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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Bapi, Dr. Raju S.; Miyapuram, Mr. K. P.; Graydon, Dr. F. X.; Doya, Dr. Kenji;

    A visuomotor sequence can be learned as a series of visuo-spatial cues or as a sequence of effector movements. Earlier imaging studies have revealed that a network of brain areas is activated in the course of motor sequence learning. However these studies do not address the question of the type of representation being established at various stages of visuomotor sequence learning. In an earlier behavioral study, we demonstrated that acquisition of visuo-spatial sequence representation enables rapid learning in the early stage and progressive establishment of somato-motor representation helps speedier execution by the late stage. We conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments wherein subjects learned and practiced the same sequence alternately in normal and rotated settings. In one rotated setting (visual), subjects learned a new motor sequence in response to an identical sequence of visual cues as in normal. In another rotated setting (motor), the display sequence was altered as compared to normal, but the same sequence of effector movements were used to perform the sequence. Comparison of different rotated settings revealed analogous transitions both in the cortical and subcortical sites during visuomotor sequence learning  a transition of activity from parietal to parietal-premotor and then to premotor cortex and a concomitant shift was observed from anterior putamen to a combined activity in both anterior and posterior putamen and finally to posterior putamen. These results suggest a putative role for engagement of different cortical and subcortical networks at various stages of learning in supporting distinct sequence representations.

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    Authors: Miyapuram, Krishna P.;

    This provides an introduction to functional MRI, experimental design and data analysis procedures using statistical parametric mapping approach.

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    Authors: Miyapuram, Krishna P.; Pammi, V. S. Chandrasekhar; Ahmed, Ahmed; Bapi, Raju S.;

    Neuroimaging in vivo is becoming popular from the last two decades. The primary quest of neuroimaging is to better-understanding the functions of various brain areas pertaining to various cognitive processes of interest. Though there are several neuroimaging techniques available currently, the functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is playing an important role in the field of Imaging Neuroscience. In this paper an introduction to fMRI, the issues related to experimental design and analysis will be presented. This paper also discusses some of the neuroinformatics tools available for fMRI research.

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    Authors: Jancke, L.; Staiger, J.F.; Schlaug, G.; Huang, Y.; +1 Authors

    Using high-resolution in vivo magnetic resonance morphometry we measured forebrain volume (FBV), midsagittal size of the corpus callosum (CC) and four CC subareas in 120 young and healthy adults (49 women, 71 men). We found moderate linear and quadratic correlations, indicating that the CC and all CC subareas increase with FBV both in men and women (multiple r2 ranging from 0.10 to 0.28). Allometric equations revealed that these increases were less than proportional to FBV (r2 ranging from 0.02 to 0.30). Absolute CC measurements, as well as CC subareas relative to total CC or FBV (the latter measures termed the CC ratios), were further analyzed with regard to possible effects of handedness, gender, or handedness by gender interaction. Contrary to previous reports, left-handers did not show larger CC measurements compared to right-handers. The only apparent influence of gender was on the CC ratios, which were larger in women. However, smaller brains had larger CC ratios which were mainly independent of gender, a result of the less than proportional increase of callosal size with FBV. We suggest that the previously described gender differences in CC anatomy may be better explained by an underlying effect of brain size, with larger brains having relatively smaller callosa. This lends empirical support to the hypothesis that brain size may be an important factor influencing interhemispheric connectivity and lateralization

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    Authors: Klein, Arno; Ghosh, Satrajit;
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    Authors: Bullock, T.H.;

    Two classes of electrical activity in the central nervous system have been known for a long time: spikes with synaptic potentials and "slow" fluctuations (components mainly below ca. 100 Hz). Their relations to each other are still little known and an unfortunate schism persists in mutual disparagement by investigators who chiefly study one class or the other. The news I wish to highlight is that this schism is waning and this essay will be outmoded as more workers study both. I focus here on the class of slow potentials which in certain respects is the more neglected. This class should extend down into the less-known "infraslow" domain (power mainly below 0.1 Hz) - omnipresent, higher in amplitude and clearly significant functionally.

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    Authors: Lamm, Claus; Bauer, Herbert; Vitouch, Oliver; Durec, Susanne; +2 Authors

    As is known from psychometrics, restriction of task processing time by the instruction to respond as quickly and accurately as possible leads to task-unspecific cognitive processing. Since this task processing mode is used in most functional neuroimaging studies of human cognition, this may evoke cortical activity that is functionally not essential for the particular task under investigation. Using topographic recordings of event-related slow cortical potentials, two experiments have been performed to investigate whether cortical activity during processing of a visuo-spatial imagery task is substantially influenced by the time provided to process the task. Furthermore, it was investigated whether this effect is additionally modulated by a subject’s task-specific ability. The instruction to respond as quickly and accurately as possible led to increased negative slow cortical potential amplitudes over parietal and frontal regions and significantly interacted with task-specific ability. While cortical activity recorded over parietal and frontal regions was different between subjects with low and high spatial ability when processing time was unrestricted, no such differences were found between ability groups when subjects were instructed to answer both quickly and accurately. These results suggest that restricting processing time has considerable effects on the amount and the pattern of brain activity during cognitive processing and should be taken into account more explicitly in the experimental design and interpretation of neuroimaging studies of cognition.

