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  • Mémoires en Sciences de l'Information et de la Communication
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Chounet, François;

    Pour comprendre les enjeux li´es `a l’endettement public dans la cr´edibilit´e des accords mon´etairesdans le cas de l’entre-deux-guerres, nous ´etudierons l’influence de l’endettement public sur l’´etalon-or,de sa fondation dans la seconde moiti´e du XIXe si`ecle, `a son abandon au cours de la grande d´epression.La qualit´e des finances publiques, en particulier l’endettement public, fut d´eterminante dans la capacit´ed’une nation `a adh´erer `a cet accord mon´etaire. L’endettement public joua aussi un rˆole d´ecisif dans lafin de ces syst`emes mon´etaires, `a l’issue de la Grande Guerre et lors de la grande d´epression. Dans unsecond temps, notre d´emarche consistera `a comprendre les m´ecanismes qui conduisirent l’endettementpublic `a ˆetre en partie responsable de la fin de l’´etalon de change-or et de l’´emergence de nouveauxblocs mon´etaires dans les ann´ees trente. Face `a la grande d´epression, les modalit´es d’organisation et defonctionnement de cet accord mon´etaire, rendirent impossible son maintien. Si les variables ´economiqueset politiques furent d´eterminantes dans son abandon, celles d’endettement public jou`erent aussi. Apr`esavoir d´ecrit les modalit´es de sortie de l’´etalon de change-or, nous montrerons les m´ecanismes th´eoriquesqui lient les crises mon´etaires et les crises d’endettement et les appliquerons `a la grande d´epression. Nous´etudierons en particulier le cas de la France. Nous montrerons `a l’aide d’un mod`ele de dur´ee, l’influencede la dette publique dans le maintien des parit´es-or pendant la crise. Enfin, nous verrons comment denouveaux blocs mon´etaires se form`erent. To understand the challenges linked to public debt in credibility of monetary agreementsbetween the World Wars, we shall study influence of public debt on the gold standard, from its founda-tion in the second half of the XIXth century to end during the Great Depression. The quality of publicfinances, in particular the public debt, was determining in the capacity of a nation to subscribe to thismonetary agreement. The public debt also had a decisive role in the end of these monetary systems, atthe end of World War I and during the Great Depression. In a second part, our approach will consistin understanding mechanisms which led public debt to be partly accountable for the end of the gold-exchange standard and the rise of new monetary blocks in the thirties. Facing the Great Depression, themodalities of organization and functioning of this monetary agreement, made impossible to sustain it. Ifeconomic and political variables were determining in its end, variables linked to public debt played too.Having described modalities of release of gold-exchange standard, we shall show the theoretical mecha-nisms which link monetary crisis and debts crisis and we will applied them to the Great Depression. Wewill study in particular the case of France. We shall show using a duration model, influence of publicdebt in preservation of gold parity during the crisis. Finally, we shall see how new monetary blocks formed.

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    Other literature type . 2016
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    Oskar Bordeaux
    Doctoral thesis
    Data sources: Oskar Bordeaux
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    Authors: Masson, Eric; Bruyère-Masson, Virginie; Vuillaume, Philippe; Lemoyne, Sylvain; +1 Authors

    International audience

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    Hyper Article en Ligne
    Other literature type . 1999
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Hal-Diderot
    Other literature type . 1999
    Data sources: Hal-Diderot
    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 1999
    Data sources: Hal-Diderot
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Hyper Article en Lig...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Hyper Article en Ligne
      Other literature type . 1999
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Hal-Diderot
      Other literature type . 1999
      Data sources: Hal-Diderot
      Hal-Diderot
      Article . 1999
      Data sources: Hal-Diderot
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Huyghe, Richard;

