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  • Biological Psychiatry

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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: L H, Lindström; L S, Ohlund;
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Biological Psychiatr...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Biological Psychiatry
    Article . 1994 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Biological Psychiatr...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Biological Psychiatry
      Article . 1994 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: L T, Zorrilla; T D, Cannon; S, Kronenberg; S A, Mednick; +4 Authors

    Structural brain abnormalities such as ventricular enlargement are robust correlates of schizophrenia, but the degree of difference compared with unrelated normal controls is only moderate (< 1 standard deviation), and only 40% of patients have values on these measures that fall outside of the normal distribution. Family studies can help to clarify the meaning of this overlap by controlling for some of the non-schizophrenia-related genetic variation in neuroanatomical traits. Computerized tomographic scans of the brain were used to measure ventricular and sulcal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to brain ratios (VBR and SBR) for each hemisphere in 16 pairs of discordant siblings from the Copenhagen Schizophrenia High-Risk Project. Schizophrenics' values for VBR and SBR exceeded those of their nonschizophrenic siblings in 75% of the pairs; on average, patients' values on these measures were 1 and 5 standard deviations larger, respectively, than those of their nonschizophrenic siblings. Sulcal and left hemisphere effects were significantly more pronounced than ventricular and right hemisphere effects. After controlling for between-family variation, structural brain abnormalities appear to be more prevalent and more pronounced in schizophrenia than has previously been assumed, with relatively greater deviation observed for cortical and left hemisphere measures of CSF space enlargement.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Biological Psychiatr...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Biological Psychiatry
    Article . 1997 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Biological Psychiatr...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Biological Psychiatry
      Article . 1997 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Bayanne Olabi; Ian Ellison-Wright; Andrew M. McIntosh; Stephen J. Wood; +2 Authors

    It is well established that schizophrenia is associated with structural brain abnormalities, but whether these are static or progress over time remains controversial.A systematic review of longitudinal volumetric studies using region-of-interest structural magnetic resonance imaging in patients with schizophrenia and healthy control subjects. The percentage change in volume between scans for each brain region of interest was obtained, and data were combined using random effects meta-analysis.Twenty-seven studies were included in the meta-analysis, with 928 patients and 867 control subjects, and 32 different brain regions of interest. Subjects with schizophrenia showed significantly greater decreases over time in whole brain volume, whole brain gray matter, frontal gray and white matter, parietal white matter, and temporal white matter volume, as well as larger increases in lateral ventricular volume, than healthy control subjects. The time between baseline and follow-up magnetic resonance imaging scans ranged from 1 to 10 years. The differences between patients and control subjects in annualized percentage volume change were -.07% for whole brain volume, -.59% for whole brain gray matter, -.32% for frontal white matter, -.32% for parietal white matter, -.39% for temporal white matter, and +.36% for bilateral lateral ventricles.These findings suggest that schizophrenia is associated with progressive structural brain abnormalities, affecting both gray and white matter. We found no evidence to suggest progressive medial temporal lobe involvement but did find evidence that this may be partly explained by heterogeneity between studies in patient age and illness duration. The causes and clinical correlates of these progressive brain changes should now be the focus of investigation.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Biological Psychiatr...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Biological Psychiatry
    Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Biological Psychiatr...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Biological Psychiatry
      Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Catherine Bois; Lisa Ronan; Liat Levita; Heather C. Whalley; +6 Authors