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    Authors: Klein, Arno; Ghosh, Satrajit;

    The proposed research develops new computational tools to identify, diagnose, and predict treatment outcome for different mental illnesses. The research will be applied first to major depressive disorder, which affects millions of Americans, but is intended to be applied to any mental illness, such as Alzheimer’s disease, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia – indeed to analyze differences in brain structure, activity, or connectivity between any two populations.

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    Authors: Candelario-Jalil, Dr. Eduardo; Taheri, Dr. Saeid; Yang, Dr. Yi; Sood, Dr. Rohit; +4 Authors

    Increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is important in neurological disorders. Neuroinflammation is associated with increased BBB breakdown and brain injury. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a) is involved in BBB injury and edema formation through a mechanism involving matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) upregulation. There is emerging evidence indicating that cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition limits BBB disruption following ischemic stroke and bacterial meningitis, but the mechanisms involved are not known. We used intracerebral injection of TNF-a to study the effect of COX inhibition on TNF-a-induced BBB breakdown, MMP expression/activity and oxidative stress. BBB disruption was evaluated by the uptake of 14C-sucrose into the brain and by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) utilizing Gd-DTPA as a paramagnetic contrast agent. Using selective inhibitors of each COX isoform, we found that COX-1 activity is more important than COX-2 in BBB opening. TNF-a induced a significant upregulation of gelatinase B (MMP-9), stromelysin-1 (MMP-3) and COX-2. In addition, TNF-a significantly depleted glutathione as compared to saline. Indomethacin (10 mg/kg; i.p.), an inhibitor of COX-1 and COX-2, reduced BBB damage at 24 h. Indomethacin significantly attenuated MMP-9 and MMP-3 expression and activation, and prevented the loss of endogenous radical scavenging capacity following intracerebral injection of TNF-a. Our results show for the first time that BBB disruption during neuroinflammation can be significantly reduced by administration of COX inhibitors. Modulation of COX in brain injury by COX inhibitors or agents modulating prostaglandin E2 formation/signaling may be useful in clinical settings associated with BBB disruption.

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    Authors: Reid, Mark D;

    Working with multi-species allometric relations and drawing on mammalian theorist Denenberg’s works, I provide an explanatory theory of the mammalian dual-brain as no prior account has.

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    Authors: Bapi, Dr. Raju S.; Miyapuram, Mr. K. P.; Graydon, Dr. F. X.; Doya, Dr. Kenji;

    A visuomotor sequence can be learned as a series of visuo-spatial cues or as a sequence of effector movements. Earlier imaging studies have revealed that a network of brain areas is activated in the course of motor sequence learning. However these studies do not address the question of the type of representation being established at various stages of visuomotor sequence learning. In an earlier behavioral study, we demonstrated that acquisition of visuo-spatial sequence representation enables rapid learning in the early stage and progressive establishment of somato-motor representation helps speedier execution by the late stage. We conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments wherein subjects learned and practiced the same sequence alternately in normal and rotated settings. In one rotated setting (visual), subjects learned a new motor sequence in response to an identical sequence of visual cues as in normal. In another rotated setting (motor), the display sequence was altered as compared to normal, but the same sequence of effector movements were used to perform the sequence. Comparison of different rotated settings revealed analogous transitions both in the cortical and subcortical sites during visuomotor sequence learning  a transition of activity from parietal to parietal-premotor and then to premotor cortex and a concomitant shift was observed from anterior putamen to a combined activity in both anterior and posterior putamen and finally to posterior putamen. These results suggest a putative role for engagement of different cortical and subcortical networks at various stages of learning in supporting distinct sequence representations.

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    Authors: Miyapuram, Krishna P.;

    This provides an introduction to functional MRI, experimental design and data analysis procedures using statistical parametric mapping approach.

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    Authors: Miyapuram, Krishna P.; Pammi, V. S. Chandrasekhar; Ahmed, Ahmed; Bapi, Raju S.;

    Neuroimaging in vivo is becoming popular from the last two decades. The primary quest of neuroimaging is to better-understanding the functions of various brain areas pertaining to various cognitive processes of interest. Though there are several neuroimaging techniques available currently, the functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is playing an important role in the field of Imaging Neuroscience. In this paper an introduction to fMRI, the issues related to experimental design and analysis will be presented. This paper also discusses some of the neuroinformatics tools available for fMRI research.