    Cet article présente un état de la réflexion sur la sémantique des noms d’action (Nact) en français. Il s’agit dans un premier temps de déterminer les critères d’identification qui s’appliquent à l’ensemble des Nact, au-delà des prototypes déverbaux, agentifs et prédicatifs. L’aspect dynamique apparaît comme l’élément de définition fondamental de la catégorie. Il implique la double construction avec des expressions temporelles (de localisation ou de durée) et des verbes supports d’action ou d’événement (effectuer, avoir lieu, etc.). L’organisation interne de la classe des Nact est ensuite étudiée, et différents principes d’hétérogénéité sémantique sont détaillés. Il est établi que l’aspect nominal n’est pas calqué sur le modèle verbal, et que certaines propriétés descriptives, touchant à l’individuation des actions et à leur forme de réalisation, relèvent spécifiquement du domaine nominal. Sont enfin examinées les propriétés polysémiques des Nact, d’après leur capacité à dénoter d’autres participants de l’action (agents, instruments, résultats, etc.) et à associer en contexte les interprétations multiples. This paper provides a state-of-the-art overview of the semantics of action nouns (ANs) in French. First, the definition of ANs is investigated, as it should apply to all ANs, not only to prototypical deverbal, agentive and predicative nouns. Dynamicity appears to be the main definitional criterion, which implies that ANs occur with both temporal expressions (of location or duration) and actional or eventive light verbs (effectuer ‘make’, avoir lieu ‘take place’, etc.). Second, the heterogeneity of the AN category is studied, and some semantic differences between ANs are highlighted. It is claimed that nominal aspect does not tally with verbal aspect: there are semantic features related to the individuation of events and the way they occur that only exist in the nominal domain. Third, the polysemy of ANs is scrutinized regarding their ability to denote other participants in the event (agents, instruments, results, etc.), and their ability to combine multiple interpretations in context.

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    Hyper Article en Ligne
    Other literature type . 2014
    HAL-Inserm
    Article . 2014
    Data sources: HAL-Inserm
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    This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

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    Authors: Genicot, B; Peckova, M; Close, R; Lindsey, Jk; +2 Authors

    International audience

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Hyper Article en Lig...arrow_drop_down
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    Hyper Article en Ligne; Hal-Diderot
    Other literature type . Article . 1994
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Hyper Article en Lig...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Hyper Article en Ligne; Hal-Diderot
      Other literature type . Article . 1994
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Authors: MALINGUMU SYOSYO, Crispin;

    Le présent article a pour objectif d'identifier la nature réelle du marché des télécommunications mobiles en République Démocratique du Congo. L'étude indique que le taux de pénétration du mobile est de 44,6% à fin 2014, supérieur à la moyenne africaine de 37%. Entre 2002 et 2007, le marché de la téléphonie mobile congolais est passé d'une structure oligopolistique à une concurrence monopolistique. Les nouvelles firmes accèdent sur le marché par l'acquisition des infrastructures des firmes suiveuses et, exceptionnellement, par l'investissement direct étranger. Dans la conquête des parts des marches, deux groupes d'acteurs interagissent sur le marché : les leaders qui commandent le jeu du marché et les suiveurs qui calquent leur comportement sur celui de leaders. L'étude révèle qu'en matière de tarification, les firmes optent pour deux modes : en prépayé et en mode post-paiement auquel est associé le principe de modulation horaire. L'étude indique, en outre que, la vive compétition entre les opérateurs passe par des stratégies marketing favorable à la qualité de service que par celle de réduction du prix des communications. Elle suggère aux pouvoirs publics de mettre en place un cadre réglementaire obligeant aux firmes d'assurer l'accès à leurs réseaux et définissant les normes de qualité en matière d'interconnexion et de service aux consommateurs. This article aims to identify the real nature of the mobile telecommunications market in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The study indicates that the mobile penetration rate is 44.6% at the end of 2014, higher than the African average of 37%. Between 2002 and 2007, the Congolese mobile market evolved from an oligopolistic structure to monopolistic competition. The new firms enter to the market through the acquisition of infrastructure from follower firms and exceptionally by foreign direct investment. In the conquest of the market shares, two groups of actors interact in the market: the leaders who control the market forces and followers who mimic their behavior on that of leaders. The study reveals that in terms of pricing, firms choose two modes: prepaid and post-payment method which is associated with the principle of hourly modulation. The study also indicates that the intense competition between operators is through marketing strategies favorable to the quality of service rather than by the reduction in the price of communications. It suggests to the government to set up a regulatory framework requiring firms to provide access to their networks and defining quality standards for interconnection and service to consumers.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Hyper Article en Lig...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Soulé, C; Guillou, Jp; Vallet, C; Perret, C; +1 Authors

