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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Boscolo Galazzo, Ilaria; Storti, Silvia Francesca; Pizzini, Francesca Benedetta; Tomazzoli, Claudio; +1 Authors
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ IRIS - Università de...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ IRIS - Università de...arrow_drop_down
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Storti, Silvia Francesca; Boscolo Galazzo, Ilaria; Pizzini, Francesca; Menegaz, Gloria;
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ IRIS - Università de...arrow_drop_down
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Moss Y. Zhao; Lena Václavů; Esben Thade Petersen; Bart J. Biemond; +5 Authors

    PurposeTo compare cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebrovascular reserve (CVR) quantification from Turbo‐QUASAR (quantitative signal targeting with alternating radiofrequency labeling of arterial regions) arterial spin labeling (ASL) and single post‐labeling delay pseudo‐continuous ASL (PCASL).MethodsA model‐based method was developed to quantify CBF and arterial transit time (ATT) from Turbo‐QUASAR, including a correction for magnetization transfer effects caused by the repeated labeling pulses. Simulations were performed to assess the accuracy of the model‐based method. Data from an in vivo experiment conducted on a healthy cohort were retrospectively analyzed to compare the CBF and CVR (induced by acetazolamide) measurement from Turbo‐QUASAR and PCASL on the basis of global and regional differences. The quality of the two ASL data sets was examined using the coefficient of variation (CoV).ResultsThe model‐based method for Turbo‐QUASAR was accurate for CBF estimation (relative error was 8% for signal‐to‐noise ratio = 5) in simulations if the bolus duration was known. In the in vivo experiment, the mean global CVR estimated by Turbo‐QUASAR and PCASL was between 63% and 64% and not significantly different. Although global CBF values of the two ASL techniques were not significantly different, regional CBF differences were found in deep gray matter in both pre‐ and postacetazolamide conditions. The CoV of Turbo‐QUASAR data was significantly higher than PCASL.ConclusionBoth ASL techniques were effective for quantifying CBF and CVR, despite the regional differences observed. Although CBF estimated from Turbo‐QUASAR demonstrated a higher variability than PCASL, Turbo‐QUASAR offers the advantage of being able to measure and control for variation in ATT.

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    Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
    Article . 2020
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    Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
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    UCL Discovery
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: UCL Discovery
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
      Article . 2020
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      Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      UCL Discovery
      Article . 2019
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Driver I. D.; Wise R. G.; Murphy K.;

    Calibrated BOLD is a promising technique that overcomes the sensitivity of conventional fMRI to the cerebrovascular state; measuring either the basal level, or the task-induced response of cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO2). The calibrated BOLD method is susceptible to errors in the measurement of the calibration parameter M, the theoretical BOLD signal change that would occur if all deoxygenated hemoglobin were removed. The original and most popular method for measuring M uses hypercapnia (an increase in arterial CO2), making the assumption that it does not affect CMRO2. This assumption has since been challenged and recent studies have used a corrective term, based on literature values of a reduction in basal CMRO2 with hypercapnia. This is not ideal, as this value may vary across subjects and regions of the brain, and will depend on the level of hypercapnia achieved. Here we propose a new approach, using a graded hypercapnia design and the assumption that CMRO2 changes linearly with hypercapnia level, such that we can measure M without assuming prior knowledge of the scale of CMRO2 change. Through use of a graded hypercapnia gas challenge, we are able to remove the bias caused by a reduction in basal CMRO2 during hypercapnia, whilst simultaneously calculating the dose-wise CMRO2 change with hypercapnia. When compared with assuming no change in CMRO2, this approach resulted in significantly lower M-values in both visual and motor cortices, arising from significant dose-dependent hypercapnia reductions in basal CMRO2 of 1.5 ± 0.6%/mmHg (visual) and 1.8 ± 0.7%/mmHg (motor), where mmHg is the unit change in end-tidal CO2 level. Variability in the basal CMRO2 response to hypercapnia, due to experimental differences and inter-subject variability, is accounted for in this approach, unlike previous correction approaches, which use literature values. By incorporating measurement of, and correction for, the reduction in basal CMRO2 during hypercapnia in the measurement of M-values, application of our approach will correct for an overestimation in both CMRO2 task-response values and absolute CMRO2.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Kai Wang; Samantha J. Ma; Xingfeng Shao; Chenyang Zhao; +3 Authors

