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The following results are related to Neuroinformatics. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
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  • Neuroinformatics
  • Schizophrenia Bulletin

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: W G, Staal; H E, Hulshoff Pol; R S, Kahn;

    This article reviews the 21 studies that investigated possible relationships between structural brain abnormalities and outcome in schizophrenia. Fifteen studies used computer tomography to visualize brain morphology. In these studies, images were obtained of the ventricles but not of specific brain regions. The remaining six studies used magnetic resonance imaging, examining possible relationships between outcome, ventricular size, and specific brain regions. One out of two studies found relationships between brain structure and outcome. The data suggest that the extent of ventricular enlargement in patients with schizophrenia may be related to outcome. No clear relationship between outcome and changes in specific brain regions was found. Apart from considerations about the methodology of measuring different brain regions, the procedure used to measure outcome is important. Outcome, as it is assessed at various points during the course of illness, may be variable and seems to fluctuate during the first 10 to 15 years of disease. Significantly, to date no studies relating outcome to brain structure have used patient samples with a duration of illness longer than 15 years.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Schizophrenia Bullet...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Schizophrenia Bulletin
    Article . 1999 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Schizophrenia Bullet...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Schizophrenia Bulletin
      Article . 1999 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Crossref
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: H A, Nasrallah; S B, Schwarzkopf; S C, Olson; J A, Coffman;

    There are many reports of clinical and biological gender differences in schizophrenia. Gender differences in structural brain abnormalities in schizophrenia have been reported on both computed tomographic (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. We present here a new MRI study of cerebral structures in schizophrenia. On the basis of previous findings, we hypothesized that schizophrenic males are more likely than females to show smaller brains and larger ventricles compared to their control counterparts. Our results indicated that the opposite was true: schizophrenic females, but not schizophrenic males, had smaller craniums and brains and larger lateral and third ventricles on MRI scans. The possible significance and implications of these data are discussed.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Schizophrenia Bullet...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Schizophrenia Bulletin
    Article . 1990 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Schizophrenia Bullet...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Schizophrenia Bulletin
      Article . 1990 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: J L, Waddington;

    Much evidence points to the importance of intra uterine events in the etiology of schizophrenia and suggests a complex interplay between dysfunctional and intact neurons in the pathophysiology of the disorder. This article contrasts what is known of the topographies of metabolic and structural brain abnormalities in schizophrenia at differing stages of the illness. From these contrasts, a schema is elaborated by which subtle neurodevelopmental perturbation in early to middle gestation might give rise to functional and structural abnormalities that ultimately release the diagnostic symptoms of schizophrenia. An interaction between those mechanisms mediating the expression of psychosis and the initially subtle stages of normal aging is posited to act on the substrate of a brain that is already developmentally compromised. Such a process might masquerade as "progression" in the absence of any active disease directly attributable to the original etiological event.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Schizophrenia Bullet...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Schizophrenia Bulletin
    Article . 1993 . Peer-reviewed
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    73
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Schizophrenia Bullet...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Schizophrenia Bulletin
      Article . 1993 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Sonja M C de Zwarte; Rachel M. Brouwer; Andromachi Tsouli; Wiepke Cahn; +4 Authors

    Abstract Structural brain abnormalities and cognitive deficits have been reported in patients with schizophrenia and to a lesser extent in their first-degree relatives (FDRs). Here we investigated whether brain abnormalities in nonpsychotic relatives differ per type of FDR and how these abnormalities are related to intelligent quotient (IQ). Nine hundred eighty individuals from 5 schizophrenia family cohorts (330 FDRs, 432 controls, 218 patients) were included. Effect sizes were calculated to compare brain measures of FDRs and patients with controls, and between each type of FDR. Analyses were repeated with a correction for IQ, having a nonpsychotic diagnosis, and intracranial volume (ICV). FDRs had significantly smaller ICV, surface area, total brain, cortical gray matter, cerebral white matter, cerebellar gray and white matter, thalamus, putamen, amygdala, and accumbens volumes as compared with controls (ds < −0.19, q < 0.05 corrected). Offspring showed the largest effect sizes relative to the other FDRs; however, none of the effects in the different relative types survived correction for multiple comparisons. After IQ correction, all effects disappeared in the FDRs after correction for multiple comparisons. The findings in FDRs were not explained by having a nonpsychotic disorder and were only partly explained by ICV. FDRs show brain abnormalities that are strongly covarying with IQ. On the basis of consistent evidence of genetic overlap between schizophrenia, IQ, and brain measures, we suggest that the brain abnormalities in FDRs are at least partly explained by genes predisposing to both schizophrenia risk and IQ.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Schizophrenia Bullet...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Schizophrenia Bulletin
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
    License: OUP Standard Publication Reuse
    Data sources: Crossref
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2018
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Schizophrenia Bulletin
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: NARCIS
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Schizophrenia Bullet...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Schizophrenia Bulletin
      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
      License: OUP Standard Publication Reuse
      Data sources: Crossref
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2018
      Data sources: PubMed Central
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Schizophrenia Bulletin
      Article . 2019
      Data sources: NARCIS
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Matthias Kirschner; Golia Shafiei; Ross D. Markello; Carolina Makowski; +9 Authors