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    Authors: Jancke, L.; Staiger, J.F.; Schlaug, G.; Huang, Y.; +1 Authors

    Using high-resolution in vivo magnetic resonance morphometry we measured forebrain volume (FBV), midsagittal size of the corpus callosum (CC) and four CC subareas in 120 young and healthy adults (49 women, 71 men). We found moderate linear and quadratic correlations, indicating that the CC and all CC subareas increase with FBV both in men and women (multiple r2 ranging from 0.10 to 0.28). Allometric equations revealed that these increases were less than proportional to FBV (r2 ranging from 0.02 to 0.30). Absolute CC measurements, as well as CC subareas relative to total CC or FBV (the latter measures termed the CC ratios), were further analyzed with regard to possible effects of handedness, gender, or handedness by gender interaction. Contrary to previous reports, left-handers did not show larger CC measurements compared to right-handers. The only apparent influence of gender was on the CC ratios, which were larger in women. However, smaller brains had larger CC ratios which were mainly independent of gender, a result of the less than proportional increase of callosal size with FBV. We suggest that the previously described gender differences in CC anatomy may be better explained by an underlying effect of brain size, with larger brains having relatively smaller callosa. This lends empirical support to the hypothesis that brain size may be an important factor influencing interhemispheric connectivity and lateralization

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    Authors: Klein, Arno; Ghosh, Satrajit;
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    Authors: Bullock, T.H.;

    Two classes of electrical activity in the central nervous system have been known for a long time: spikes with synaptic potentials and "slow" fluctuations (components mainly below ca. 100 Hz). Their relations to each other are still little known and an unfortunate schism persists in mutual disparagement by investigators who chiefly study one class or the other. The news I wish to highlight is that this schism is waning and this essay will be outmoded as more workers study both. I focus here on the class of slow potentials which in certain respects is the more neglected. This class should extend down into the less-known "infraslow" domain (power mainly below 0.1 Hz) - omnipresent, higher in amplitude and clearly significant functionally.

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    Authors: Lamm, Claus; Bauer, Herbert; Vitouch, Oliver; Durec, Susanne; +2 Authors

    As is known from psychometrics, restriction of task processing time by the instruction to respond as quickly and accurately as possible leads to task-unspecific cognitive processing. Since this task processing mode is used in most functional neuroimaging studies of human cognition, this may evoke cortical activity that is functionally not essential for the particular task under investigation. Using topographic recordings of event-related slow cortical potentials, two experiments have been performed to investigate whether cortical activity during processing of a visuo-spatial imagery task is substantially influenced by the time provided to process the task. Furthermore, it was investigated whether this effect is additionally modulated by a subject’s task-specific ability. The instruction to respond as quickly and accurately as possible led to increased negative slow cortical potential amplitudes over parietal and frontal regions and significantly interacted with task-specific ability. While cortical activity recorded over parietal and frontal regions was different between subjects with low and high spatial ability when processing time was unrestricted, no such differences were found between ability groups when subjects were instructed to answer both quickly and accurately. These results suggest that restricting processing time has considerable effects on the amount and the pattern of brain activity during cognitive processing and should be taken into account more explicitly in the experimental design and interpretation of neuroimaging studies of cognition.

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    Authors: Klein, Arno; Ghosh, Satrajit;

    The proposed research develops new computational tools to identify, diagnose, and predict treatment outcome for different mental illnesses. The research will be applied first to major depressive disorder, which affects millions of Americans, but is intended to be applied to any mental illness, such as Alzheimer’s disease, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia – indeed to analyze differences in brain structure, activity, or connectivity between any two populations.

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    Authors: Candelario-Jalil, Dr. Eduardo; Taheri, Dr. Saeid; Yang, Dr. Yi; Sood, Dr. Rohit; +4 Authors

    Increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is important in neurological disorders. Neuroinflammation is associated with increased BBB breakdown and brain injury. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a) is involved in BBB injury and edema formation through a mechanism involving matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) upregulation. There is emerging evidence indicating that cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition limits BBB disruption following ischemic stroke and bacterial meningitis, but the mechanisms involved are not known. We used intracerebral injection of TNF-a to study the effect of COX inhibition on TNF-a-induced BBB breakdown, MMP expression/activity and oxidative stress. BBB disruption was evaluated by the uptake of 14C-sucrose into the brain and by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) utilizing Gd-DTPA as a paramagnetic contrast agent. Using selective inhibitors of each COX isoform, we found that COX-1 activity is more important than COX-2 in BBB opening. TNF-a induced a significant upregulation of gelatinase B (MMP-9), stromelysin-1 (MMP-3) and COX-2. In addition, TNF-a significantly depleted glutathione as compared to saline. Indomethacin (10 mg/kg; i.p.), an inhibitor of COX-1 and COX-2, reduced BBB damage at 24 h. Indomethacin significantly attenuated MMP-9 and MMP-3 expression and activation, and prevented the loss of endogenous radical scavenging capacity following intracerebral injection of TNF-a. Our results show for the first time that BBB disruption during neuroinflammation can be significantly reduced by administration of COX inhibitors. Modulation of COX in brain injury by COX inhibitors or agents modulating prostaglandin E2 formation/signaling may be useful in clinical settings associated with BBB disruption.

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    Authors: Reid, Mark D;

    Working with multi-species allometric relations and drawing on mammalian theorist Denenberg’s works, I provide an explanatory theory of the mammalian dual-brain as no prior account has.

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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Cognitive Sciences e...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/