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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Jean M. Vettel; Nicole Cooper; Javier O. Garcia; Fang-Cheng Yeh; +1 Authors

    Abstract Human cognition requires coordinated communication across macroscopic brain networks. This coordination is fundamentally constrained by how populations of neurons are connected together. Understanding how structural connectivity between brain regions constrains or predicts variability within and between individuals is a pervasive topic of cutting edge research in neuroscience and the focus of multimillion dollar investments in brain research (e.g. Human Connectome Project, the White House's B.R.A.I.N initiative). Currently, diffusion‐weighted imaging is the only noninvasive tool for studying the anatomical connectivity of macroscopic networks in the living human brain. Recent innovations in the acquisition and analysis of diffusion‐weighted imaging provide an unprecedented opportunity to examine how an individual's unique structural wiring constrains brain function and cognition and how this unique wiring is sculpted by both genetics and experience across the lifespan. Key Concepts The brain consists of 86 billion neurons that have macroscopic gray matter that represents and processes information (brain regions) and white matter that communicates information between disparate brain regions (axonal connections). To study structural connectivity, diffusion‐weighted imaging (DWI) measures water diffusion using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology, relying on the clever insight that the presence of an axon will restrict the movement of water molecules to align with the direction of the axon's trajectory. The most popular DWI sampling schemes (DTI, HARDI, and DSI) differ in parameters that trade off between the total time of the scanning session and the resolution of water diffusion direction, which elucidates the direction and size of structural connections. After diffusion images have been collected using a DWI sequence, reconstruction algorithms convert the raw MR diffusion signal to an estimate of the pattern of directional water movement in each voxel. Once the fibre directions are reconstructed within a voxel, fibre tractography approaches can be applied to map the trajectories of axon bundles and delineate the path of major structural pathways between the brain regions. Structural connectivity estimates from tractography have been productively employed to study macroscopic anatomical connections known as the structural human connectome. To study brain networks, methods from network science represent neuroimaging data as graphs: gray matter brain regions serve as the nodes of the graph, and white matter tractography defines the edges that connect the nodes. DWI provides an informative lens to investigate how genetics and learning interact and influence our unique structural wiring, including research that can identify an individual from their wiring alone at near perfect accuracy yet still capture plasticity at both short‐term (6 weeks) and long‐term (decades) timescales.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao https://doi.org/10.1...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    https://doi.org/10.1002/978047...
    Other literature type . 2017
    License: Wiley TDM
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao https://doi.org/10.1...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      https://doi.org/10.1002/978047...
      Other literature type . 2017
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  • Authors: Michael G Hart; Stephen J. Price; John Suckling;
    Neurosurgeryarrow_drop_down
    Neurosurgery
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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      Neurosurgeryarrow_drop_down
      Neurosurgery
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Poologaindran, Anujan;