    Abstract Background Schizophrenia is associated with structural brain abnormalities that may be present before disease onset. It remains unclear whether these represent general vulnerability indicators or are associated with the clinical state itself. Methods To investigate this, structural brain scans were acquired at two time points (mean scan interval 1.87 years) in a cohort of individuals at high familial risk of schizophrenia ( n = 142) and control subjects ( n = 36). Cortical reconstructions were generated using FreeSurfer. The high-risk cohort was subdivided into individuals that remained well during the study, individuals that had transient psychotic symptoms, and individuals that subsequently became ill. Baseline measures and longitudinal change in global estimates of thickness and surface area and lobar values were compared, focusing on overall differences between high-risk individuals and control subjects and then on group differences within the high-risk cohort. Results Longitudinally, control subjects showed a significantly greater reduction in cortical surface area compared with the high-risk group. Within the high-risk group, differences in surface area at baseline predicted clinical course, with individuals that subsequently became ill having significantly larger surface area than individuals that remained well during the study. For thickness, longitudinal reductions were most prominent in the frontal, cingulate, and occipital lobes in all high-risk individuals compared with control subjects. Conclusions Our results suggest that larger surface areas at baseline may be associated with mechanisms that go above and beyond a general familial disposition. A relative preservation over time of surface area, coupled with a thinning of the cortex compared with control subjects, may serve as vulnerability markers of schizophrenia.

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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Biological Psychiatry
    Article
    License: CC BY NC ND
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Biological Psychiatry
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Biological Psychiatr...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Biological Psychiatry
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Biological Psychiatry
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Eva W.C. Chow; Robert B. Zipursky; David J. Mikulis; Anne S. Bassett;

    22q11 Deletion Syndrome is a genetic syndrome associated with an increased risk for developing schizophrenia. Brain abnormalities have been reported in 22q11 Deletion Syndrome, but little is known about whether differences in brain structure underlie the psychotic disorders associated with this syndrome. In the current study, we used magnetic resonance imaging to characterize the structural brain abnormalities found in adults who have both 22q11 Deletion Syndrome and schizophrenia.Magnetic resonance imaging brain scans of 14 adults (7 male, 7 female) with 22q11 Deletion Syndrome and schizophrenia and 14 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers were analyzed to derive measures of gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid. Differences between the two groups were tested using student t tests.22q11 Deletion Syndrome and schizophrenia subjects had significantly smaller total gray matter volume (t = 2.88, p.01) and larger lateral ventricles (t = 4.08, p.001) than healthy controls. Gray matter deficits were most prominent in the frontal and temporal lobes. Total white matter volumes did not differ between the two groups.Findings from this 22q11 Deletion Syndrome and schizophrenia study are similar to those reported in other patients with schizophrenia, but only partially consistent with those reported in nonpsychotic children with 22q11 Deletion Syndrome. 22q11 Deletion Syndrome may provide a valuable genetic neurodevelopmental model for investigating the relationship between abnormalities in brain development and the expression of schizophrenia.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2002
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Biological Psychiatry
    Article . 2002 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2002
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Biological Psychiatry
      Article . 2002 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: David R, Roalf; Simon N, Vandekar; Laura, Almasy; Kosha, Ruparel; +11 Authors

