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  • Neuroinformatics
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Peter F, Buckley;

    Schizophrenia, once considered a psychological malady devoid of any organic brain substrate, has been the focus of intense neuroimaging research. Findings reveal mild but generalized tissue loss as well as more selective focal loss. It is unclear whether these abnormalities reflect neurodevelopmental or neurodegenerative processes, or some combination of each; current evidence favors a preponderance of neurodevelopmental abnormalities. The pattern of brain abnormalities is also influenced by environmental and genetic risk factors, as well as by the course (and possibly even treatment) of this illness. These findings are described in this article.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2005
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2005
      Data sources: PubMed Central
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Mohsen, Molla Mohammadi; Seyed Hassan, Tonekaboni; Alireza, Khatami; Eznollah, Azargashb; +3 Authors

    Objective Seizure is an emergency in pediatrics. It really matters to the parents of the involved child to have information about the causes, management and prognosis. First unprovoked seizures (FUS) are seizures that occur in patients without fever, trauma or infection. Due to the rapid improvement in diagnostic techniques in the last few decades, the etiology will be revealed and this term will no longer exist. This Study was designed to evaluate brain imaging findings in FUS patients. Materials & Methods Ninety-six children with FUS, who were admitted in three major children’s hospitals in Tehran, underwent brain imaging and were enrolled into the study. The decision about the type of imaging (CT or MRI) was based on the patient’s medical and financial conditions. An expert radiologist in the field of pediatric neuroimaging interpreted the images. Results Altogether, 27.1% had abnormal findings of which 29.2% were in the brain MRI group and 14.3% were in the brain CT scan group. Abnormal results were gliosis (10.4%), hemorrhage (4.2%), dysgenesis (2.1%), dysmyelination (7.3%), encephalomalacy (1%), atrophy (5.2%) and infarction (2.1%). In some patients, the lesions were in 2 or 3 sites and some had more than one type of lesion. There was no association between the duration, age and type of seizure and imaging abnormlities. However, we found an association between the location of the lesion and the type of seizure. Conclusion We recommend brain imaging in all patients with FUS and apart from some exceptions, brain MRI is superior to CT.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2013
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2013
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    Authors: Marjolein M J, van Donkelaar; Martine, Hoogman; Irene, Pappa; Henning, Tiemeier; +3 Authors

    Reactive and proactive subtypes of aggression have been recognized to help parse etiological heterogeneity of this complex phenotype. With a heritability of about 50%, genetic factors play a role in the development of aggressive behavior. Imaging studies implicate brain structures related to social behavior in aggression etiology, most notably the amygdala and striatum. This study aimed to gain more insight into the pathways from genetic risk factors for aggression to aggression phenotypes. To this end, we conducted genome-wide gene-based cross-trait meta-analyses of aggression with the volumes of amygdala, nucleus accumbens and caudate nucleus to identify genes influencing both aggression and aggression-related brain volumes. We used data of large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of: (a) aggressive behavior in children and adolescents (EAGLE, N = 18,988); and (b) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)-based volume measures of aggression-relevant subcortical brain regions (ENIGMA2, N = 13,171). Second, the identified genes were further investigated in a sample of healthy adults (mean age (SD) = 25.28 (4.62) years; 43% male) who had genome-wide genotyping data and questionnaire data on aggression subtypes available (Brain Imaging Genetics, BIG, N = 501) to study their effect on reactive and proactive subtypes of aggression. Our meta-analysis identified two genes, MECOM and AVPR1A, significantly associated with both aggression risk and nucleus accumbens (MECOM) and amygdala (AVPR1A) brain volume. Subsequent in-depth analysis of these genes in healthy adults (BIG), including sex as an interaction term in the model, revealed no significant subtype-specific gene-wide associations. Using cross-trait meta-analysis of brain measures and psychiatric phenotypes, this study generated new hypotheses about specific links between genes, the brain and behavior. Results indicate that MECOM and AVPR1A may exert an effect on aggression through mechanisms involving nucleus accumbens and amygdala volumes, respectively.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2018
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2018
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    Authors: Jakub Jamárik; Lubomír Vojtíšek; Vendula Churová; Tomáš Kašpárek; +1 Authors

