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  • Neuroinformatics
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  • Authors: Jones, Sharon Marie;

    The purpose of this study was to document a normal range of measures observed in cranial transillumination obtained from testing neurologically intact full-term infants. Ranges, means, and standards deviations in millimeters of transilluminated light of five regions of the skull, i.e., anterior fontanel, frontal midline, left biparietal, right biparietal, and occipital midline regions, were determined. Additional variables, e.g. molding, age when tested, sex, birth weight, type of delivery, head circumference, and size of the anterior fontanel, were analyzed to ascertain if there was any relationship between these variables and the amount of light transilluminated. The study was conducted at the Latter-day Saints Hospital during a 3-week time period. Forty-seven infants were tested between the twenty -fourth and seventy-second hours of life. Parental informed consent was obtained prior to conducting the transillumination procedure. The data were analyzed through the University of Utah Computer Center utilizing a Univac computer. A breakdown program and P Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient were obtained. More light was observed in the anterior fontanel and frontal midline regions than the biparietal areas and more in the biparietal areas than the occipital areas. Generally, the amount of transilluminated light seemed to decrease from the anterior to posterior regions of the head when suture lines were open or adjacent. When the sagittal suture line was overriding there was an increase in the amount of transillumination observed in the frontal midline area. Total transilluminated light, i.e., the sum of the millimeter reading for the five skull areas, was also considered for each infant. The mean was 30.02 millimeters. Standard deviation was 5.77 millimeters. Thirty-one infants scored in this range. Fourteen infants scored in the second standard deviation. Two infants scored above the second standard deviation. These infants were presented. Increasing amounts of light were noted in infants tested from 24 to 37 hours of age, then the amount of transilluminated light showed a slight decline. This trend should be further investigated. Problems and concerns noted during the study as well a recommendations and implications for future research in this areas were discussed.

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  • Authors: Dizdarer, G; Tutuncuoglu, S; Tekgul, H; Yalman, O; +2 Authors

    Forty-nine patients with corpus callosum (CC) anomalies were evaluated in terms of the clinical features and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. CC anomalies were classified as CC agenesis: 6 (12%), CC hypogenesis: 5 (10%), and CC hypoplasia: 38 (78%). In the CC hypoplasia group the mean value of the genu thickness of the CC was 0.29 +/- 0.1 cm, which was less than the normal value of the age-matched normal children (normal range: 0.6-1.2 cm). The associated brain abnormalities were in five distinct groups: gray matter abnormalities, white matter abnormalities, midline brain structure defects, cortical atrophy, and encephalomalacia. There was no uniformity for the clinical spectrum of CC anomalies. Microcephaly, developmental delay and seizures were the prominent findings in patients. The clinical features were more severe in cases with associated brain anomalies. WOS: 000080365300003 PubMed ID: 10770655

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    Authors: Denis Bernardi Bichuetti; René Leandro Magalhães Rivero; Daniel May Oliveira; Nilton Amorin de Souza; +3 Authors

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a demyelinating disease consisting of relapsing-remitting optic neuritis and myelitis with a more severe course than Multiple Sclerosis. Recently, it has been shown that almost 50% of patients with NMO can have brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities. We report on six Brazilian patients with NMO, fulfilling the 1999 Wingerchuck criteria for this disease, with abnormal brain MRI and discuss their clinical and radiological features.Neuromielite óptica (NMO) é doença desmielinizante, remitente-recorrente, com acometimento predominante dos nervos ópticos e medula espinal e uma evolução mais grave comparada à esclerose múltipla. Estudos recentes demonstraram que até 50% dos pacientes com NMO podem apresentar lesões encefálicas à ressonância magnética (RM). Relatamos seis pacientes brasileiros com NMO, que satisfazem os critérios diagnósticos de Wingerchuck (1999) para NMO, com alterações encefálicas em RM de encéfalo e discutimos seus dados clínicos e de imagem.