    Abstract Widespread structural brain abnormalities have been consistently reported in schizophrenia, but their relation to the heterogeneous clinical manifestations remains unknown. In particular, it is unclear whether anatomical abnormalities in discrete regions give rise to discrete symptoms or whether distributed abnormalities give rise to the broad clinical profile associated with schizophrenia. Here, we apply a multivariate data-driven approach to investigate covariance patterns between multiple-symptom domains and distributed brain abnormalities in schizophrenia. Structural magnetic resonance imaging and clinical data were derived from one discovery sample (133 patients and 113 controls) and one independent validation sample (108 patients and 69 controls). Disease-related voxel-wise brain abnormalities were estimated using deformation-based morphometry. Partial least-squares analysis was used to comprehensively map clinical, neuropsychological, and demographic data onto distributed deformation in a single multivariate model. The analysis identified 3 latent clinical-anatomical dimensions that collectively accounted for 55% of the covariance between clinical data and brain deformation. The first latent clinical-anatomical dimension was replicated in an independent sample, encompassing cognitive impairments, negative symptom severity, and brain abnormalities within the default mode and visual networks. This cognitive-negative dimension was associated with low socioeconomic status and was represented across multiple races. Altogether, we identified a continuous cognitive-negative dimension of schizophrenia, centered on 2 intrinsic networks. By simultaneously taking into account both clinical manifestations and neuroanatomical abnormalities, the present results open new avenues for multi-omic stratification and biotyping of individuals with schizophrenia.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ medRxivarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    medRxiv
    Preprint . 2020
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Schizophrenia Bulletin
    Article . Preprint
    License: CC BY NC
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Schizophrenia Bulletin
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ medRxivarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      medRxiv
      Preprint . 2020
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2020
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Schizophrenia Bulletin
      Article . Preprint
      License: CC BY NC
      Data sources: UnpayWall
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Schizophrenia Bulletin
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY NC
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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The following results are related to Neuroinformatics. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
5 Research products (1 rule applied)
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: W G, Staal; H E, Hulshoff Pol; R S, Kahn;

    This article reviews the 21 studies that investigated possible relationships between structural brain abnormalities and outcome in schizophrenia. Fifteen studies used computer tomography to visualize brain morphology. In these studies, images were obtained of the ventricles but not of specific brain regions. The remaining six studies used magnetic resonance imaging, examining possible relationships between outcome, ventricular size, and specific brain regions. One out of two studies found relationships between brain structure and outcome. The data suggest that the extent of ventricular enlargement in patients with schizophrenia may be related to outcome. No clear relationship between outcome and changes in specific brain regions was found. Apart from considerations about the methodology of measuring different brain regions, the procedure used to measure outcome is important. Outcome, as it is assessed at various points during the course of illness, may be variable and seems to fluctuate during the first 10 to 15 years of disease. Significantly, to date no studies relating outcome to brain structure have used patient samples with a duration of illness longer than 15 years.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Schizophrenia Bullet...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Schizophrenia Bulletin
    Article . 1999 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Crossref
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    citations25
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Schizophrenia Bullet...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Schizophrenia Bulletin
      Article . 1999 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Crossref
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    Authors: H A, Nasrallah; S B, Schwarzkopf; S C, Olson; J A, Coffman;

    There are many reports of clinical and biological gender differences in schizophrenia. Gender differences in structural brain abnormalities in schizophrenia have been reported on both computed tomographic (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. We present here a new MRI study of cerebral structures in schizophrenia. On the basis of previous findings, we hypothesized that schizophrenic males are more likely than females to show smaller brains and larger ventricles compared to their control counterparts. Our results indicated that the opposite was true: schizophrenic females, but not schizophrenic males, had smaller craniums and brains and larger lateral and third ventricles on MRI scans. The possible significance and implications of these data are discussed.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Schizophrenia Bullet...arrow_drop_down
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    Schizophrenia Bulletin
    Article . 1990 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Crossref
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    103
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      Schizophrenia Bulletin
      Article . 1990 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Crossref
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    Authors: J L, Waddington;