    Pathological changes in the cortical lamina can cause several mental disorders. Visualization of these changes in vivo would enhance their diagnostics. Recently a framework for visualizing cortical structures by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has emerged. This is based on mathematical modeling of multi-component T1 relaxation at the sub-voxel level. This work proposes a new approach for their estimation. The approach is validated using simulated data. Sixteen MRI experiments were carried out on healthy volunteers. A modified echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequence was used to acquire 105 individual volumes. Data simulating the images were created, serving as the ground truth. The model was fitted to the data using a modified Trust Region algorithm. In single voxel experiments, the estimation accuracy of the T1 relaxation times depended on the number of optimization starting points and the level of noise. A single starting point resulted in a mean percentage error (MPE) of 6.1%, while 100 starting points resulted in a perfect fit. The MPE was T1 relaxation times can be achieved using the modified algorithm with MPE < 5%.

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    Diagnostics
    Other literature type . Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Diagnostics
    Article . 2022
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    Diagnostics
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      Other literature type . Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2021
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      Article . 2022
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: S E, Starkstein; J L, Kremer;

    The aging process is associated with a progressive cognitive decline, but both the extent of this decline and the profile of age-related cognitive changes remain to be clearly established. Currently, cognitive deficits associated with aging may be diagnosed under the categories of age-associated memory impairment, age-associated cognitive impairment, or the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) category of age-related cognitive decline. Age-related decline has been reported for several cognitive domains, such as language (eg, verb naming, verbal fluency), visuospatial abilities (eg, facial discrimination), executive functions (eg, set shifting, problem solving), and memory functions (eg, declarative learning, source memory). There is an age-related decline in brain cortical volume, which primarily involves association cortices and limbic regions. Studies of brain metabolic activity demonstrate an age-related decline in neocortical areas. Activation studies using cognitive tasks demonstrate that older healthy individuals have a different pattern of activation from younger subjects, suggesting thai older subjects may recruit additional brain areas in order to maintain performance.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2001
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2001
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    Authors: Alireza, Sayadmansour;

    “Neurotheology” refers to the multidisciplinary field of scholarship that seeks to understand the relationship between the human brain and religion. In its initial development, neurotheology has been conceived in very broad terms relating to the intersection between religion and brain sciences in general. The author's main objective is to introduce neurotheology in general and provides a basis for more detailed scholarship from experts in theology, as well as in neuroscience and medicine.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2014
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      Article . 2014
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    Authors: Irving E, Vega; Timothy J, Collier;
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2016
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2016
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    Authors: Manon, Carrière; Helena, Cassol; Charlène, Aubinet; Rajanikant, Panda; +10 Authors