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    Authors: Candelo E; Caicedo G; Rosso F; Ballesteros A; +5 Authors

    Estephania Candelo,1,2 Gabriela Caicedo,1 Fernando Rosso,3 Adriana Ballesteros,4 Jaime Orrego,4 Luis Escobar,5 Pablo Lapunzina,6,7 Julían Nevado,6,7 Harry Pachajoa1,81Center for Research on Congenital Anomalies and Rare Diseases (CIACER), Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Universidad Icesi, Cali, Colombia; 2MSc Biomaterials and Tissues Engineering and Genetics of Human Diseases, University College London, London, UK; 3Infectology Department, Fundación Valle del Lili, Cali, Colombia; 4Neonatal Department, Fundacion Valle del Lili, Cali, Colombia; 5Pathology Department, Fundacion Valle del Lili, Cali, Colombia; 6Instituto de Genética Médica y Molecular (INGEMM), IdiPAZ, Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid, 28046, Spain; 7CIBER de Enfermedades Raras (CIBERER), Madrid, ISCIII, Spain; 8Genetics Department, Fundacion Valle del Lili, Cali, ColombiaIntroduction: Zika virus (ZIKV) is a little-known emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus. The perinatal ZIKV infection was associated with birth defects during the Brazilian outbreak. There was an increased risk of intrauterine transmission of the virus and a marked increase in the number of newborns with microcephaly. We report on two such cases.Case Report: The first case was a 25-year-old pregnant woman from Colombia who became acutely ill with general symptoms during the tenth week of gestation, followed by severe generalized itching and maculopapular rash for approximately five days. This case was reported during the epidemic stage of the ZIKV infection in Colombia. At 23.3 gestational weeks, ultrasonography showed abnormal intracranial anatomy with cerebral ventriculomegaly, microcephaly, and parenchymal calcification. Given the grave prognosis, the patient elected to terminate the pregnancy at 25 gestational weeks. The second case was a 24-year-old pregnant woman who became acutely ill during the 17th week of gestation, which corresponded with the ZIKV epidemic in Colombia. At 30.5 gestational weeks, ultrasonography showed isolated fetal cerebral ventriculomegaly. We detected ZIKV in the amniotic fluid; however, the virus was not detected in the urine or serum of the mother or fetus. Tests for dengue virus, chikungunya virus, Toxoplasma gondii, rubella virus, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, HIV, hepatitis B and C, and parvovirus B19 were all negative. Different samples obtained from the placenta, amniotic liquid, and cerebrospinal fluid were positive for viral isolation of ZIKV RNA using TaqMan RT-PCR. Additionally, the parents and fetuses were tested for genetic diseases using whole exome sequencing and array CGH to rule out possible genetic syndromes that produce these congenital abnormalities.Conclusion: These were the first cases in Colombia to show early vertical transmission of ZIKV and the first cases associated with congenital cerebral abnormalities in which molecular, infectious, and genomic tests were performed.Keywords: Colombia, microcephaly, whole exome sequencing, Zika virus infection, vertical transmission, brain abnormalities

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    Neuroimaging has been extensively used to study brain structure and function in individuals with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) over the past decades. Two of the main shortcomings of the neuroimaging literature of these disorders are the small sample sizes employed and the heterogeneity of methods used. In 2013 and 2014, the ENIGMA-ADHD and ENIGMA-ASD working groups were respectively, founded with a common goal to address these limitations. Here, we provide a narrative review of the thus far completed and still ongoing projects of these working groups. Due to an implicitly hierarchical psychiatric diagnostic classification system, the fields of ADHD and ASD have developed largely in isolation, despite the considerable overlap in the occurrence of the disorders. The collaboration between the ENIGMA-ADHD and -ASD working groups seeks to bring the neuroimaging efforts of the two disorders closer together. The outcomes of case-control studies of subcortical and cortical structures showed that subcortical volumes are similarly affected in ASD and ADHD, albeit with small effect sizes. Cortical analyses identified unique differences in each disorder, but also considerable overlap between the two, specifically in cortical thickness. Ongoing work is examining alternative research questions, such as brain laterality, prediction of case-control status, and anatomical heterogeneity. In brief, great strides have been made toward fulfilling the aims of the ENIGMA collaborations, while new ideas and follow-up analyses continue that include more imaging modalities (diffusion MRI and resting-state functional MRI), collaborations with other large databases, and samples with dual diagnoses.