    PurposeTo optimize pseudo‐continuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL) for 7 T, and to further improve the labeling efficiency with parallel RF transmission transmit B1 () shimming.MethodspCASL parameters were optimized based on field distributions at 7 T with simulation. To increase labeling efficiency, the amplitude at inflowing arteries was increased with parallel RF transmission shimming. The “indv‐shim” with shimming weights calculated for each individual subject, and the “univ‐shim” with universal weights calculated on a group of 12 subjects, were compared with circular polarized (CP) shim. The optimized pCASL sequences with three shimming modes (indv‐shim, univ‐shim, and CP‐shim) were evaluated in 6 subjects who underwent two repeated scans 24 hours apart, along with a pulsed ASL sequence. Quantitative metrics including mean amplitude, perfusion, and intraclass correlation coefficient were calculated. The optimized 7T pCASL was compared with standard 3T pCASL on 5 subjects, using spatial SNR and temporal SNR.ResultsThe optimal pCASL parameter set (RF duration/gap = 300/250 us, ) achieved robust perfusion measurement in the presence of inhomogeneities. Both indv‐shim and univ‐shim significantly increased amplitude compared with CP‐shim in simulation and in vivo experiment (P < .01). Compared with CP‐shim, perfusion signal was increased by 9.5% with indv‐shim (P < .05) and by 5.3% with univ‐shim (P = .35). All three pCASL sequences achieved fair to good repeatability (intraclass correlation coefficient ≥ 0.5). Compared with 3T pCASL, the optimized 7T pCASL achieved 78.3% higher spatial SNR and 200% higher temporal SNR.ConclusionThe optimized pCASL achieved robust perfusion imaging at 7 T, while both indv‐shim and univ‐shim further increased labeling efficiency.

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    Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC ND
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    Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
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      Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: E C, Wong; W M, Luh; T T, Liu;

    A modified pulsed arterial spin labeling (ASL) technique is introduced here that has both higher temporal resolution and higher SNR per unit time than existing ASL techniques. In this technique, the time TI between the application of the tag and image acquisition is longer than the repetition time TR, allowing for the use of greatly reduced TR values without a significant decrease in the amplitude of the ASL signal. This improves both the temporal resolution and the sensitivity of ASL for functional brain mapping.

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    Authors: Zhensen Chen; Xihai Zhao; Xingxing Zhang; Rui Guo; +6 Authors

    PurposeThe aim of this study was to propose, optimize, and validate a pseudo‐continuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL) sequence for simultaneous measurement of brain perfusion and labeling efficiency.MethodsThe proposed sequence incorporates the labeling efficiency measurement into the postlabeling delay period of a conventional perfusion pCASL sequence by using the time‐encoding approach. In vivo validation experiments were performed on nine young subjects by comparing it to separate perfusion and labeling efficiency sequences. Sensitivity of the proposed combined sequence for measuring labeling efficiency changes was further addressed by varying the flip angles of the pCASL labeling radiofrequency pulses.ResultsThe proposed combined sequence decreased the perfusion signal by ∼4% and a lower labeling efficiency (by ∼10%) was found as compared to the separate sequences. However, the temporal signal‐noise‐ratio of the perfusion signal remained unchanged. When the pCASL flip angle was decreased to a suboptimal setting, a strong correlation was found between the combined and the separate sequences for the relative change in pCASL perfusion signal as well as for the relative change in labeling efficiency. High correlation was also observed between relative changes in perfusion signal and the measured labeling efficiencies.ConclusionThe proposed sequence allows simultaneous measurement of brain perfusion and labeling efficiency with high time‐efficiency at the price of only a small compromise in measurement accuracy. The additional labeling efficiency measurement can be used to facilitate qualitative interpretation of pCASL perfusion images. Magn Reson Med 79:1922–1930, 2018. © 2017 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.

