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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Chen jiang; Boyi Li; Linru Xie; Chengcheng Liu; +3 Authors

    Compounded plane wave imaging (CPWI) allows high-frame-rate measurement and has been one of the most promising modalities for real-time brain imaging. However, ultrasonic brain imaging using the CPWI modality is usually performed with a worn thin or removal of the skull layer. Otherwise, the skull layer is expected to distort the ultrasonic wavefronts and significantly decrease intracranial imaging quality. The motivation of this study is to investigate a CPWI method for transcranial brain imaging with the skull layer. A coordinate transformation ray-tracing (CTRT) approach was proposed to track the distorted ultrasonic wavefronts and calculate the time delays for the ultrasound plane wave passing through the skull layer. With an accurate correction for the time delays in beamforming, the CTRT-based CPWI could achieve high-quality intracranial images with the presence of skulls. The proposed CTRT-based CPWI method was verified using a simplified three-layer transcranial model. The full-wave simulation demonstrated that CTRT could accurately (i.e., relative percentage error less than0.18%) track the distorted transmitting wavefront through skull. Compared with the CPWI without aberration correction, the CTRT-based CPWI provided high-quality intracranial imaging and could accurately localize intracranial point scatterers; specifically, positioning error decreases from 0.5 mm to 0.1 mm on average in the axial direction and from 0.7 mm to 0.1 mm on average in the lateral direction. As the compounded angles increased in the CTRT-based CPWI, the contrast improved by 16.2 dB on average for the region of interest, and the array performance indicator (representing resolution) decreased by 4.0 on average for the intracranial point scatterers. The CTRT is of low computational cost compared with full wave simulation. This study suggested that the proposed CTRT-based CPWI might have the potential for real-time and non-invasive transcranial aberration-corrected imaging.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Ultrasonicsarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Ultrasonics
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Ultrasonicsarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Ultrasonics
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier TDM
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Cecille, Labuda; Will R, Newman; Brent K, Hoffmeister; Claudia K M, Chambliss;

    Brain is inhomogeneous due to its composition of different tissue types (gray and white matter), anatomical structures (e.g. thalamus and cerebellum), and cavities in the brain (ventricles). These inhomogeneities lead to spatial variations in the ultrasonic properties of the organ. The goal of this study is to characterize the spatial variation of the speed of ultrasound and frequency slope of attenuation in fixed sheep brain. 1-cm-thick slices of tissue from the coronal, sagittal and transverse cardinal planes were prepared from 12 brains. Ultrasonic measurements were performed using broadband transducers with center frequencies of 3.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 MHz. By mechanically scanning the transducers over the specimens, two-dimensional maps of the speed of sound (SOS) and frequency slope of attenuation (FSA) were produced. Measured values for the spatial mean and standard deviation of FSA ranged between 0.59 and 0.81 dB/cm·MHz and 0.29-0.60 dB/cm·MHz, respectively, depending on the specimen and transducer frequency. Measured values for the spatial mean and standard deviation of SOS ranged from 1532-1541 m/s and 10-14 m/s, respectively. Detailed, two-dimensional maps of FSA and SOS were produced, representing the first such characterization of the spatial variation of the ultrasonic properties of normal mammalian brain.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Ultrasonicsarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Ultrasonics
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Ultrasonicsarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Ultrasonics
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier TDM
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  • Authors: O, Magnus; J H, van der Drift;
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  • Authors: Ben, Cox; Paul, Beard;
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: C S, WELLS;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ South African Medica...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ South African Medica...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Yinfei Zheng; Yuming Yang; Qiongwen Zhang; Dong Jiang; +3 Authors

    Brain imaging technology is widely used in the diagnosis of brain diseases. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are the most common imaging modalities used for clinical brain imaging, whereas ultrasound is rarely used because the skull substantially reduces the incident energy of ultrasonic waves to levels too low for imaging. However, remarkable developments of novel technologies in ultrasound brain imaging have been achieved recently, including Doppler-based imaging, contrast agent imaging, ultrasound elastography, and phase compensation imaging. Doppler-based imaging, including ultrafast Doppler imaging and functional ultrasound, is able to obtain reliable cerebral blood volume changes and has the best penetration depth and a better spatiotemporal resolution. Contrast agent brain imaging, including ultrasound localization microscopy, can obtain super spatial resolution vasculature maps over a large region within a few minutes of acquisition and reconstruction time. Ultrasound elastography reflects the stiffness of brain tissues. Phase correction imaging, such as time reversal mirror and spatiotemporal inverse filter, aims at focusing smoothly in the skull. These methods have been widely performed on animal models, newborn children, and adults in preclinical studies, with results demonstrating great potential in the diagnosis and treatment of brain diseases. This review discusses the ultrasound methods developed in recent years for brain imaging and highlights the promising future they hold.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao IEEE Transactions on...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
    License: IEEE Copyright
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao IEEE Transactions on...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
      License: IEEE Copyright
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  • Authors: I A, Mórocz; K, Hynynen; H, Gudbjartsson; S, Peled; +2 Authors