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    Authors: Hoogman, Martine; van Rooij, Daan; Klein, Marieke; Boedhoe, Premika; +76 Authors

    Neuroimaging has been extensively used to study brain structure and function in individuals with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) over the past decades. Two of the main shortcomings of the neuroimaging literature of these disorders are the small sample sizes employed and the heterogeneity of methods used. In 2013 and 2014, the ENIGMA-ADHD and ENIGMA-ASD working groups were respectively, founded with a common goal to address these limitations. Here, we provide a narrative review of the thus far completed and still ongoing projects of these working groups. Due to an implicitly hierarchical psychiatric diagnostic classification system, the fields of ADHD and ASD have developed largely in isolation, despite the considerable overlap in the occurrence of the disorders. The collaboration between the ENIGMA-ADHD and -ASD working groups seeks to bring the neuroimaging efforts of the two disorders closer together. The outcomes of case–control studies of subcortical and cortical structures showed that subcortical volumes are similarly affected in ASD and ADHD, albeit with small effect sizes. Cortical analyses identified unique differences in each disorder, but also considerable overlap between the two, specifically in cortical thickness. Ongoing work is examining alternative research questions, such as brain laterality, prediction of case–control status, and anatomical heterogeneity. In brief, great strides have been made toward fulfilling the aims of the ENIGMA collaborations, while new ideas and follow-up analyses continue that include more imaging modalities (diffusion MRI and resting-state functional MRI), collaborations with other large databases, and samples with dual diagnoses.

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    Authors: Hoogman, Martine; van Rooij, Daan; Klein, Marieke; Boedhoe, Premika; +46 Authors

    Neuroimaging has been extensively used to study brain structure and function in individuals with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) over the past decades. Two of the main shortcomings of the neuroimaging literature of these disorders are the small sample sizes employed and the heterogeneity of methods used. In 2013 and 2014, the ENIGMA-ADHD and ENIGMA-ASD working groups were respectively, founded with a common goal to address these limitations. Here, we provide a narrative review of the thus far completed and still ongoing projects of these working groups. Due to an implicitly hierarchical psychiatric diagnostic classification system, the fields of ADHD and ASD have developed largely in isolation, despite the considerable overlap in the occurrence of the disorders. The collaboration between the ENIGMA-ADHD and -ASD working groups seeks to bring the neuroimaging efforts of the two disorders closer together. The outcomes of case-control studies of subcortical and cortical structures showed that subcortical volumes are similarly affected in ASD and ADHD, albeit with small effect sizes. Cortical analyses identified unique differences in each disorder, but also considerable overlap between the two, specifically in cortical thickness. Ongoing work is examining alternative research questions, such as brain laterality, prediction of case-control status, and anatomical heterogeneity. In brief, great strides have been made toward fulfilling the aims of the ENIGMA collaborations, while new ideas and follow-up analyses continue that include more imaging modalities (diffusion MRI and resting-state functional MRI), collaborations with other large databases, and samples with dual diagnoses.

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  • Authors: Alemany Marroquí, Andrés;

    Treball Final de Grau en Psicologia. Codi: PS1048.Curs: 2014/2015 Specific language impairment (SLI) is a language disorder that delays the majority of language skills in children who have no hearing loss or other developmental delays. Its origin and nature have been long discussed. This controversy born to the necessity of a specific diagnosis for specific language impairment differed from other developmental language disorders as dyslexia or autism spectrum disorder. Several studies tried to examine the brain neuroanatomy and abnormalities of this disorder in order to find any relationship between the impairment in language skills and subsequence poor performance in language test. This paper offer a general view of the specific language impairment, focused specifically on the neuroimaging studies examining SLI pretending to be aware of the diagnosis criteria of the participants and methodology used. Moreover it’s expected to find how these brain abnormalities could affect language skills.

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    Authors: Hoogman, M.; van Rooij, D.; Klein, M.; Boedhoe, P.; +76 Authors

    Neuroimaging has been extensively used to study brain structure and function in individuals with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) over the past decades. Two of the main shortcomings of the neuroimaging literature of these disorders are the small sample sizes employed and the heterogeneity of methods used. In 2013 and 2014, the ENIGMA-ADHD and ENIGMA-ASD working groups were respectively, founded with a common goal to address these limitations. Here, we provide a narrative review of the thus far completed and still ongoing projects of these working groups. Due to an implicitly hierarchical psychiatric diagnostic classification system, the fields of ADHD and ASD have developed largely in isolation, despite the considerable overlap in the occurrence of the disorders. The collaboration between the ENIGMA-ADHD and -ASD working groups seeks to bring the neuroimaging efforts of the two disorders closer together. The outcomes of case-control studies of subcortical and cortical structures showed that subcortical volumes are similarly affected in ASD and ADHD, albeit with small effect sizes. Cortical analyses identified unique differences in each disorder, but also considerable overlap between the two, specifically in cortical thickness. Ongoing work is examining alternative research questions, such as brain laterality, prediction of case-control status, and anatomical heterogeneity. In brief, great strides have been made toward fulfilling the aims of the ENIGMA collaborations, while new ideas and follow-up analyses continue that include more imaging modalities (diffusion MRI and resting-state functional MRI), collaborations with other large databases, and samples with dual diagnoses.