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    Magnetic Resonance in Medicine; NARCIS
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    Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
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      Magnetic Resonance in Medicine; NARCIS
      Article . 2018 . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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    The ability to visualize the perfusion territories of the brain feeding arteries is important for many clinical applications. Recently, selective arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI has been introduced as the first method capable to visualize the perfusion territories of the brain in-vivo. In this thesis we describe the possibilities of selective ASL MRI and show the importance of perfusion territory information in studying the cerebral circulation in both patients with and without steno-occlusive disease. This most important findings of this thesis are twofold. Firstly, we demonstrate that the perfusion territories of the brain feeding arteries are considerably variable. Secondly, the variation in perfusion territories is mainly caused by anatomical variants of the circle of Willis, large artery steno-occlusive disease, or the combination of both. Thus far, the cerebral vascular territories are generally described as relatively invariant. Numerous standard atlases and textbooks show schematic drawings of the ‘normal’ territorial distribution. Most of these drawings are based on combinations of postmortem studies and assume a symmetrical and negligible variable territorial distribution. In contrast to these post-mortem studies, we demonstrated in-vivo that the variability of the cerebral perfusion territories is significantly greater than was previously assumed. The finding that the configuration of the circle of Willis strongly affects the extent of the cerebral perfusion territories seems relevant since up to 65% of healthy control subjects have an anatomical variant type. In addition to the large variability at the level of the circle of Willis, our results demonstrated that the presence of a severe stenosis or occlusion at the level of the arteries in the neck has major consequences for the distribution of the cerebral perfusion territories. Obstructive arterial disease at the level of the arteries in the neck is found in about 8% in the general healthy population, up to 30% in patients with symptomatic cerebral ischemia. The large variability of the cerebral territorial distribution demonstrated in this thesis has major implications for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of stroke. For example, physicians considering whether to treat acute stroke often use anatomic CT or MR images to assess affected vascular territories, and to determine whether infarction is embolic or hypotensive in nature. However, the results of this thesis demonstrate that neither the territories affected nor the nature of stroke can be accurately diagnosed on the basis of such anatomic studies. Currently used schematic drawings of the cerebral flow territories are based on standard atlases, and therefore give no certainty on the extent of the territories in the individual patient. To know more accurately the location of the perfusion territories, one should visualize them. In conclusion, the interaction of stenosis severity, multi-vessel disease, and vascular anatomy defines the location and the extent of the perfusion territories of the brain feeding arteries. To relate focal brain lesions to underlying perfusion territories in individual cases, knowledge of the territorial distribution is essential

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    Doctoral thesis . 2007
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    Authors: Nery, F. (Fabio); Buchanan, C.E. (Charlotte E.); Harteveld, A.A. (Anita A.); Odudu, A. (Aghogho); +22 Authors

    Objectives This study aimed at developing technical recommendations for the acquisition, processing and analysis of renal ASL data in the human kidney at 1.5 T and 3 T feld strengths that can promote standardization of renal perfusion measurements and facilitate the comparability of results across scanners and in multi-centre clinical studies. Methods An international panel of 23 renal ASL experts followed a modifed Delphi process, including on-line surveys and two in-person meetings, to formulate a series of consensus statements regarding patient preparation, hardware, acquisition protocol, analysis steps and data reporting. Results Fifty-nine statements achieved consensus, while agreement could not be reached on two statements related to patient preparation. As a default protocol, the panel recommends pseudo-continuous (PCASL) or fow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) labelling with a single-slice spin-echo EPI readout with background suppression and a simple but robust quantifcation model. Discussion This approach is considered robust and reproducible and can provide renal perfusion images of adequate quality and SNR for most applications. If extended kidney coverage is desirable, a 2D multislice readout is recommended. These recommendations are based on current available evidence and expert opinion. Nonetheless they are expected to be updated as more data become available, since the renal ASL literature is rapidly expanding.