    Recently, leaders in human brain mapping and the clinical neurosciences outlined the need for prospective trials in neurosurgery to establish the clinical relevance of connectomics. This doctoral dissertation addresses this challenge by using diffuse gliomas as a model to study the principles of brain network organisation through neurosurgery. Specifically, I combined insight from a normative cohort of healthy individuals across the lifespan with a highly rare neurosurgical cohort of diffuse glioma patients who underwent longitudinal connectomic and cognitive testing throughout their clinical care. By understanding how gliomas infiltrate eloquent cortex with little to no cognitive deficits, we may be able to better understand the brain and cancer and ultimately devise new treatment approaches. Overall, the twin scientific and clinical aims were to i) understand how gliomas embed themselves within circuits governing higher-order cognition and ii) determine the utility of connectomics in mapping higher-order cognitive functions for presurgical planning and postsurgical rehabilitation. In the first set of investigations, I deployed structural connectomics to demonstrate that the structural integrity of the Multiple Demand (MD) system for domain-general cognition uniquely predicts interindividual differences in executive functioning across the lifespan. I then demonstrated that diffuse gliomas primarily co-localise to the MD system’s core frontoparietal network, with connectomic, transcriptomic, and neurochemical analyses revealing that connector hubs, oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), and proto-oncogenes are uniquely enriched in the MD system making it vulnerable to oncogenesis. When investigating the cognitive impact of gliomas infiltrating the MD system, the data reveals long-term cognitive improvements, indicating the brain underwent structural changes to accommodate the tumour and consequently minimize its impact. Presurgical structural analyses of glioma patients’ brains revealed decreases in cortical thickness in the MD system and homotopic areas compared to age- and sex-matched controls. Remarking, normative modelling revealed that the presence of gliomas induced cortical thinning and accelerated ‘brain ageing’, which was partially normalised following surgery and more consistent with healthy adults. In the second set of investigations, I complemented the structural investigation with functional connectomics to demonstrate that gliomas strategically embed themselves within hierarchical gradients and that long-term cognitive deficits result from increased cortical gradient dispersion. Given that meningiomas exert their deleterious effects by compressing brain tissue whereas gliomas infiltrate the tissue, contrasting both patient groups with healthy controls, gliomas decreased global gradient dispersion whereas meningiomas did not. More regionally, to assess mesoscale cortical dynamics, resecting more presurgical connector hubs leads to long-term cognitive deficits whereas resecting provincial hubs did not cause long-term deficits. In addition, changes in perioperative modularity differentiated patients with long-term cognitive deficits from those with long-term improvements. Finally, in the last section of this dissertation, I deployed interventional connectomics to demonstrate how non-invasive brain stimulation is safe and can be utilised in the perioperative setting to promote functional recovery and potentially accelerate long-term cognitive outcomes. Specifically, transcranial magnetic stimulation can be safely applied without causing seizures to improve deficits in motor or language function. In summary, this dissertation presents new evidence on how gliomas embed themselves within the connectome and the clinical utility of connectomics for neurosurgery. Based on connectomic data, the stage is set for future studies to carry this work forward with prospective randomized clinical trials (RCTs) on modulating the presurgical connectome and/or accelerating postsurgical cognitive rehabilitation. Finally, I conclude with providing future directions on how systems neuroscience and functional neurosurgery can be strategically combined to advance the emerging field of cancer neuroscience.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Apolloarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Apolloarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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  • Authors: Nozais, Victor;

    The Functionnectome is a method (and a free open-source program) used to combine fMRI data with white matter connectivity data to map the function of white matter in the living human brain.

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  • Authors: Hanbo Chen; Kaiming Li; Dajiang Zhu; Tianming Liu;

    Recent studies have suggested that structural brain connectivity is strongly correlated with functional connectivity. However, the relationship between structural and functional connectivity at the whole brain connectome scale has been rarely explored. This paper presents a novel framework to infer brain networks that are consistent across multiple neuroimaging modalities and across individuals at the connectome scale. Our basic premise is that the predictability of functional connectivity from structural connectivity within each brain network should be maximized, which is formulated by and solved via a novel feedback-regulated multi-view spectral clustering algorithm. We applied and tested the proposed algorithm on the multimodal structural and functional brain connectomes of 50 healthy subjects, and obtained promising results. Our validation experiments demonstrated that the derived brain networks are in agreement with current neuroscience knowledge and offer novel insights into the close relationship between brain structure and function at the connectome scale.

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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: MORABITO, CARMELA;

    Ever since the phrenological heads of the early 19th century, maps have translated into images our ideas, theories and models of the brain, making this organ at one and the same time scientific object and representation. Brain maps have always served as gateways for navigating and visualizing neuroscientific knowledge, and over time many different maps have been produced – firstly as tools to “read” and analyse the cerebral territory, then as instruments to produce new models of the brain. Over the last 150 years brain cartography has evolved from a way of identifying brain regions and localizing them for clinical use to an anatomical framework onto which information about local properties and functions can be integrated to provide a view of the brain’s structural and functional architecture. In this paper a historical and epistemological consideration of the topic is offered as a contribution to the understanding of contemporary brain mapping, based on the assumption that the brain continuously rewires itself in relation to individual experience.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Archivio della Ricer...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Nuncius
    Article . 2018
    Nuncius
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Archivio della Ricer...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Nuncius
      Article . 2018
      Nuncius
      Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: Rebecca, Roth; Janina, Wilmskoetter; Leonardo, Bonilha;