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    Authors: Nuñez, S. Christopher; Roussotte, Florence; Sowell, Elizabeth R.;

    Children exposed to alcohol prenatally can experience significant deficits in cognitive and psychosocial functioning as well as alterations in brain structure and function related to alcohol's teratogenic effects. These impairments are present both in children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and in children with heavy in utero alcohol exposure who do not have facial dysmorphology required for the FAS diagnosis. Neuropsychological and behavioral studies have revealed deficits in most cognitive domains measured, including overall intellectual functioning, attention/working memory, executive skills, speed of processing, and academic skills in children and adolescents across the range of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). As with neuro-psychological studies, brain-imaging studies have detected differences in brain structure related to alcohol exposure in multiple brain systems and abnormalities in the white matter that connects these brain regions. Several studies have found relationships between these morphological differences and cognitive function, suggesting some clinical significance to the structural brain abnormalities. Concentrations of neurotransmitter metabolites within the brains of prenatally exposed children also appear to be altered, and functional imaging studies have identified significant differences in brain activation related to working memory, learning, and inhibitory control in children and adolescents with FASD.

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    Article . 2011
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  • Authors: Jones, Sharon Marie;

    The purpose of this study was to document a normal range of measures observed in cranial transillumination obtained from testing neurologically intact full-term infants. Ranges, means, and standards deviations in millimeters of transilluminated light of five regions of the skull, i.e., anterior fontanel, frontal midline, left biparietal, right biparietal, and occipital midline regions, were determined. Additional variables, e.g. molding, age when tested, sex, birth weight, type of delivery, head circumference, and size of the anterior fontanel, were analyzed to ascertain if there was any relationship between these variables and the amount of light transilluminated. The study was conducted at the Latter-day Saints Hospital during a 3-week time period. Forty-seven infants were tested between the twenty -fourth and seventy-second hours of life. Parental informed consent was obtained prior to conducting the transillumination procedure. The data were analyzed through the University of Utah Computer Center utilizing a Univac computer. A breakdown program and P Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient were obtained. More light was observed in the anterior fontanel and frontal midline regions than the biparietal areas and more in the biparietal areas than the occipital areas. Generally, the amount of transilluminated light seemed to decrease from the anterior to posterior regions of the head when suture lines were open or adjacent. When the sagittal suture line was overriding there was an increase in the amount of transillumination observed in the frontal midline area. Total transilluminated light, i.e., the sum of the millimeter reading for the five skull areas, was also considered for each infant. The mean was 30.02 millimeters. Standard deviation was 5.77 millimeters. Thirty-one infants scored in this range. Fourteen infants scored in the second standard deviation. Two infants scored above the second standard deviation. These infants were presented. Increasing amounts of light were noted in infants tested from 24 to 37 hours of age, then the amount of transilluminated light showed a slight decline. This trend should be further investigated. Problems and concerns noted during the study as well a recommendations and implications for future research in this areas were discussed.

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  • Authors: Dizdarer, G; Tutuncuoglu, S; Tekgul, H; Yalman, O; +2 Authors

    Forty-nine patients with corpus callosum (CC) anomalies were evaluated in terms of the clinical features and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. CC anomalies were classified as CC agenesis: 6 (12%), CC hypogenesis: 5 (10%), and CC hypoplasia: 38 (78%). In the CC hypoplasia group the mean value of the genu thickness of the CC was 0.29 +/- 0.1 cm, which was less than the normal value of the age-matched normal children (normal range: 0.6-1.2 cm). The associated brain abnormalities were in five distinct groups: gray matter abnormalities, white matter abnormalities, midline brain structure defects, cortical atrophy, and encephalomalacia. There was no uniformity for the clinical spectrum of CC anomalies. Microcephaly, developmental delay and seizures were the prominent findings in patients. The clinical features were more severe in cases with associated brain anomalies. WOS: 000080365300003 PubMed ID: 10770655

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    Authors: Denis Bernardi Bichuetti; René Leandro Magalhães Rivero; Daniel May Oliveira; Nilton Amorin de Souza; +3 Authors