    Abstract Auditory localization (i.e. turning the head and/or the eyes towards an auditory stimulus) is often part of the clinical evaluation of patients recovering from coma. The objective of this study is to determine whether auditory localization could be considered as a new sign of minimally conscious state, using a multimodal approach. The presence of auditory localization and the clinical outcome at 2 years of follow-up were evaluated in 186 patients with severe brain injury, including 64 with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome, 28 in minimally conscious state minus, 71 in minimally conscious state plus and 23 who emerged from the minimally conscious state. Brain metabolism, functional connectivity and graph theory measures were investigated by means of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, functional MRI and high-density electroencephalography in two subgroups of unresponsive patients, with and without auditory localization. These two subgroups were also compared to a subgroup of patients in minimally conscious state minus. Auditory localization was observed in 13% of unresponsive patients, 46% of patients in minimally conscious state minus, 62% of patients in minimally conscious state plus and 78% of patients who emerged from the minimally conscious state. The probability to observe an auditory localization increased along with the level of consciousness, and the presence of auditory localization could predict the level of consciousness. Patients with auditory localization had higher survival rates (at 2-year follow-up) than those without localization. Differences in brain function were found between unresponsive patients with and without auditory localization. Higher connectivity in unresponsive patients with auditory localization was measured between the fronto-parietal network and secondary visual areas, and in the alpha band electroencephalography network. Moreover, patients in minimally conscious state minus significantly differed from unresponsive patients without auditory localization in terms of brain metabolism and alpha network centrality, whereas no difference was found with unresponsive patients who presented auditory localization. Our multimodal findings suggest differences in brain function between unresponsive patients with and without auditory localization, which support our hypothesis that auditory localization should be considered as a new sign of minimally conscious state. Unresponsive patients showing auditory localization should therefore no longer be considered unresponsive but minimally conscious. This would have crucial consequences on these patients’ lives as it would directly impact the therapeutic orientation or end-of-life decisions usually taken based on the diagnosis. This study provides evidence that auditory localization should be considered as a new sign of minimally conscious state. The prevalence of auditory localization increases with the level of consciousness, and patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome and auditory localization have higher brain functioning and better outcome than unresponsive patients who do not show auditory localization. Graphical Abstract Graphical Abstract

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020
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      Article . 2020
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    Authors: Thaut, Michael H.; Francisco, Gerard; Hoemberg, Volker;
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2021
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    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.go...
    Other literature type . 2021
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2021
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      https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.go...
      Other literature type . 2021
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    Authors: Sklinda, Katarzyna; Górecki, Andrzej; Dorobek, Małgorzata; Walecki, Jerzy; +2 Authors

    Purpose: Long-haul COVID-19 is a condition of unknown background occurring in COVID-19 survivors regardless of the severity of the SARS-CoV-2 infection itself. The aim of the study was to evaluate brain changes in patients suffering from variable symptoms of brain fog after COVID-19. Material and methods: Eleven patients hospitalized due to symptoms of severe brain fog, i.e. insomnia, sudden impairment of cognitive function, headache, and depression, and 14 healthy volunteers underwent brain imaging including MR spectroscopy. Results: Routine MR imaging revealed no specific macroscopic changes in keeping with brain fog. Considering that the clinical manifestation of brain fog is transient, the evaluation of the metabolic status of the brain remained the method of choice. The concentration of the major cerebral metabolites, i.e. NAA, Cho, and Cr, remained stable. However, changes in Glx and Lac concentration were observed in MR spectroscopy. Conclusions: Following results along with clinical course of the brain for imply probable ischaemic background of symptoms.

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    Article . 2021
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    Polish Journal of Radiology
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Peter F, Buckley;

    Schizophrenia, once considered a psychological malady devoid of any organic brain substrate, has been the focus of intense neuroimaging research. Findings reveal mild but generalized tissue loss as well as more selective focal loss. It is unclear whether these abnormalities reflect neurodevelopmental or neurodegenerative processes, or some combination of each; current evidence favors a preponderance of neurodevelopmental abnormalities. The pattern of brain abnormalities is also influenced by environmental and genetic risk factors, as well as by the course (and possibly even treatment) of this illness. These findings are described in this article.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2005
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2005
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Mohsen, Molla Mohammadi; Seyed Hassan, Tonekaboni; Alireza, Khatami; Eznollah, Azargashb; +3 Authors