    The aim of this study was to investigate a potential technique for image-guided minimally invasive neurosurgical interventions. Focused ultrasound (FUS) delivers thermal energy without an invasive probe, penetrating the dura mater, entering through the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space, or harming intervening brain tissue. We applied continuous on-line monitoring by MRI to demonstrate the effect of the thermal intervention on the brain tissue. For this, seven rabbits had a part of their skull removed to create access for the FUS beam into the brain through an acoustic window of 11 mm in diameter. Dura was left intact and skin was sutured. One week later, the rabbits were sonicated for 3 seconds with 21 W acoustic power, and the FUS focus was visualized with a temperature-sensitive T1-weighted MRI pulse sequence. The tissue reaction was documented over 7 days with T2-weighted images of the brain. The initial area of the central low signal intensity in the axial plane was .4+/-.3 mm2, and for the bright hyperintensity surrounding the lesion, it was 2.3+/-.6 mm2 (n = 7). In the coronal plane, the corresponding values were .4+/-.1 mm2 and 3.4+/-.9 mm2 (n = 5). The developing brain edema culminated 48 hours later and thereafter diminished during the next 5 days. Histology revealed a central necrosis in the white matter surrounded by edematous tissue with inflammatory cells. In summary, the image-guided thermal ablation technique described here produced a relatively small lesion in the white matter at the targeted location. This was accomplished without opening the dura or the need for a stereotactical device. MRI allowed on-line monitoring of the lesion setting and the deposition of thermal energy and demonstrated the tissue damage after the thermal injury.

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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Lulu, Deng; Harriet, Lea-Banks; Ryan M, Jones; Meaghan A, O'Reilly; +1 Authors

    AbstractBackgroundHigh resolution imaging of the microvasculature plays an important role in both diagnostic and therapeutic applications in the brain. However, ultrasound pulse‐echo sonography imaging the brain vasculatures has been limited to narrow acoustic windows and low frequencies due to the distortion of the skull bone, which sacrifices axial resolution since it is pulse length dependent.PurposeTo overcome the detect limit, a large aperture 256‐module sparse hemispherical transmit/receive array was used to visualize the acoustic emissions of ultrasound‐vaporized lipid‐coated decafluorobutane nanodroplets flowing through tube phantoms and within rabbit cerebral vasculature in vivo via passive acoustic mapping and super resolution techniques.MethodsNanodroplets were vaporized with 55 kHz burst‐mode ultrasound (burst length = 145 μs, burst repetition frequency = 9–45 Hz, peak negative acoustic pressure = 0.10–0.22 MPa), which propagates through overlying tissues well without suffering from severe distortions. The resulting emissions were received at a higher frequency (612 or 1224 kHz subarray) to improve the resulting spatial resolution during passive beamforming. Normal resolution three‐dimensional images were formed using a delay, sum, and integrate beamforming algorithm, and super‐resolved images were extracted via Gaussian fitting of the estimated point‐spread‐function to the normal resolution data.ResultsWith super resolution techniques, the mean lateral (axial) full‐width‐at‐half‐maximum image intensity was 16 ± 3 (32 ± 6) μm, and 7 ± 1 (15 ± 2) μm corresponding to ∼1/67 of the normal resolution at 612 and 1224 kHz, respectively. The mean positional uncertainties were ∼1/350 (lateral) and ∼1/180 (axial) of the receive wavelength in water. In addition, a temporal correlation between nanodroplet vaporization and the transmit waveform shape was observed, which may provide the opportunity to enhance the signal‐to‐noise ratio in future studies.ConclusionsHere, we demonstrate the feasibility of vaporizing nanodroplets via low frequency ultrasound and simultaneously performing spatial mapping via passive beamforming at higher frequencies to improve the resulting spatial resolution of super resolution imaging techniques. This method may enable complete four‐dimensional vascular mapping in organs where a hemispherical array could be positioned to surround the target, such as the brain, breast, or testicles.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Medical Physicsarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Medical Physics
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Wiley Online Library User Agreement
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    Medical Physics
    Article . 2023
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Medical Physicsarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Medical Physics
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2023
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  • Authors: M, DAVID;
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Thomas J. Manuel; Michelle K. Sigona; M. Anthony Phipps; Jiro Kusunose; +7 Authors