    International audience

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    Hal-Diderot
    Other literature type . 1994
    Data sources: Hal-Diderot
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Hyper Article en Ligne
    Other literature type . 1994
    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 1994
    Data sources: Hal-Diderot
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      Hal-Diderot
      Other literature type . 1994
      Data sources: Hal-Diderot
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      Hyper Article en Ligne
      Other literature type . 1994
      Hal-Diderot
      Article . 1994
      Data sources: Hal-Diderot
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    Authors: Paviot, Y.;

    Les technologies actuelles permettent l'intégration de systèmes de plus en plus complexes sur une seule puce. L'augmentation de la complexité induit un accroissement du temps de conception alors que paradoxalement, le concurrence économique impose des temps de mise sur le marché de plus en plus courts. Pour tenter de limiter ce décalage et d'accroître la productivité, l'industrie fait de plus en plus appel à la réutilisation de composants logiciels et matériels pour concevoir leurs systèmes.L'un des problèmes de ce type de conception est celui de la réalisation de la communication entre composants. Cette thèse traite de la communication entre processeurs réalisée par des interfaces mixtes logicielles/matérielles. Leur difficulté de conception et l'impact du choix de partitionnement entre parties logicielles et matérielles nécessitent le développement de méthodes de génération automatique d'interfaces logicielles/matérielles pour l'exploration du partitionnement des services de communication.La contribution de cette thèse consiste en une formalisation des problèmes liés à l'implémentation mixte logicielle/matérielle des services de communication et une proposition de flot pour la génération automatique d'interfaces. Des expériences de réalisations de primitives MPI ont permis d'appréhender le problème et de proposer un flot de génération automatique. Current technologies enable the integration of more and more complex systems on a single chip. The increase in complexity leads to an increase of design time whereas economical competition demands to ever shorter time to market. In order to try to fill this gap and to increase productivity, reuse of HW and SW components to design systems is used more and more by industrial firms.One problem of these design methodologies is about communication between components. The topic of this thesis is hardware/software interface implementation for communication between processors. Interface design difficulties and impact of hardware/software partitioning require automatic interfaces generation in order to enable exploration of partitioning solutions.The contributions of this thesis are formalization of problems with regard to communication services implementation by hardware/software interface, and a suggestion of an automatic interfaces generation flow. Two experiences with MPI implementations led to understanding of the partitioning problematics and to an automatic generation flow.

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    Authors: Lewis, François;

