon 2 and are cleared by nonsense‐mediated decay (NMD) leading to NFIX haploinsufficiency, whereasNFIXmutations associated with MSS are clustered in exons 6–10 and escape NMD and result in the production of dominant‐negative mutant NFIX proteins. Thus, differentNFIXmutations have distinct consequences onNFIXexpression. To elucidate thein vivoeffects of MSS‐associatedNFIXexon 7 mutations, we used CRISPR‐Cas9 to generate mouse models with exon 7 deletions that comprised: a frameshift deletion of two nucleotides (NfixDel2); in‐frame deletion of 24 nucleotides (NfixDel24); and deletion of 140 nucleotides (NfixDel140).Nfix+/Del2,Nfix+/Del24,Nfix+/Del140,NfixDel24/Del24, andNfixDel140/Del140mice were viable, normal, and fertile, with no skeletal abnormalities, butNfixDel2/Del2mice had significantly reduced viability (p < 0.002) and died at 2–3 weeks of age.NfixDel2 was not cleared by NMD, andNfixDel2/Del2mice, when compared toNfix+/+andNfix+/Del2mice, had: growth retardation; short stature with kyphosis; reduced skull length; marked porosity of the vertebrae with decreased vertebral and femoral bone mineral content; and reduced caudal vertebrae height and femur length. Plasma biochemistry analysis revealedNfixDel2/Del2mice to have increased total alkaline phosphatase activity but decreased C‐terminal telopeptide and procollagen‐type‐1‐N‐terminal propeptide concentrations compared toNfix+/+andNfix+/Del2mice.NfixDel2/Del2mice were also found to have enlarged cerebral cortices and ventricular areas but smaller dentate gyrus compared toNfix+/+mice. Thus,NfixDel2/Del2mice provide a model for studying thein vivoeffects of NFIX mutants that escape NMD and result in developmental abnormalities of the skeletal and neural tissues that are associated with MSS. © 2023 The Authors.JBMR Pluspublished by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ University of East A...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    JBMR Plus
    Article . 2023
    Data sources: NARCIS
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    NARCIS
    Article . 2023
    Data sources: NARCIS
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Oxford Brookes University: RADAR
    Other literature type . 2023
    License: CC BY
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    JBMR Plus
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
    https://doi.org/10.25418/crick...
    Other literature type . 2023
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
    https://doi.org/10.25418/crick...
    Other literature type . 2023
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ University of East A...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      JBMR Plus
      Article . 2023
      Data sources: NARCIS
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      NARCIS
      Article . 2023
      Data sources: NARCIS
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Oxford Brookes University: RADAR
      Other literature type . 2023
      License: CC BY
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      JBMR Plus
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
      https://doi.org/10.25418/crick...
      Other literature type . 2023
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
      https://doi.org/10.25418/crick...
      Other literature type . 2023
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Martino Ruggieri; Agata Polizzi; Vincenzo Salpietro; Gemma Incorpora; +18 Authors

    Background Familial spinal neurofibromatosis is a form of neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1), consisting of extensive, symmetrical, histologically proven, multiple neurofibromas of the spinal roots at every level and of all major peripheral nerves sometimes associated with typical NF1 stigmata; most cases underlie NF1 gene mutations. Objectives The objectives of this study are (1) to report the findings in a set of 16-year-old monozygotic twin girls and a 14-year-old boy and (2) to review the existing literature. Methods and Results In this article, we report the cases of three children who (1) had manifested mildly different symptomatic neuropathy (twins, aged 4 years; and a boy, aged 9 years) associated with massive, symmetrical neurofibromas; (2) had few café-au-lait spots with irregular margins and pale brown pigmentation; (3) were presented with, at brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), bilateral, NF1-like high-signal abnormalities in the basal ganglia; (4) yielded missense NF1 gene mutations in exon 39; and (5) had unaffected parents with negative NF1 genetic testing as well as discuss 12 families and 20 sporadic and 5 additional cases that presented spinal neurofibromatosis within classical NF1 families (53 cases) that were reported in the literature. Conclusions This article presents the first report on (1) spinal neurofibromatosis in a set of affected monozygotic twins; (2) the earliest onset of the disease; and (3) the occurrence of high signal lesions in the brain at MRI. © 2013 Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Archivio della ricer...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    PubliCatt
    Article . 2013
    Data sources: PubliCatt
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    CNR ExploRA
    Article . 2013
    Data sources: CNR ExploRA
    Neuropediatrics
    Article . 2013
    Neuropediatrics
    Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Archivio della ricer...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      PubliCatt
      Article . 2013
      Data sources: PubliCatt
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      CNR ExploRA
      Article . 2013
      Data sources: CNR ExploRA
      Neuropediatrics
      Article . 2013
      Neuropediatrics
      Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Crossref
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: T, Sharma; G, du Boulay; S, Lewis; T, Sigmundsson; +2 Authors