    Lesion-based studies are among the most informative approaches to determine a critical relationship between a particular brain region and specific function. Importantly, brain lesions cause disconnection of other brain areas that appear to be intact and may cause functional deficits in these regions due to a lack of afferent projections. If only the location of necrosis and gliosis after the stroke is considered to be the lesion, the full spectrum of brain dysfunction is only partly assessed, and there is a high probability that incomplete region-to-function inferences are made. In this chapter we (1) outline how structural connectivity can be measured in individuals with stroke, and (2) provide an overview of the importance of disrupted structural connectivity in aphasia. We conclude that connection-based and region/voxel-based symptom mapping yield complementary information and together provide an in-depth picture of brain and function relationships.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Juho, Joutsa; Daniel T, Corp; Michael D, Fox;

    Purpose of review Focal lesions causing specific neurological or psychiatric symptoms can occur in multiple different brain locations, complicating symptom localization. Here, we review lesion network mapping, a technique used to aid localization by mapping lesion-induced symptoms to brain circuits rather than individual brain regions. We highlight recent examples of how this technique is being used to investigate clinical entities and identify therapeutic targets. Recent findings To date, lesion network mapping has successfully been applied to more than 40 different symptoms or symptom complexes. In each case, lesion locations were combined with an atlas of human brain connections (the human connectome) to map heterogeneous lesion locations causing the same symptom to a common brain circuit. This approach has lent insight into symptoms that have been difficult to localize using other techniques, such as hallucinations, tics, blindsight, and pathological laughter and crying. Further, lesion network mapping has recently been applied to lesions that improve symptoms, such as tremor and addiction, which may translate into new therapeutic targets. Summary Lesion network mapping can be used to map lesion-induced symptoms to brain circuits rather than single brain regions. Recent findings have provided insight into long-standing clinical mysteries and identified testable treatment targets for circuit-based and symptom-based neuromodulation.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2022
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    Current Opinion in Neurology
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2022
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      Current Opinion in Neurology
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Christoph Sperber; Joseph Griffis; Vanessa Kasties;

    In vivo tracking of white matter fibres catalysed a modern perspective on the pivotal role of brain connectome disruption in neuropsychological deficits. However, the examination of white matter integrity in neurological patients by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging bears conceptual limitations and is not widely applicable, as it requires imaging-compatible patients and resources beyond the capabilities of many researchers. The indirect estimation of structural disconnection offers an elegant and economical alternative. For this approach, a patient's structural lesion information and normative connectome data are combined to estimate different measures of lesion-induced structural disconnection. Using one of several toolboxes, this method is relatively easy to implement and is even available to scientists without expertise in fibre tracking analyses. Nevertheless, the anatomo-behavioural statistical mapping of structural brain disconnection requires analysis steps that are not covered by these toolboxes. In this paper, we first review the current state of indirect lesion disconnection estimation, the different existing measures, and the available software. Second, we aim to fill the remaining methodological gap in statistical disconnection-symptom mapping by providing an overview and guide to disconnection data and the statistical mapping of their relationship to behavioural measurements using either univariate or multivariate statistical modelling. To assist in the practical implementation of statistical analyses, we have included software tutorials and analysis scripts.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Brain Structure and ...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Brain Structure and Function
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Springer TDM
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Brain Structure and ...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Brain Structure and Function
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao

    Publisher Summary The human brain is a complex and highly dynamic biological network, the physical structure of which is still only partially mapped. This chapter provides an overview of how the analysis of comprehensive maps of structural brain connectivity, the human connectome, may benefit our understanding of structure–function relationships in the human brain. Such a structural description will serve as a fundamental research tool for understanding how the brain works as a complex system. A major distinction among descriptions of brain networks is that of structural, functional, and effective connectivity. The structural pattern of connections is likely to influence the patterns of functional and effective interactions between brain regions, and such interactions in turn are likely to have effects on their own physiological efficacy or strength, through mechanisms of activity- and experience-dependent plasticity. Structural connectivity describes a physical network of connections, which may correspond to fiber pathways or individual synapses. The basic structural elements of the brain are not easily defined, because of the brain's intrinsic multiscale architecture and the many linkages across these different levels that determine brain function. A major incentive for deriving the connectome of the human brain is the power of the mathematical tools that are available for the study of networks. One of the useful attributes of network analysis tools is their applicability to both structural and functional/effective connectivity data sets. Future advances in diffusion imaging and in other non-invasive network mapping technologies may allow the construction of a comprehensive and detailed map of structural connections of individual human subjects. Such data sets may prove valuable in detecting connectional correlates of neurological or psychiatric conditions in an individual brain, or for predicting individual cognitive or behavioral performance.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao https://doi.org/10.1...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0...
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2009 . Peer-reviewed
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    https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0...
    Part of book or chapter of book . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao https://doi.org/10.1...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0...
      Part of book or chapter of book . 2009 . Peer-reviewed
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      Part of book or chapter of book . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Jean M. Vettel; Nicole Cooper; Javier O. Garcia; Fang-Cheng Yeh; +1 Authors

    Abstract Human cognition requires coordinated communication across macroscopic brain networks. This coordination is fundamentally constrained by how populations of neurons are connected together. Understanding how structural connectivity between brain regions constrains or predicts variability within and between individuals is a pervasive topic of cutting edge research in neuroscience and the focus of multimillion dollar investments in brain research (e.g. Human Connectome Project, the White House's B.R.A.I.N initiative). Currently, diffusion‐weighted imaging is the only noninvasive tool for studying the anatomical connectivity of macroscopic networks in the living human brain. Recent innovations in the acquisition and analysis of diffusion‐weighted imaging provide an unprecedented opportunity to examine how an individual's unique structural wiring constrains brain function and cognition and how this unique wiring is sculpted by both genetics and experience across the lifespan. Key Concepts The brain consists of 86 billion neurons that have macroscopic gray matter that represents and processes information (brain regions) and white matter that communicates information between disparate brain regions (axonal connections). To study structural connectivity, diffusion‐weighted imaging (DWI) measures water diffusion using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology, relying on the clever insight that the presence of an axon will restrict the movement of water molecules to align with the direction of the axon's trajectory. The most popular DWI sampling schemes (DTI, HARDI, and DSI) differ in parameters that trade off between the total time of the scanning session and the resolution of water diffusion direction, which elucidates the direction and size of structural connections. After diffusion images have been collected using a DWI sequence, reconstruction algorithms convert the raw MR diffusion signal to an estimate of the pattern of directional water movement in each voxel. Once the fibre directions are reconstructed within a voxel, fibre tractography approaches can be applied to map the trajectories of axon bundles and delineate the path of major structural pathways between the brain regions. Structural connectivity estimates from tractography have been productively employed to study macroscopic anatomical connections known as the structural human connectome. To study brain networks, methods from network science represent neuroimaging data as graphs: gray matter brain regions serve as the nodes of the graph, and white matter tractography defines the edges that connect the nodes. DWI provides an informative lens to investigate how genetics and learning interact and influence our unique structural wiring, including research that can identify an individual from their wiring alone at near perfect accuracy yet still capture plasticity at both short‐term (6 weeks) and long‐term (decades) timescales.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao https://doi.org/10.1...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    https://doi.org/10.1002/978047...
    Other literature type . 2017
    License: Wiley TDM
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao https://doi.org/10.1...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      https://doi.org/10.1002/978047...
      Other literature type . 2017
      License: Wiley TDM
      Data sources: Crossref
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  • Authors: Michael G Hart; Stephen J. Price; John Suckling;
    Neurosurgeryarrow_drop_down
    Neurosurgery
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Crossref
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      Neurosurgeryarrow_drop_down
      Neurosurgery
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Crossref
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Poologaindran, Anujan;