    Les stents coronariens sont des dispositifs médicaux utilisés pour soutenir mécaniquement les artères atteintes d'athérosclérose. Cette maladie se caractérise par l'accumulation de dépôts lipidiques à la surface des parois artérielles, ce qui provoque une diminution du diamètre effectif de l'artère et la perturbation du débit sanguin. Les stents sont principalement constitués d'une structure métallique recouverte d'un polymère. Malgré leur succès commercial, plusieurs lacunes au niveau de l'adhérence sont rapportées à la suite de leur expansion, telles que des délaminations et l'apparition de fissures. Ces défaillances affectent notamment l'efficacité des stents. L'objectif de cette thèse est donc d'étudier cette problématique en utilisant des revêtements fluorocarbonés déposés par plasmas. Ces travaux doctoraux proposent une nouvelle technique d'évaluation de l'adhérence appelée, le Small Punch Test. Cette méthode reproduit l'expansion d'un stent sur des échantillons plats ce qui facilite les caractérisations des revêtements après déformation. Des caractérisations au microscope électronique à balayage ainsi qu'au microscope à force atomique ont permis d'évaluer l'influence de l'épaisseur des revêtements sur leur cohésion. Des fissures ont été observées sur les échantillons possédant une épaisseur supérieure à 35 nm. Afin de déposer des revêtements à faible teneur en nano-pores et d'augmenter leur stabilité en milieu aqueux, ces travaux étudient également la croissance et les propriétés des revêtements fluorocarbonés en fonction de différents décapages plasmas. Les décapages d'hydrogène ont notamment conduit à la formation d'hydroxydes à la surface de l'acier qui ont agit comme initiateur à la polymérisation. Le revêtement ainsi formé possède une teneur réduite en nano-pores, est riche en CF2 et est composé de longues chaînes polymères tel qu'observé par XPS, ToF-SIMS et FTIR. Cependant, les décapages plasmas ont modifié et réduit l'épaisseur de la couche d'oxyde de l'acier inoxydable ce qui l'a rendue plus sensible à une post-oxydation Coronary stents are medical devices used to provide internal scaffolding to stenosed arteries. This disease is characterized by the deposition of lipids on the artery wall, a decrease of the artery diameter and blood flow disturbance. The stents are mainly made of a metal structure coated with a polymer film. Despite their commercial success, many adhesion problems are reported after their expansion, such as coating delamination and cracking. These coating failures decrease the stent's efficiency and durability. The aim of this thesis was to study this problem using fluorocarbon coatings deposited by plasma polymerization This thesis proposes a new technique, named Small Punch Test, to evaluate the coating adhesion. This method simulates the stent expansion on flat substrates, which facilitates the evaluation of the coating properties after deformation. Scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope investigations showed the importance of the coating thickness on their cohesion properties. Cracks were observed on specimens with a coating thickness higher than 35 nm. To deposit coatings with a low density of nano-defects and to increase their stability in aqueous media, this research investigates the growth and properties of fluorocarbon films deposited on plasma etched substrates. Hydrogen plasma played a key role, with the formation of hydroxide as film growth initiator. During the first polymerization steps, hydroxides may lead to the formation of fluorocarbon coatings with low nano-defect density, high content in CF2 and long polymer chains, as observed by XPS, ToF-SIMS and FTIR. However, plasma etchings modified and lowered the oxide layer thickness of stainless steel and increased the sensitivity of samples to post-oxidation

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  • Authors: Ferrand, Mathieu;

    La farse d’Amphitrion paraît à Anvers en 1504, dans un recueil de vers anonymes. Il s’agit de la première traduction française d’une comédie plautinienne. L’analyse du texte et du paratexte permet d’abord de reconstituer le portrait intellectuel de l’auteur — un poète de la cour de Bourgogne — et de proposer une identification. L’analyse de la traduction permet ensuite d’apprécier comment le poète comprend la langue plautinienne, souvent difficile, et comment il tente de traduire sa vis comica. Une attention toute particulière est portée à la façon dont il rend l’agilité verbale de Plaute (jeux de mots, expressions imagées, stichomythies, etc.) et ses jeux de scène, utilisant pour cela les ressources du théâtre — et notamment du théâtre contemporain. Le poète bourguignon offre ainsi à ses lecteurs un texte non seulement fidèle à son modèle, mais aussi lisible et efficace. La farse d’Amphitrion [The Farce of Amphitryon] was published in Anvers in 1504, in a collection of anonymous verse. It was the first French translation of a Plautine comedy. First, textual and paratextual analysis enables us to reconstruct an intellectual portrait of the author — a poet in the court of Burgundy — and to propose an identification. Analysis of the translation then reveals how the poet understood Plautine language, which was often difficult, and how he sought to translate his vis comica. Special attention is given to the way in which he renders Plautus’ verbal agility (word play, imagery, stichomythias, etc.) and his stage games, using the resources of the theatre — and notably of contemporary theatre. The Burgundian poet offered his readers a text which was not only faithful to its original, but also readable and effective.