    Objective Seizure is an emergency in pediatrics. It really matters to the parents of the involved child to have information about the causes, management and prognosis. First unprovoked seizures (FUS) are seizures that occur in patients without fever, trauma or infection. Due to the rapid improvement in diagnostic techniques in the last few decades, the etiology will be revealed and this term will no longer exist. This Study was designed to evaluate brain imaging findings in FUS patients. Materials & Methods Ninety-six children with FUS, who were admitted in three major children’s hospitals in Tehran, underwent brain imaging and were enrolled into the study. The decision about the type of imaging (CT or MRI) was based on the patient’s medical and financial conditions. An expert radiologist in the field of pediatric neuroimaging interpreted the images. Results Altogether, 27.1% had abnormal findings of which 29.2% were in the brain MRI group and 14.3% were in the brain CT scan group. Abnormal results were gliosis (10.4%), hemorrhage (4.2%), dysgenesis (2.1%), dysmyelination (7.3%), encephalomalacy (1%), atrophy (5.2%) and infarction (2.1%). In some patients, the lesions were in 2 or 3 sites and some had more than one type of lesion. There was no association between the duration, age and type of seizure and imaging abnormlities. However, we found an association between the location of the lesion and the type of seizure. Conclusion We recommend brain imaging in all patients with FUS and apart from some exceptions, brain MRI is superior to CT.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2013
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2013
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    Authors: Marjolein M J, van Donkelaar; Martine, Hoogman; Irene, Pappa; Henning, Tiemeier; +3 Authors

    Reactive and proactive subtypes of aggression have been recognized to help parse etiological heterogeneity of this complex phenotype. With a heritability of about 50%, genetic factors play a role in the development of aggressive behavior. Imaging studies implicate brain structures related to social behavior in aggression etiology, most notably the amygdala and striatum. This study aimed to gain more insight into the pathways from genetic risk factors for aggression to aggression phenotypes. To this end, we conducted genome-wide gene-based cross-trait meta-analyses of aggression with the volumes of amygdala, nucleus accumbens and caudate nucleus to identify genes influencing both aggression and aggression-related brain volumes. We used data of large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of: (a) aggressive behavior in children and adolescents (EAGLE, N = 18,988); and (b) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)-based volume measures of aggression-relevant subcortical brain regions (ENIGMA2, N = 13,171). Second, the identified genes were further investigated in a sample of healthy adults (mean age (SD) = 25.28 (4.62) years; 43% male) who had genome-wide genotyping data and questionnaire data on aggression subtypes available (Brain Imaging Genetics, BIG, N = 501) to study their effect on reactive and proactive subtypes of aggression. Our meta-analysis identified two genes, MECOM and AVPR1A, significantly associated with both aggression risk and nucleus accumbens (MECOM) and amygdala (AVPR1A) brain volume. Subsequent in-depth analysis of these genes in healthy adults (BIG), including sex as an interaction term in the model, revealed no significant subtype-specific gene-wide associations. Using cross-trait meta-analysis of brain measures and psychiatric phenotypes, this study generated new hypotheses about specific links between genes, the brain and behavior. Results indicate that MECOM and AVPR1A may exert an effect on aggression through mechanisms involving nucleus accumbens and amygdala volumes, respectively.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2018
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      Article . 2018
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    Authors: Jakub Jamárik; Lubomír Vojtíšek; Vendula Churová; Tomáš Kašpárek; +1 Authors

    Pathological changes in the cortical lamina can cause several mental disorders. Visualization of these changes in vivo would enhance their diagnostics. Recently a framework for visualizing cortical structures by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has emerged. This is based on mathematical modeling of multi-component T1 relaxation at the sub-voxel level. This work proposes a new approach for their estimation. The approach is validated using simulated data. Sixteen MRI experiments were carried out on healthy volunteers. A modified echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequence was used to acquire 105 individual volumes. Data simulating the images were created, serving as the ground truth. The model was fitted to the data using a modified Trust Region algorithm. In single voxel experiments, the estimation accuracy of the T1 relaxation times depended on the number of optimization starting points and the level of noise. A single starting point resulted in a mean percentage error (MPE) of 6.1%, while 100 starting points resulted in a perfect fit. The MPE was T1 relaxation times can be achieved using the modified algorithm with MPE < 5%.

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    Diagnostics
    Other literature type . Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 2021
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    Article . 2022
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