    1. The authors investigated the prevalence of qualitatively rated structural brain abnormalities in schizophrenic probands and their first-degree relatives from families multiply affected with schizophrenia. 2. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to evaluate brain morphology in 33 schizophrenic probands, 54 of their non-schizophrenic first-degree relatives (including 11 presumed obligate carriers) and 37 unrelated control subjects. Structural images were examined by a neuroradiologist who was blind to diagnostic and family status. 3. 52% of the schizophrenic subjects were rated as showing abnormalities compared with 27% of presumed obligate carriers, 16% of their non-schizophrenic relatives and 11% of unrelated controls. 4. Brain abnormalities were more frequent in schizophrenic subjects from multiplex families than in their first-degree relatives and controls. Abnormalities were also found in unaffected relatives particularly those who appear to be transmitting the disorder.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Progress in Neuro-Ps...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry
    Article . 1997 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Progress in Neuro-Ps...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry
      Article . 1997 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier TDM
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Gazdagh, Gabriella E.; Wang, Cunyi; McGowan, Ruth; Tobias, Edward S.; +1 Authors

    The objective of our study was to use an established cohort of boys to investigate common patterns of malformations in those with hypospadias. We performed a retrospective review of the phenotype of participants in the Deciphering Developmental Disorders Study with neurodevelopmental delay and an ‘Abnormality of the genital system’. This group was divided into two subgroups: those with hypospadias and without hypospadias. Associated phenotypes of the two subgroups were compared and analysed. Of the 166 Deciphering Developmental Disorders participants with hypospadias and neurodevelopmental delay, 47 (28%) had cardiovascular and 40 (24%) had structural brain abnormalities. The rate of cardiovascular abnormalities in those with neurodevelopmental delay and genital abnormalities other than hypospadias (N = 645) was lower at 19% (P = 0.001). In addition, structural brain malformations were higher at 24% in the hypospadias group versus 15% in the group without hypospadias (P = 0.002). The constellation of these features occured at a higher rate in the hypospadias group versus the no hypospadias group (P = 0.038). In summary, this is the first study to indicate that cardiovascular and brain abnormalities are frequently encountered in association with hypospadias in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. Not only do these associations provide insight into the underlying aetiology but also they highlight the multisystem involvement in conditions with hypospadias

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggre...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Clinical Dysmorphology
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggre...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Clinical Dysmorphology
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: G R, Gaffney; S, Kuperman; L Y, Tsai; S, Minchin; +1 Authors

    Since recent reports suggest structural brain abnormalities in autistic patients, we analysed magnetic resonance imaging (MAI) scans of autistic children. Planimetric measurements were done on midsagittal MRI scans, produced with a 0.5 T superconducting magnet. Scans of 13 ‘high-level’ austic subjects were compared with 35 control MRI scans, read as anatomically normal by a neuroradiologist. Corpus callosal, fourth ventricular, cerebellar, cerebral, and cranial areas were measured. The fourth ventricle was found to be significantly larger in the autistic group. No other areas in the midsagittal scans differed statistically between groups. Results suggest that structures defining the fourth ventricle are anatomically altered in autistic patients.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao The British Journal ...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    The British Journal of Psychiatry
    Article . 1987 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Cambridge Core User Agreement
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      The British Journal of Psychiatry
      Article . 1987 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: J L, Waddington;