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    Authors: Côté, Denyse;

    International audience; Depuis l’arrivée au pouvoir du Parti québécois en 1994, les politiques publiques ont été conçues de façon à continuer la restructuration néolibérale de l’État amorcée par les Libéraux, tout en y ajoutant certaines caractéristiques propres à la social-démocratie. Le gouvernement du Québec doit en effet composer avec des mouvements sociaux forts dont il requiert l’appui pour son projet nationaliste. Son aile gauche est très articulée et plusieurs députés et ministres sont même issus des rangs des organisations populaires,syndicales et des groupes de femmes.

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    Authors: Chounet, François;

    Pour comprendre les enjeux li´es `a l’endettement public dans la cr´edibilit´e des accords mon´etairesdans le cas de l’entre-deux-guerres, nous ´etudierons l’influence de l’endettement public sur l’´etalon-or,de sa fondation dans la seconde moiti´e du XIXe si`ecle, `a son abandon au cours de la grande d´epression.La qualit´e des finances publiques, en particulier l’endettement public, fut d´eterminante dans la capacit´ed’une nation `a adh´erer `a cet accord mon´etaire. L’endettement public joua aussi un rˆole d´ecisif dans lafin de ces syst`emes mon´etaires, `a l’issue de la Grande Guerre et lors de la grande d´epression. Dans unsecond temps, notre d´emarche consistera `a comprendre les m´ecanismes qui conduisirent l’endettementpublic `a ˆetre en partie responsable de la fin de l’´etalon de change-or et de l’´emergence de nouveauxblocs mon´etaires dans les ann´ees trente. Face `a la grande d´epression, les modalit´es d’organisation et defonctionnement de cet accord mon´etaire, rendirent impossible son maintien. Si les variables ´economiqueset politiques furent d´eterminantes dans son abandon, celles d’endettement public jou`erent aussi. Apr`esavoir d´ecrit les modalit´es de sortie de l’´etalon de change-or, nous montrerons les m´ecanismes th´eoriquesqui lient les crises mon´etaires et les crises d’endettement et les appliquerons `a la grande d´epression. Nous´etudierons en particulier le cas de la France. Nous montrerons `a l’aide d’un mod`ele de dur´ee, l’influencede la dette publique dans le maintien des parit´es-or pendant la crise. Enfin, nous verrons comment denouveaux blocs mon´etaires se form`erent. To understand the challenges linked to public debt in credibility of monetary agreementsbetween the World Wars, we shall study influence of public debt on the gold standard, from its founda-tion in the second half of the XIXth century to end during the Great Depression. The quality of publicfinances, in particular the public debt, was determining in the capacity of a nation to subscribe to thismonetary agreement. The public debt also had a decisive role in the end of these monetary systems, atthe end of World War I and during the Great Depression. In a second part, our approach will consistin understanding mechanisms which led public debt to be partly accountable for the end of the gold-exchange standard and the rise of new monetary blocks in the thirties. Facing the Great Depression, themodalities of organization and functioning of this monetary agreement, made impossible to sustain it. Ifeconomic and political variables were determining in its end, variables linked to public debt played too.Having described modalities of release of gold-exchange standard, we shall show the theoretical mecha-nisms which link monetary crisis and debts crisis and we will applied them to the Great Depression. Wewill study in particular the case of France. We shall show using a duration model, influence of publicdebt in preservation of gold parity during the crisis. Finally, we shall see how new monetary blocks formed.

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    Oskar Bordeaux
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    Authors: Masson, Eric; Bruyère-Masson, Virginie; Vuillaume, Philippe; Lemoyne, Sylvain; +1 Authors

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    Authors: Huyghe, Richard;