    The biggest challenge for psychiatry today is the need toreveal and verify the essential pathologies of psychiatricsyndromes, including discovering relevant molecular, synap-tic, and circuit formulations of biologically based psychiatricdiseases. Any demonstrated pathology that reflects the biol-ogy of a facet or characterizes a subgroup of a psychiatricsyndrome would be an important target. Medical scientistsmust have asked this same question in the early 1900s whenthey were grasping for modern medicine handles on illnessmanifestations such as fever and dropsy (morbid edema).Psychiatric illness constructs today, as were fever and dropsyin the 1900s, are based on clinical constellations of symptomsand illness course. Multiple lines of evidence do not supportthe assumption that clinical phenomenological disease con-structs are congruent with biologically based disease entities.As Dr. Steve Hyman has opined, for psychiatry, “DSM was apoor mirror of nature (Steve Hyman, M.D. et al., personalcommunication, 2011).” The task of looking for biologicallydefined disease characteristics of serious mental illness thatmay lie orthogonal to clinical diagnostic boundaries is achallenging one. One could ask, “If we eschew clinicalphenomenology as the gold standard, what brain character-istic(s) might optimally define a homogeneous disease groupwithin the schizophrenia syndrome?”Roalf et al. (1) address this issue by estimating the herit-ability of structural brain phenotypes in large extended familiescontaining multiple cases of schizophrenia. They quantifiedregional brain volumes and performed shape analyses forsubcortical and limbic brain regions, and they estimatedheritability for these variables. Not all variables on which theyreported differentiated healthy persons from probands/rela-tives. All of the structures that showed group differences(accumbens, caudate, hippocampus, putamen, and thalamus,but not amygdala and pallidum) also had significant heritabilityestimates. Palaniyappan et al. (2) also contrasted regionalbrain deviations among schizophrenia spectrum relativeswithout schizophrenia itself versus brain deviations amongprobands with schizophrenia and reported that some altera-tions were associated with genetic propensity for illness andsome were peculiar to the disease. Findings from studies likethose of Roalf et al. and Palaniyappan et al. offer intriguingindications that sophisticated quantifications of brain morpho-logic deviations could aid understanding of essential ingredi-ents of the schizophrenia constitution versus deviations thatare consequences of disease. Although this work is animportant step forward, several caveats are worth considering.First, as Kendler and Neale (3) caution, estimating herit-ability from sibling-sibling and parent-offspring data alonedoes not provide the opportunity to distinguish genetic andfamilial-environmental sources of variance. However, perhapswe can at least conclude that Roalf et al. (1) demonstrate thattheir subcortical morphology measures are moderately tostrongly familial and are deserving of further intensive study.Also, heritability is a population metric, perhaps best esti-mated in large and varied samples (a point to which Roalf et al.allude), that does not tell us, for instance, that genes accountfor 70% of accumbens morphology for a single individual.Nevertheless, Roalf et al. at least show that measures ofsubcortical brain morphology are intriguing prospects forpsychosis biomarkers.Second, regional brain morphology is among the mostrational choices as a disease-related phenotype because it iseasily obtained, is moderately replicable across sites, and couldindicate alterations in regional pathology of a molecular orcellular nature. Many authors have reported a diagnosticdistinction based on brain anatomy within the psychosisdimension between the two major psychosis diagnoses, schizo-phrenia and bipolar disorders ( 4), despite the similarity in theirunderlying histopathology (5). However, as indirect measures ofregional neural activity, brain volume and shape are fundamen-tally limited biomarkers, despite their usefulness. This funda-mental limitation is true for any of the individual brain molecular,cellular, or activity biomarkers of human brain disease withunknown pathophysiology. How can we begin to identify keybiological characteristics of psychiatric syndromes?Third, to define pivotal biomarkers of schizophrenia orpsychosis generally, it may be important to consider theprobability that, rather than a single biomarker, a battery ofbiomarkers, integrated in multivariate space, may be requiredto define any single disease construct. Epigenetics, etiologicheterogeneity, pleiotropy, and variable expressivity influencephenotypic manifestations, making it difficult for a singlelaboratory measure to be pathognomonic for complex psy-chiatric diseases. Multiple means for assessing the etiologiccomplexities that undergird complex psychopathologic dis-eases will be a requirement for advancing our field. Roalf et al.have identified an important neuropathologic construct toconsider in such a multivariate enterprise. Other researchgroups are also beginning to examine the utility of extensivebiomarker batteries to create multivariate-based disease con-structs that are biologically, and perhaps etiologically, dis-tinctive (6,7). The value of a biomarker battery is to representmany aspects of brain function in a complex constellation,including cognition, regional neural activity, motor function,and brain shape and volume. Multiple variables would repre-sent many aspects of a disease entity, each with multiplemeasures, and use the resultant disease characteristics todefine disease groupings—all biological-based—that distin-guish neurobiologically meaningful disease subgroups thatcut across conventional clinical groupings. The Bipolar-Schizophrenia Network for Intermediate Phenotypes hasinitiated such an approach to understanding and parsing90

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2014
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Biological Psychiatry
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Biological Psychiatry
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2014
      Data sources: PubMed Central
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Biological Psychiatry
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier TDM
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Biological Psychiatry
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Petra, Habets; Machteld, Marcelis; Ed, Gronenschild; Marjan, Drukker; +2 Authors