    Much evidence points to the importance of intra uterine events in the etiology of schizophrenia and suggests a complex interplay between dysfunctional and intact neurons in the pathophysiology of the disorder. This article contrasts what is known of the topographies of metabolic and structural brain abnormalities in schizophrenia at differing stages of the illness. From these contrasts, a schema is elaborated by which subtle neurodevelopmental perturbation in early to middle gestation might give rise to functional and structural abnormalities that ultimately release the diagnostic symptoms of schizophrenia. An interaction between those mechanisms mediating the expression of psychosis and the initially subtle stages of normal aging is posited to act on the substrate of a brain that is already developmentally compromised. Such a process might masquerade as "progression" in the absence of any active disease directly attributable to the original etiological event.

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    Schizophrenia Bulletin
    Article . 1993 . Peer-reviewed
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      Schizophrenia Bulletin
      Article . 1993 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Karen D. Ersche; Guy B. Williams; Trevor W. Robbins; Edward T. Bullmore;

    Since the first study in stimulant-dependent individuals using structural MRI was published fifteen years ago, much evidence has accumulated on brain abnormalities associated with stimulant drug dependence. Here we conducted a voxel-based morphometry meta-analysis of published MRI data in stimulant-dependent individuals to clarify the most robust abnormalities underlying the disorder. We found that neuroimaging studies in stimulant-dependent individuals consistently report a gray matter decline in the prefrontal cortex regions associated with self-regulation and self-awareness. One of the next key questions that neuroimaging research today needs to address is the question of causality, namely to what extent these brain abnormalities are caused by the toxic effects of drug exposure, or the possibility that these may have predated drug-taking and even predisposed individuals for the development of drug dependence. Although the question of causality has not yet been answered completely, there has been significant progress made to date.

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    Authors: Watkins, KE; Gadian, DG; Vargha-Khadem, F;

    We are indebted to the KE family for their continued cooperation with our research program. We thank our collaborators at the Wellcome Department of Cognitive Neurology, Institute of Neurology, London, for assistance with the PET study and morphometric analyses, and our colleagues in the Cognitive Neuroscience Unit and Radiology and Physics Unit at the Institute of Child Health, London, for assistance with data collection and analysis. We thank Drs. Mortimer Mishkin, Marcus Pembrey, Tomas Paus, and Gabriel Leonard, for useful discussion and for comments on the manuscript.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 1999
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    The American Journal of Human Genetics
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    The American Journal of Human Genetics
    Article . 1999 . Peer-reviewed
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      Other literature type . 1999
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      The American Journal of Human Genetics
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      The American Journal of Human Genetics
      Article . 1999 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Estephania Candelo; Estephania Candelo; Ana Maria Sanz; Diana Ramirez-Montaño; +7 Authors