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    Authors: Çavuşoğlu, Mustafa;

    Perfusion MRI based on arterial spin labeling (ASL) has intrinsically very low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Signal acquisition at shorter echo times (TE) is necessary to boost the SNR of the ASL images. Spiral trajectories provide substantially shorter TE yielding increased SNR and are among the fastest k-space sampling schemes to encode a given field of view and resolution. Moreover, they provide approximately isotropic point-spread functions and inherent refocusing of motion- and flow-induced phase errors. However, the efficiency of the spiral acquisitions in ASL-MRI has been limited because these advantages are counterbalanced by practical technical challenges. This is because spiral acquisitions are highly sensitive to encoding deficiencies such as static off-resonance in the main magnetic field manifested as blurring artifacts in the image. Moreover, deviation of the gradient fields from the nominal waveforms due to the imperfection of the employed hardware critically limits the practical utilization of spiral trajectories. In this work, I provide single- and multiple-shot spiral ASL images that are robust against typical spiral encoding drawbacks enabled by deploying a comprehensive signal model involving static off-resonance and coil sensitivity maps and actual B₀ and gradient field dynamics up to third order in space. The spiral ASL signal acquisition was concurrently monitored using a 3rd order dynamic field camera based on NMR field probes. The reconstructed ASL images at 3 mm and 2 mm in-plane resolution associating with the monitored field dynamics and the static off-resonances exhibited strongly reduced blurring- and aliasing artifacts and distortion. Concurrent field monitoring also enables to account for quasi-static B₀ drifts by encompassing the parametric input data with consistent encoding geometry and physiological field fluctuations. In conclusion, concurrent field monitoring in spiral ASL acquisition largely overcomes traditional vulnerability of spiral trajectories in practice providing high quality ASL images with increased SNR, speed and motion robustness. Journal of Magnetic Resonance, 356 ISSN:1090-7807

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    Journal of Magnetic Resonance
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Boscolo Galazzo, Ilaria; Storti, Silvia Francesca; Pizzini, Francesca Benedetta; Tomazzoli, Claudio; +1 Authors
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    Authors: Storti, Silvia Francesca; Boscolo Galazzo, Ilaria; Pizzini, Francesca; Menegaz, Gloria;
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    Authors: Moss Y. Zhao; Lena Václavů; Esben Thade Petersen; Bart J. Biemond; +5 Authors

    PurposeTo compare cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebrovascular reserve (CVR) quantification from Turbo‐QUASAR (quantitative signal targeting with alternating radiofrequency labeling of arterial regions) arterial spin labeling (ASL) and single post‐labeling delay pseudo‐continuous ASL (PCASL).MethodsA model‐based method was developed to quantify CBF and arterial transit time (ATT) from Turbo‐QUASAR, including a correction for magnetization transfer effects caused by the repeated labeling pulses. Simulations were performed to assess the accuracy of the model‐based method. Data from an in vivo experiment conducted on a healthy cohort were retrospectively analyzed to compare the CBF and CVR (induced by acetazolamide) measurement from Turbo‐QUASAR and PCASL on the basis of global and regional differences. The quality of the two ASL data sets was examined using the coefficient of variation (CoV).ResultsThe model‐based method for Turbo‐QUASAR was accurate for CBF estimation (relative error was 8% for signal‐to‐noise ratio = 5) in simulations if the bolus duration was known. In the in vivo experiment, the mean global CVR estimated by Turbo‐QUASAR and PCASL was between 63% and 64% and not significantly different. Although global CBF values of the two ASL techniques were not significantly different, regional CBF differences were found in deep gray matter in both pre‐ and postacetazolamide conditions. The CoV of Turbo‐QUASAR data was significantly higher than PCASL.ConclusionBoth ASL techniques were effective for quantifying CBF and CVR, despite the regional differences observed. Although CBF estimated from Turbo‐QUASAR demonstrated a higher variability than PCASL, Turbo‐QUASAR offers the advantage of being able to measure and control for variation in ATT.

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    Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
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    UCL Discovery
    Article . 2019
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