    Background The etiology of schizophrenia is thought to involve differential—likely genetically mediated—sensitivity to environmental exposures. However, examination of differential sensitivity in models of psychopathologic constructs is subject to bias because psychopathology itself may distort exposure assessment. The use of neuroimaging phenotypes, conversely, may provide unbiased evidence for differential sensitivity to environmental exposures. This study examined the impact of two environmental exposures associated with both schizophrenia and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cerebral alterations in models of cerebral cortical thickness. Methods T1-weighted MRI scans were acquired from 88 patients with schizophrenia, 98 healthy siblings at higher than average genetic risk for schizophrenia, and 87 control subjects. Freesurfer software was used to measure cortical thickness for 68 brain regions. Associations between 1) cortical thickness and 2) cannabis use and developmental trauma were examined. Results A significant group × developmental trauma interaction (χ 2 = 9.65, p = .01), as well as a significant group × cannabis interaction (χ 2 = 6.04, p = .05) was apparent, indicating differential sensitivity of the patient group, which displayed stronger reductions of cortical thickness for both exposures. A similar pattern was found in the sibling–control comparison for cannabis. For developmental trauma, siblings did not differ from control subjects, displaying an increase in cortical thickness with higher levels of trauma. Conclusions The findings suggest that schizophrenia and its genetic liability are associated with differential cerebral cortical sensitivity to developmental environmental exposures such as cannabis. Gene–environment interactions may underlie some of the brain alterations observed in patients with schizophrenia and their relatives.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao NARCISarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Biological Psychiatry
    Other literature type . Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao NARCISarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Biological Psychiatry
      Other literature type . Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: L H, Lindström; L S, Ohlund;
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Biological Psychiatr...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Biological Psychiatry
    Article . 1994 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Biological Psychiatr...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Biological Psychiatry
      Article . 1994 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: L T, Zorrilla; T D, Cannon; S, Kronenberg; S A, Mednick; +4 Authors

    Structural brain abnormalities such as ventricular enlargement are robust correlates of schizophrenia, but the degree of difference compared with unrelated normal controls is only moderate (< 1 standard deviation), and only 40% of patients have values on these measures that fall outside of the normal distribution. Family studies can help to clarify the meaning of this overlap by controlling for some of the non-schizophrenia-related genetic variation in neuroanatomical traits. Computerized tomographic scans of the brain were used to measure ventricular and sulcal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to brain ratios (VBR and SBR) for each hemisphere in 16 pairs of discordant siblings from the Copenhagen Schizophrenia High-Risk Project. Schizophrenics' values for VBR and SBR exceeded those of their nonschizophrenic siblings in 75% of the pairs; on average, patients' values on these measures were 1 and 5 standard deviations larger, respectively, than those of their nonschizophrenic siblings. Sulcal and left hemisphere effects were significantly more pronounced than ventricular and right hemisphere effects. After controlling for between-family variation, structural brain abnormalities appear to be more prevalent and more pronounced in schizophrenia than has previously been assumed, with relatively greater deviation observed for cortical and left hemisphere measures of CSF space enlargement.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Biological Psychiatr...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Biological Psychiatry
    Article . 1997 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Biological Psychiatr...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Biological Psychiatry
      Article . 1997 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Bayanne Olabi; Ian Ellison-Wright; Andrew M. McIntosh; Stephen J. Wood; +2 Authors

    It is well established that schizophrenia is associated with structural brain abnormalities, but whether these are static or progress over time remains controversial.A systematic review of longitudinal volumetric studies using region-of-interest structural magnetic resonance imaging in patients with schizophrenia and healthy control subjects. The percentage change in volume between scans for each brain region of interest was obtained, and data were combined using random effects meta-analysis.Twenty-seven studies were included in the meta-analysis, with 928 patients and 867 control subjects, and 32 different brain regions of interest. Subjects with schizophrenia showed significantly greater decreases over time in whole brain volume, whole brain gray matter, frontal gray and white matter, parietal white matter, and temporal white matter volume, as well as larger increases in lateral ventricular volume, than healthy control subjects. The time between baseline and follow-up magnetic resonance imaging scans ranged from 1 to 10 years. The differences between patients and control subjects in annualized percentage volume change were -.07% for whole brain volume, -.59% for whole brain gray matter, -.32% for frontal white matter, -.32% for parietal white matter, -.39% for temporal white matter, and +.36% for bilateral lateral ventricles.These findings suggest that schizophrenia is associated with progressive structural brain abnormalities, affecting both gray and white matter. We found no evidence to suggest progressive medial temporal lobe involvement but did find evidence that this may be partly explained by heterogeneity between studies in patient age and illness duration. The causes and clinical correlates of these progressive brain changes should now be the focus of investigation.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Biological Psychiatr...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Biological Psychiatry
    Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Biological Psychiatr...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Biological Psychiatry
      Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Catherine Bois; Lisa Ronan; Liat Levita; Heather C. Whalley; +6 Authors