    IntroductionFlaviviridae family belongs to the Spondweni serocomplex, which is mainly transmitted by vectors from the Aedes genus. Zika virus (ZIKV) is part of this genus. It was initially reported in Brazil in December 2014 as an unknown acute generalized exanthematous disease and was subsequently identified as ZIKV infection. ZIKV became widespread all over Brazil and was linked with potential cases of microcephaly.Case reportWe report a case of a 28-year-old Colombian woman, who came to the Obstetric Department with an assumed conglomerate of fetal abnormalities detected via ultrasonography, which was performed at 29.5 weeks of gestation. The patient presented with multiple abnormalities, which range from a suggested Arnold–Chiari malformation, compromising the lateral and third ventricles, liver calcifications, bilateral pyelocalic dilatations, other brain anomalies, and microcephaly. At 12 weeks of gestation, the vertical transmission of ZIKV was suspected. At 38.6 weeks of gestation, the newborn was delivered, with the weight in the 10th percentile (3,180 g), height in the 10th percentile (48 cm), and cephalic circumference under the 2nd percentile (31 cm). Due to the physical findings, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed, revealing a small and deviated brain stem, narrowing of the posterior fossa, a giant posterior fossa cyst with ventricular dilatation, a severe cortical and white matter thinning, cerebellar vermis with hypoplasia, and superior and lateral displacement of the cerebellum. In addition, hydrocephalus was displayed by the axial sequence, and the cerebral cortex was also compromised with lissencephaly. Schizencephaly was found with left frontal open-lip, and no intracranial calcifications were found. Two novel heterozygous nonsense mutations were identified using whole-exome sequencing, and both are located in exon 8 under the affection of ZIKV congenital syndrome (CZS) that produced a premature stop codon resulting in the truncation of the cyclin-dependent kinase 5 regulatory subunit-associated protein 2 (CDK5RAP2) protein.ConclusionWe used molecular and microbiological assessments to report the initial case of vertically transmitted ZIKV infection with congenital syndrome associated with a neurological syndrome, where a mutation in the CDK5RAP2 gene was also identified. The CDK5RAP2 gene encodes a pericentriolar protein that intervenes in microtubule nucleation and centriole attachment. Diallelic mutation has previously been associated with primary microcephaly.

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    Europe PubMed Central
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    Frontiers in Genetics
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    Frontiers in Genetics
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      Frontiers in Genetics
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    Authors: Estephania Candelo; G. Caicedo; Fernando Rosso; Adriana Ballesteros; +5 Authors

    Estephania Candelo,1,2 Gabriela Caicedo,1 Fernando Rosso,3 Adriana Ballesteros,4 Jaime Orrego,4 Luis Escobar,5 Pablo Lapunzina,6,7 Jul&iacute;an Nevado,6,7 Harry Pachajoa1,81Center for Research on Congenital Anomalies and Rare Diseases (CIACER), Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Universidad Icesi, Cali, Colombia; 2MSc Biomaterials and Tissues Engineering and Genetics of Human Diseases, University College London, London, UK; 3Infectology Department, Fundaci&oacute;n Valle del Lili, Cali, Colombia; 4Neonatal Department, Fundacion Valle del Lili, Cali, Colombia; 5Pathology Department, Fundacion Valle del Lili, Cali, Colombia; 6Instituto de Gen&eacute;tica M&eacute;dica y Molecular (INGEMM), IdiPAZ, Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid, 28046, Spain; 7CIBER de Enfermedades Raras (CIBERER), Madrid, ISCIII, Spain; 8Genetics Department, Fundacion Valle del Lili, Cali, ColombiaIntroduction: Zika virus (ZIKV) is a little-known emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus. The perinatal ZIKV infection was associated with birth defects during the Brazilian outbreak. There was an increased risk of intrauterine transmission of the virus and a marked increase in the number of newborns with microcephaly. We report on two such cases.Case Report: The first case was a 25-year-old pregnant woman from Colombia who became acutely ill with general symptoms during the tenth week of gestation, followed by severe generalized itching and maculopapular rash for approximately five days. This case was reported during the epidemic stage of the ZIKV infection in Colombia. At 23.3 gestational weeks, ultrasonography showed abnormal intracranial anatomy with cerebral ventriculomegaly, microcephaly, and parenchymal calcification. Given the grave prognosis, the patient elected to terminate the pregnancy at 25 gestational weeks. The second case was a 24-year-old pregnant woman who became acutely ill during the 17th week of gestation, which corresponded with the ZIKV epidemic in Colombia. At 30.5 gestational weeks, ultrasonography showed isolated fetal cerebral ventriculomegaly. We detected ZIKV in the amniotic fluid; however, the virus was not detected in the urine or serum of the mother or fetus. Tests for dengue virus, chikungunya virus, Toxoplasma gondii, rubella virus, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, HIV, hepatitis B and C, and parvovirus B19 were all negative. Different samples obtained from the placenta, amniotic liquid, and cerebrospinal fluid were positive for viral isolation of ZIKV RNA using TaqMan RT-PCR. Additionally, the parents and fetuses were tested for genetic diseases using whole exome sequencing and array CGH to rule out possible genetic syndromes that produce these congenital abnormalities.Conclusion: These were the first cases in Colombia to show early vertical transmission of ZIKV and the first cases associated with congenital cerebral abnormalities in which molecular, infectious, and genomic tests were performed.Keywords: Colombia, microcephaly, whole exome sequencing, Zika virus infection, vertical transmission, brain abnormalities