    Much evidence points to the importance of intra uterine events in the etiology of schizophrenia and suggests a complex interplay between dysfunctional and intact neurons in the pathophysiology of the disorder. This article contrasts what is known of the topographies of metabolic and structural brain abnormalities in schizophrenia at differing stages of the illness. From these contrasts, a schema is elaborated by which subtle neurodevelopmental perturbation in early to middle gestation might give rise to functional and structural abnormalities that ultimately release the diagnostic symptoms of schizophrenia. An interaction between those mechanisms mediating the expression of psychosis and the initially subtle stages of normal aging is posited to act on the substrate of a brain that is already developmentally compromised. Such a process might masquerade as "progression" in the absence of any active disease directly attributable to the original etiological event.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Schizophrenia Bullet...arrow_drop_down
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    Schizophrenia Bulletin
    Article . 1993 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Schizophrenia Bullet...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Schizophrenia Bulletin
      Article . 1993 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Crossref
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    Authors: Sonja M C de Zwarte; Rachel M. Brouwer; Andromachi Tsouli; Wiepke Cahn; +4 Authors

    Abstract Structural brain abnormalities and cognitive deficits have been reported in patients with schizophrenia and to a lesser extent in their first-degree relatives (FDRs). Here we investigated whether brain abnormalities in nonpsychotic relatives differ per type of FDR and how these abnormalities are related to intelligent quotient (IQ). Nine hundred eighty individuals from 5 schizophrenia family cohorts (330 FDRs, 432 controls, 218 patients) were included. Effect sizes were calculated to compare brain measures of FDRs and patients with controls, and between each type of FDR. Analyses were repeated with a correction for IQ, having a nonpsychotic diagnosis, and intracranial volume (ICV). FDRs had significantly smaller ICV, surface area, total brain, cortical gray matter, cerebral white matter, cerebellar gray and white matter, thalamus, putamen, amygdala, and accumbens volumes as compared with controls (ds < −0.19, q < 0.05 corrected). Offspring showed the largest effect sizes relative to the other FDRs; however, none of the effects in the different relative types survived correction for multiple comparisons. After IQ correction, all effects disappeared in the FDRs after correction for multiple comparisons. The findings in FDRs were not explained by having a nonpsychotic disorder and were only partly explained by ICV. FDRs show brain abnormalities that are strongly covarying with IQ. On the basis of consistent evidence of genetic overlap between schizophrenia, IQ, and brain measures, we suggest that the brain abnormalities in FDRs are at least partly explained by genes predisposing to both schizophrenia risk and IQ.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Schizophrenia Bullet...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Schizophrenia Bulletin
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
    License: OUP Standard Publication Reuse
    Data sources: Crossref
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2018
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Schizophrenia Bulletin
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: NARCIS
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Schizophrenia Bulletin
      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
      License: OUP Standard Publication Reuse
      Data sources: Crossref
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2018
      Data sources: PubMed Central
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Schizophrenia Bulletin
      Article . 2019
      Data sources: NARCIS
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    Authors: Matthias Kirschner; Golia Shafiei; Ross D. Markello; Carolina Makowski; +9 Authors

    Abstract Widespread structural brain abnormalities have been consistently reported in schizophrenia, but their relation to the heterogeneous clinical manifestations remains unknown. In particular, it is unclear whether anatomical abnormalities in discrete regions give rise to discrete symptoms or whether distributed abnormalities give rise to the broad clinical profile associated with schizophrenia. Here, we apply a multivariate data-driven approach to investigate covariance patterns between multiple-symptom domains and distributed brain abnormalities in schizophrenia. Structural magnetic resonance imaging and clinical data were derived from one discovery sample (133 patients and 113 controls) and one independent validation sample (108 patients and 69 controls). Disease-related voxel-wise brain abnormalities were estimated using deformation-based morphometry. Partial least-squares analysis was used to comprehensively map clinical, neuropsychological, and demographic data onto distributed deformation in a single multivariate model. The analysis identified 3 latent clinical-anatomical dimensions that collectively accounted for 55% of the covariance between clinical data and brain deformation. The first latent clinical-anatomical dimension was replicated in an independent sample, encompassing cognitive impairments, negative symptom severity, and brain abnormalities within the default mode and visual networks. This cognitive-negative dimension was associated with low socioeconomic status and was represented across multiple races. Altogether, we identified a continuous cognitive-negative dimension of schizophrenia, centered on 2 intrinsic networks. By simultaneously taking into account both clinical manifestations and neuroanatomical abnormalities, the present results open new avenues for multi-omic stratification and biotyping of individuals with schizophrenia.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ medRxivarrow_drop_down
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    medRxiv
    Preprint . 2020
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Schizophrenia Bulletin
    Article . Preprint
    License: CC BY NC
    Data sources: UnpayWall
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    Schizophrenia Bulletin
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC
    Data sources: Crossref
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      medRxiv
      Preprint . 2020
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2020
      Data sources: PubMed Central
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      Schizophrenia Bulletin
      Article . Preprint
      License: CC BY NC
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      Schizophrenia Bulletin
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY NC
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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