    Abstract Background Schizophrenia is associated with structural brain abnormalities that may be present before disease onset. It remains unclear whether these represent general vulnerability indicators or are associated with the clinical state itself. Methods To investigate this, structural brain scans were acquired at two time points (mean scan interval 1.87 years) in a cohort of individuals at high familial risk of schizophrenia ( n = 142) and control subjects ( n = 36). Cortical reconstructions were generated using FreeSurfer. The high-risk cohort was subdivided into individuals that remained well during the study, individuals that had transient psychotic symptoms, and individuals that subsequently became ill. Baseline measures and longitudinal change in global estimates of thickness and surface area and lobar values were compared, focusing on overall differences between high-risk individuals and control subjects and then on group differences within the high-risk cohort. Results Longitudinally, control subjects showed a significantly greater reduction in cortical surface area compared with the high-risk group. Within the high-risk group, differences in surface area at baseline predicted clinical course, with individuals that subsequently became ill having significantly larger surface area than individuals that remained well during the study. For thickness, longitudinal reductions were most prominent in the frontal, cingulate, and occipital lobes in all high-risk individuals compared with control subjects. Conclusions Our results suggest that larger surface areas at baseline may be associated with mechanisms that go above and beyond a general familial disposition. A relative preservation over time of surface area, coupled with a thinning of the cortex compared with control subjects, may serve as vulnerability markers of schizophrenia.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Biological Psychiatr...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Biological Psychiatry
    Article
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Biological Psychiatry
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Biological Psychiatr...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Biological Psychiatry
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Biological Psychiatry
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Eva W.C. Chow; Robert B. Zipursky; David J. Mikulis; Anne S. Bassett;

    22q11 Deletion Syndrome is a genetic syndrome associated with an increased risk for developing schizophrenia. Brain abnormalities have been reported in 22q11 Deletion Syndrome, but little is known about whether differences in brain structure underlie the psychotic disorders associated with this syndrome. In the current study, we used magnetic resonance imaging to characterize the structural brain abnormalities found in adults who have both 22q11 Deletion Syndrome and schizophrenia.Magnetic resonance imaging brain scans of 14 adults (7 male, 7 female) with 22q11 Deletion Syndrome and schizophrenia and 14 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers were analyzed to derive measures of gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid. Differences between the two groups were tested using student t tests.22q11 Deletion Syndrome and schizophrenia subjects had significantly smaller total gray matter volume (t = 2.88, p.01) and larger lateral ventricles (t = 4.08, p.001) than healthy controls. Gray matter deficits were most prominent in the frontal and temporal lobes. Total white matter volumes did not differ between the two groups.Findings from this 22q11 Deletion Syndrome and schizophrenia study are similar to those reported in other patients with schizophrenia, but only partially consistent with those reported in nonpsychotic children with 22q11 Deletion Syndrome. 22q11 Deletion Syndrome may provide a valuable genetic neurodevelopmental model for investigating the relationship between abnormalities in brain development and the expression of schizophrenia.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2002
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Biological Psychiatry
    Article . 2002 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2002
      Data sources: PubMed Central
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      Biological Psychiatry
      Article . 2002 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier TDM
      Data sources: Crossref
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: David R, Roalf; Simon N, Vandekar; Laura, Almasy; Kosha, Ruparel; +11 Authors