    AbstractFocused ultrasound blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening is a promising tool for targeted delivery of therapeutic agents into the brain. The volume of opening determines the extent of therapeutic administration and sets a lower bound on the size of targets which can be selectively treated. We tested a custom 1 MHz array transducer optimized for cortical regions in the macaque brain with the goal of achieving small volume openings. We integrated this device into a magnetic resonance image guided focused ultrasound system and demonstrated twelve instances of small volume BBB opening with average opening volumes of 59 ± 37 mm3and 184 ± 2 mm3in cortical and subcortical targets, respectively. We developed real-time cavitation monitoring using a passive cavitation detector embedded in the array and characterized its performance on a bench-top flow phantom mimicking transcranial BBB opening procedures. We monitored cavitation duringin-vivoprocedures and compared cavitation metrics against opening volumes and safety outcomes measured with FLAIR and susceptibility weighted MR imaging. Our findings show small BBB opening at cortical targets in macaques and characterize the safe pressure range for 1 MHz BBB opening. Additionally, we used subject-specific simulations to investigate variance in measured opening volumes and found high correlation (R2= 0.8577) between simulation predictions and observed measurements. Simulations suggest the threshold for 1 MHz BBB opening was 0.53 MPa. This system enables BBB opening for drug delivery and gene therapy to be targeted to more specific brain regions.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Journal of Controlled Release
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: IEEE Copyright
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2023
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Journal of Controlled Release
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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The following results are related to Neuroinformatics. Are you interested to view more results? Visit OpenAIRE - Explore.
  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Chen jiang; Boyi Li; Linru Xie; Chengcheng Liu; +3 Authors

    Compounded plane wave imaging (CPWI) allows high-frame-rate measurement and has been one of the most promising modalities for real-time brain imaging. However, ultrasonic brain imaging using the CPWI modality is usually performed with a worn thin or removal of the skull layer. Otherwise, the skull layer is expected to distort the ultrasonic wavefronts and significantly decrease intracranial imaging quality. The motivation of this study is to investigate a CPWI method for transcranial brain imaging with the skull layer. A coordinate transformation ray-tracing (CTRT) approach was proposed to track the distorted ultrasonic wavefronts and calculate the time delays for the ultrasound plane wave passing through the skull layer. With an accurate correction for the time delays in beamforming, the CTRT-based CPWI could achieve high-quality intracranial images with the presence of skulls. The proposed CTRT-based CPWI method was verified using a simplified three-layer transcranial model. The full-wave simulation demonstrated that CTRT could accurately (i.e., relative percentage error less than0.18%) track the distorted transmitting wavefront through skull. Compared with the CPWI without aberration correction, the CTRT-based CPWI provided high-quality intracranial imaging and could accurately localize intracranial point scatterers; specifically, positioning error decreases from 0.5 mm to 0.1 mm on average in the axial direction and from 0.7 mm to 0.1 mm on average in the lateral direction. As the compounded angles increased in the CTRT-based CPWI, the contrast improved by 16.2 dB on average for the region of interest, and the array performance indicator (representing resolution) decreased by 4.0 on average for the intracranial point scatterers. The CTRT is of low computational cost compared with full wave simulation. This study suggested that the proposed CTRT-based CPWI might have the potential for real-time and non-invasive transcranial aberration-corrected imaging.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Ultrasonicsarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Ultrasonics
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Ultrasonicsarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Ultrasonics
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier TDM
      Data sources: Crossref
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Cecille, Labuda; Will R, Newman; Brent K, Hoffmeister; Claudia K M, Chambliss;

    Brain is inhomogeneous due to its composition of different tissue types (gray and white matter), anatomical structures (e.g. thalamus and cerebellum), and cavities in the brain (ventricles). These inhomogeneities lead to spatial variations in the ultrasonic properties of the organ. The goal of this study is to characterize the spatial variation of the speed of ultrasound and frequency slope of attenuation in fixed sheep brain. 1-cm-thick slices of tissue from the coronal, sagittal and transverse cardinal planes were prepared from 12 brains. Ultrasonic measurements were performed using broadband transducers with center frequencies of 3.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 MHz. By mechanically scanning the transducers over the specimens, two-dimensional maps of the speed of sound (SOS) and frequency slope of attenuation (FSA) were produced. Measured values for the spatial mean and standard deviation of FSA ranged between 0.59 and 0.81 dB/cm·MHz and 0.29-0.60 dB/cm·MHz, respectively, depending on the specimen and transducer frequency. Measured values for the spatial mean and standard deviation of SOS ranged from 1532-1541 m/s and 10-14 m/s, respectively. Detailed, two-dimensional maps of FSA and SOS were produced, representing the first such characterization of the spatial variation of the ultrasonic properties of normal mammalian brain.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Ultrasonicsarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Ultrasonics
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Ultrasonicsarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Ultrasonics
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier TDM
      Data sources: Crossref
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  • Authors: O, Magnus; J H, van der Drift;
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  • Authors: Ben, Cox; Paul, Beard;
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: C S, WELLS;