    Recently, leaders in human brain mapping and the clinical neurosciences outlined the need for prospective trials in neurosurgery to establish the clinical relevance of connectomics. This doctoral dissertation addresses this challenge by using diffuse gliomas as a model to study the principles of brain network organisation through neurosurgery. Specifically, I combined insight from a normative cohort of healthy individuals across the lifespan with a highly rare neurosurgical cohort of diffuse glioma patients who underwent longitudinal connectomic and cognitive testing throughout their clinical care. By understanding how gliomas infiltrate eloquent cortex with little to no cognitive deficits, we may be able to better understand the brain and cancer and ultimately devise new treatment approaches. Overall, the twin scientific and clinical aims were to i) understand how gliomas embed themselves within circuits governing higher-order cognition and ii) determine the utility of connectomics in mapping higher-order cognitive functions for presurgical planning and postsurgical rehabilitation. In the first set of investigations, I deployed structural connectomics to demonstrate that the structural integrity of the Multiple Demand (MD) system for domain-general cognition uniquely predicts interindividual differences in executive functioning across the lifespan. I then demonstrated that diffuse gliomas primarily co-localise to the MD system’s core frontoparietal network, with connectomic, transcriptomic, and neurochemical analyses revealing that connector hubs, oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), and proto-oncogenes are uniquely enriched in the MD system making it vulnerable to oncogenesis. When investigating the cognitive impact of gliomas infiltrating the MD system, the data reveals long-term cognitive improvements, indicating the brain underwent structural changes to accommodate the tumour and consequently minimize its impact. Presurgical structural analyses of glioma patients’ brains revealed decreases in cortical thickness in the MD system and homotopic areas compared to age- and sex-matched controls. Remarking, normative modelling revealed that the presence of gliomas induced cortical thinning and accelerated ‘brain ageing’, which was partially normalised following surgery and more consistent with healthy adults. In the second set of investigations, I complemented the structural investigation with functional connectomics to demonstrate that gliomas strategically embed themselves within hierarchical gradients and that long-term cognitive deficits result from increased cortical gradient dispersion. Given that meningiomas exert their deleterious effects by compressing brain tissue whereas gliomas infiltrate the tissue, contrasting both patient groups with healthy controls, gliomas decreased global gradient dispersion whereas meningiomas did not. More regionally, to assess mesoscale cortical dynamics, resecting more presurgical connector hubs leads to long-term cognitive deficits whereas resecting provincial hubs did not cause long-term deficits. In addition, changes in perioperative modularity differentiated patients with long-term cognitive deficits from those with long-term improvements. Finally, in the last section of this dissertation, I deployed interventional connectomics to demonstrate how non-invasive brain stimulation is safe and can be utilised in the perioperative setting to promote functional recovery and potentially accelerate long-term cognitive outcomes. Specifically, transcranial magnetic stimulation can be safely applied without causing seizures to improve deficits in motor or language function. In summary, this dissertation presents new evidence on how gliomas embed themselves within the connectome and the clinical utility of connectomics for neurosurgery. Based on connectomic data, the stage is set for future studies to carry this work forward with prospective randomized clinical trials (RCTs) on modulating the presurgical connectome and/or accelerating postsurgical cognitive rehabilitation. Finally, I conclude with providing future directions on how systems neuroscience and functional neurosurgery can be strategically combined to advance the emerging field of cancer neuroscience.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Apolloarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Apolloarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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  • Authors: Nozais, Victor;

    The Functionnectome is a method (and a free open-source program) used to combine fMRI data with white matter connectivity data to map the function of white matter in the living human brain.

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  • Authors: Hanbo Chen; Kaiming Li; Dajiang Zhu; Tianming Liu;

    Recent studies have suggested that structural brain connectivity is strongly correlated with functional connectivity. However, the relationship between structural and functional connectivity at the whole brain connectome scale has been rarely explored. This paper presents a novel framework to infer brain networks that are consistent across multiple neuroimaging modalities and across individuals at the connectome scale. Our basic premise is that the predictability of functional connectivity from structural connectivity within each brain network should be maximized, which is formulated by and solved via a novel feedback-regulated multi-view spectral clustering algorithm. We applied and tested the proposed algorithm on the multimodal structural and functional brain connectomes of 50 healthy subjects, and obtained promising results. Our validation experiments demonstrated that the derived brain networks are in agreement with current neuroscience knowledge and offer novel insights into the close relationship between brain structure and function at the connectome scale.