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    The Application of Clinical Genetics
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    The Application of Clinical Genetics
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      The Application of Clinical Genetics
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      License: CC BY NC
      Data sources: UnpayWall
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      The Application of Clinical Genetics
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Dove Medical Press
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      The Application of Clinical Genetics
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY NC
      Data sources: Crossref
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Kreepa G. Kooblall; Mark Stevenson; Michelle Stewart; Lachlan Harris; +24 Authors

    The nuclear factor I/X (NFIX) gene encodes a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor whose mutations lead to two allelic disorders characterized by developmental, skeletal, and neural abnormalities, namely, Malan syndrome (MAL) and Marshall–Smith syndrome (MSS).NFIXmutations associated with MAL mainly cluster in exon 2 and are cleared by nonsense‐mediated decay (NMD) leading to NFIX haploinsufficiency, whereasNFIXmutations associated with MSS are clustered in exons 6–10 and escape NMD and result in the production of dominant‐negative mutant NFIX proteins. Thus, differentNFIXmutations have distinct consequences onNFIXexpression. To elucidate thein vivoeffects of MSS‐associatedNFIXexon 7 mutations, we used CRISPR‐Cas9 to generate mouse models with exon 7 deletions that comprised: a frameshift deletion of two nucleotides (NfixDel2); in‐frame deletion of 24 nucleotides (NfixDel24); and deletion of 140 nucleotides (NfixDel140).Nfix+/Del2,Nfix+/Del24,Nfix+/Del140,NfixDel24/Del24, andNfixDel140/Del140mice were viable, normal, and fertile, with no skeletal abnormalities, butNfixDel2/Del2mice had significantly reduced viability (p < 0.002) and died at 2–3 weeks of age.NfixDel2 was not cleared by NMD, andNfixDel2/Del2mice, when compared toNfix+/+andNfix+/Del2mice, had: growth retardation; short stature with kyphosis; reduced skull length; marked porosity of the vertebrae with decreased vertebral and femoral bone mineral content; and reduced caudal vertebrae height and femur length. Plasma biochemistry analysis revealedNfixDel2/Del2mice to have increased total alkaline phosphatase activity but decreased C‐terminal telopeptide and procollagen‐type‐1‐N‐terminal propeptide concentrations compared toNfix+/+andNfix+/Del2mice.NfixDel2/Del2mice were also found to have enlarged cerebral cortices and ventricular areas but smaller dentate gyrus compared toNfix+/+mice. Thus,NfixDel2/Del2mice provide a model for studying thein vivoeffects of NFIX mutants that escape NMD and result in developmental abnormalities of the skeletal and neural tissues that are associated with MSS. © 2023 The Authors.JBMR Pluspublished by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ University of East A...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    JBMR Plus
    Article . 2023
    Data sources: NARCIS
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    NARCIS
    Article . 2023
    Data sources: NARCIS
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Oxford Brookes University: RADAR
    Other literature type . 2023
    License: CC BY
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    JBMR Plus
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
    https://doi.org/10.25418/crick...
    Other literature type . 2023
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
    https://doi.org/10.25418/crick...
    Other literature type . 2023
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ University of East A...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      JBMR Plus
      Article . 2023
      Data sources: NARCIS
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      NARCIS
      Article . 2023
      Data sources: NARCIS
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Oxford Brookes University: RADAR
      Other literature type . 2023
      License: CC BY
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      JBMR Plus
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
      https://doi.org/10.25418/crick...
      Other literature type . 2023
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
      https://doi.org/10.25418/crick...
      Other literature type . 2023
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
      addClaim

      This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

      You have already added works in your ORCID record related to the merged Research product.
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/