    Cet article présente un état de la réflexion sur la sémantique des noms d’action (Nact) en français. Il s’agit dans un premier temps de déterminer les critères d’identification qui s’appliquent à l’ensemble des Nact, au-delà des prototypes déverbaux, agentifs et prédicatifs. L’aspect dynamique apparaît comme l’élément de définition fondamental de la catégorie. Il implique la double construction avec des expressions temporelles (de localisation ou de durée) et des verbes supports d’action ou d’événement (effectuer, avoir lieu, etc.). L’organisation interne de la classe des Nact est ensuite étudiée, et différents principes d’hétérogénéité sémantique sont détaillés. Il est établi que l’aspect nominal n’est pas calqué sur le modèle verbal, et que certaines propriétés descriptives, touchant à l’individuation des actions et à leur forme de réalisation, relèvent spécifiquement du domaine nominal. Sont enfin examinées les propriétés polysémiques des Nact, d’après leur capacité à dénoter d’autres participants de l’action (agents, instruments, résultats, etc.) et à associer en contexte les interprétations multiples. This paper provides a state-of-the-art overview of the semantics of action nouns (ANs) in French. First, the definition of ANs is investigated, as it should apply to all ANs, not only to prototypical deverbal, agentive and predicative nouns. Dynamicity appears to be the main definitional criterion, which implies that ANs occur with both temporal expressions (of location or duration) and actional or eventive light verbs (effectuer ‘make’, avoir lieu ‘take place’, etc.). Second, the heterogeneity of the AN category is studied, and some semantic differences between ANs are highlighted. It is claimed that nominal aspect does not tally with verbal aspect: there are semantic features related to the individuation of events and the way they occur that only exist in the nominal domain. Third, the polysemy of ANs is scrutinized regarding their ability to denote other participants in the event (agents, instruments, results, etc.), and their ability to combine multiple interpretations in context.

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    Authors: Genicot, B; Peckova, M; Close, R; Lindsey, Jk; +2 Authors

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      Other literature type . Article . 1994
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    Authors: MALINGUMU SYOSYO, Crispin;

    Le présent article a pour objectif d'identifier la nature réelle du marché des télécommunications mobiles en République Démocratique du Congo. L'étude indique que le taux de pénétration du mobile est de 44,6% à fin 2014, supérieur à la moyenne africaine de 37%. Entre 2002 et 2007, le marché de la téléphonie mobile congolais est passé d'une structure oligopolistique à une concurrence monopolistique. Les nouvelles firmes accèdent sur le marché par l'acquisition des infrastructures des firmes suiveuses et, exceptionnellement, par l'investissement direct étranger. Dans la conquête des parts des marches, deux groupes d'acteurs interagissent sur le marché : les leaders qui commandent le jeu du marché et les suiveurs qui calquent leur comportement sur celui de leaders. L'étude révèle qu'en matière de tarification, les firmes optent pour deux modes : en prépayé et en mode post-paiement auquel est associé le principe de modulation horaire. L'étude indique, en outre que, la vive compétition entre les opérateurs passe par des stratégies marketing favorable à la qualité de service que par celle de réduction du prix des communications. Elle suggère aux pouvoirs publics de mettre en place un cadre réglementaire obligeant aux firmes d'assurer l'accès à leurs réseaux et définissant les normes de qualité en matière d'interconnexion et de service aux consommateurs. This article aims to identify the real nature of the mobile telecommunications market in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The study indicates that the mobile penetration rate is 44.6% at the end of 2014, higher than the African average of 37%. Between 2002 and 2007, the Congolese mobile market evolved from an oligopolistic structure to monopolistic competition. The new firms enter to the market through the acquisition of infrastructure from follower firms and exceptionally by foreign direct investment. In the conquest of the market shares, two groups of actors interact in the market: the leaders who control the market forces and followers who mimic their behavior on that of leaders. The study reveals that in terms of pricing, firms choose two modes: prepaid and post-payment method which is associated with the principle of hourly modulation. The study also indicates that the intense competition between operators is through marketing strategies favorable to the quality of service rather than by the reduction in the price of communications. It suggests to the government to set up a regulatory framework requiring firms to provide access to their networks and defining quality standards for interconnection and service to consumers.

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    Authors: Soulé, C; Guillou, Jp; Vallet, C; Perret, C; +1 Authors

    International audience

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    Other literature type . 1994
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    Article . 1994
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      Hal-Diderot
      Other literature type . 1994
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Hyper Article en Ligne
      Other literature type . 1994
      Hal-Diderot
      Article . 1994
      Data sources: Hal-Diderot