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a demyelinating disease consisting of relapsing-remitting optic neuritis and myelitis with a more severe course than Multiple Sclerosis. Recently, it has been shown that almost 50% of patients with NMO can have brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities. We report on six Brazilian patients with NMO, fulfilling the 1999 Wingerchuck criteria for this disease, with abnormal brain MRI and discuss their clinical and radiological features.Neuromielite óptica (NMO) é doença desmielinizante, remitente-recorrente, com acometimento predominante dos nervos ópticos e medula espinal e uma evolução mais grave comparada à esclerose múltipla. Estudos recentes demonstraram que até 50% dos pacientes com NMO podem apresentar lesões encefálicas à ressonância magnética (RM). Relatamos seis pacientes brasileiros com NMO, que satisfazem os critérios diagnósticos de Wingerchuck (1999) para NMO, com alterações encefálicas em RM de encéfalo e discutimos seus dados clínicos e de imagem.

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    Authors: Candelo E; Caicedo G; Rosso F; Ballesteros A; +5 Authors

    Estephania Candelo,1,2 Gabriela Caicedo,1 Fernando Rosso,3 Adriana Ballesteros,4 Jaime Orrego,4 Luis Escobar,5 Pablo Lapunzina,6,7 Julían Nevado,6,7 Harry Pachajoa1,81Center for Research on Congenital Anomalies and Rare Diseases (CIACER), Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Universidad Icesi, Cali, Colombia; 2MSc Biomaterials and Tissues Engineering and Genetics of Human Diseases, University College London, London, UK; 3Infectology Department, Fundación Valle del Lili, Cali, Colombia; 4Neonatal Department, Fundacion Valle del Lili, Cali, Colombia; 5Pathology Department, Fundacion Valle del Lili, Cali, Colombia; 6Instituto de Genética Médica y Molecular (INGEMM), IdiPAZ, Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid, 28046, Spain; 7CIBER de Enfermedades Raras (CIBERER), Madrid, ISCIII, Spain; 8Genetics Department, Fundacion Valle del Lili, Cali, ColombiaIntroduction: Zika virus (ZIKV) is a little-known emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus. The perinatal ZIKV infection was associated with birth defects during the Brazilian outbreak. There was an increased risk of intrauterine transmission of the virus and a marked increase in the number of newborns with microcephaly. We report on two such cases.Case Report: The first case was a 25-year-old pregnant woman from Colombia who became acutely ill with general symptoms during the tenth week of gestation, followed by severe generalized itching and maculopapular rash for approximately five days. This case was reported during the epidemic stage of the ZIKV infection in Colombia. At 23.3 gestational weeks, ultrasonography showed abnormal intracranial anatomy with cerebral ventriculomegaly, microcephaly, and parenchymal calcification. Given the grave prognosis, the patient elected to terminate the pregnancy at 25 gestational weeks. The second case was a 24-year-old pregnant woman who became acutely ill during the 17th week of gestation, which corresponded with the ZIKV epidemic in Colombia. At 30.5 gestational weeks, ultrasonography showed isolated fetal cerebral ventriculomegaly. We detected ZIKV in the amniotic fluid; however, the virus was not detected in the urine or serum of the mother or fetus. Tests for dengue virus, chikungunya virus, Toxoplasma gondii, rubella virus, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, HIV, hepatitis B and C, and parvovirus B19 were all negative. Different samples obtained from the placenta, amniotic liquid, and cerebrospinal fluid were positive for viral isolation of ZIKV RNA using TaqMan RT-PCR. Additionally, the parents and fetuses were tested for genetic diseases using whole exome sequencing and array CGH to rule out possible genetic syndromes that produce these congenital abnormalities.Conclusion: These were the first cases in Colombia to show early vertical transmission of ZIKV and the first cases associated with congenital cerebral abnormalities in which molecular, infectious, and genomic tests were performed.Keywords: Colombia, microcephaly, whole exome sequencing, Zika virus infection, vertical transmission, brain abnormalities

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    Neuroimaging has been extensively used to study brain structure and function in individuals with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) over the past decades. Two of the main shortcomings of the neuroimaging literature of these disorders are the small sample sizes employed and the heterogeneity of methods used. In 2013 and 2014, the ENIGMA-ADHD and ENIGMA-ASD working groups were respectively, founded with a common goal to address these limitations. Here, we provide a narrative review of the thus far completed and still ongoing projects of these working groups. Due to an implicitly hierarchical psychiatric diagnostic classification system, the fields of ADHD and ASD have developed largely in isolation, despite the considerable overlap in the occurrence of the disorders. The collaboration between the ENIGMA-ADHD and -ASD working groups seeks to bring the neuroimaging efforts of the two disorders closer together. The outcomes of case-control studies of subcortical and cortical structures showed that subcortical volumes are similarly affected in ASD and ADHD, albeit with small effect sizes. Cortical analyses identified unique differences in each disorder, but also considerable overlap between the two, specifically in cortical thickness. Ongoing work is examining alternative research questions, such as brain laterality, prediction of case-control status, and anatomical heterogeneity. In brief, great strides have been made toward fulfilling the aims of the ENIGMA collaborations, while new ideas and follow-up analyses continue that include more imaging modalities (diffusion MRI and resting-state functional MRI), collaborations with other large databases, and samples with dual diagnoses.

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    Authors: Hoogman, Martine; van Rooij, Daan; Klein, Marieke; Boedhoe, Premika; +76 Authors

    Neuroimaging has been extensively used to study brain structure and function in individuals with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) over the past decades. Two of the main shortcomings of the neuroimaging literature of these disorders are the small sample sizes employed and the heterogeneity of methods used. In 2013 and 2014, the ENIGMA-ADHD and ENIGMA-ASD working groups were respectively, founded with a common goal to address these limitations. Here, we provide a narrative review of the thus far completed and still ongoing projects of these working groups. Due to an implicitly hierarchical psychiatric diagnostic classification system, the fields of ADHD and ASD have developed largely in isolation, despite the considerable overlap in the occurrence of the disorders. The collaboration between the ENIGMA-ADHD and -ASD working groups seeks to bring the neuroimaging efforts of the two disorders closer together. The outcomes of case–control studies of subcortical and cortical structures showed that subcortical volumes are similarly affected in ASD and ADHD, albeit with small effect sizes. Cortical analyses identified unique differences in each disorder, but also considerable overlap between the two, specifically in cortical thickness. Ongoing work is examining alternative research questions, such as brain laterality, prediction of case–control status, and anatomical heterogeneity. In brief, great strides have been made toward fulfilling the aims of the ENIGMA collaborations, while new ideas and follow-up analyses continue that include more imaging modalities (diffusion MRI and resting-state functional MRI), collaborations with other large databases, and samples with dual diagnoses.

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    Authors: Hoogman, Martine; van Rooij, Daan; Klein, Marieke; Boedhoe, Premika; +46 Authors

    Neuroimaging has been extensively used to study brain structure and function in individuals with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) over the past decades. Two of the main shortcomings of the neuroimaging literature of these disorders are the small sample sizes employed and the heterogeneity of methods used. In 2013 and 2014, the ENIGMA-ADHD and ENIGMA-ASD working groups were respectively, founded with a common goal to address these limitations. Here, we provide a narrative review of the thus far completed and still ongoing projects of these working groups. Due to an implicitly hierarchical psychiatric diagnostic classification system, the fields of ADHD and ASD have developed largely in isolation, despite the considerable overlap in the occurrence of the disorders. The collaboration between the ENIGMA-ADHD and -ASD working groups seeks to bring the neuroimaging efforts of the two disorders closer together. The outcomes of case-control studies of subcortical and cortical structures showed that subcortical volumes are similarly affected in ASD and ADHD, albeit with small effect sizes. Cortical analyses identified unique differences in each disorder, but also considerable overlap between the two, specifically in cortical thickness. Ongoing work is examining alternative research questions, such as brain laterality, prediction of case-control status, and anatomical heterogeneity. In brief, great strides have been made toward fulfilling the aims of the ENIGMA collaborations, while new ideas and follow-up analyses continue that include more imaging modalities (diffusion MRI and resting-state functional MRI), collaborations with other large databases, and samples with dual diagnoses.

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  • Authors: Alemany Marroquí, Andrés;

    Treball Final de Grau en Psicologia. Codi: PS1048.Curs: 2014/2015 Specific language impairment (SLI) is a language disorder that delays the majority of language skills in children who have no hearing loss or other developmental delays. Its origin and nature have been long discussed. This controversy born to the necessity of a specific diagnosis for specific language impairment differed from other developmental language disorders as dyslexia or autism spectrum disorder. Several studies tried to examine the brain neuroanatomy and abnormalities of this disorder in order to find any relationship between the impairment in language skills and subsequence poor performance in language test. This paper offer a general view of the specific language impairment, focused specifically on the neuroimaging studies examining SLI pretending to be aware of the diagnosis criteria of the participants and methodology used. Moreover it’s expected to find how these brain abnormalities could affect language skills.

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