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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Vidal, Jérémie; Su, Sylvie; Cébron, David;

    Acoustic eigenmodes are often used to passively infer physical properties of the interiors of rotating planets and stars. Acoustic wave imaging has been also introduced in fluid dynamics. The experimental technique consists in observing and analysing the splitting in frequency of the acoustic modes, by solving an inverse problem. For instance, the presence of an (unknown) rotational profile disturbs the acoustic spectrum. Moreover, a topographic splitting is often superimposed on the rotational splitting. Indeed, rotating celestial objects are rather ellipsoidal than spherical at the leading order, as well as laboratory experiments which are weakly non-spherical (due to mechanical deformations). Rotation and topography should be taken into account simultaneously, but the acoustic problem does not admit exact solutions in the presence of rotation. Fully numerical solutions are often computed. However, they cannot be easily combined with inversion schemes to yield robust results. Hence, the usual approach is to consider small perturbations to non-rotating solutions. As an alternative, we present a new description of the compressible modes, relying on the method of weighted residuals. Here, we present a new spectral method to describe potential flows in triaxial ellipsoids. It relies on an explicit Galerkin expansion, made of global polynomials expressed in Cartesian coordinates. We illustrate this method by considering the canonical situation of diffusionless acoustic modes in an homogeneous, compressible and homentropic fluid ellipsoid at rest. The pressure satisfies a Dirichlet condition (sound soft boundary). We validate our results against fully numerical simulations performed with the commercial software comsol, showing a perfect quantitative agreement. This new method will be extended to include additional effects and alternative boundary conditions. Les modes acoustiques sont couramment utilisés pour déterminer les propriétés physiques de l'intérieur des planètes et des étoiles. La méthode d'imagerie par vélocimétrie acoustique a été récemment introduite en mécanique des fluides, en complément des méthodes d'imagerie existantes. Elle consiste à reconstruire l'écoulement à partir de la levée de dégénérescence des modes acoustiques, observée expérimentalement (par exemple) en présence d'un profil de rotation. Ainsi, des algorithmes d'inversion sont nécessaires pour reconstruire indirectement l'écoulement en rotation dans des expériences en géométrie quasi-sphérique. Cependant, les objets célestes et les expériences ne sont pas rigoureusement sphériques, mais plutôt ellipsoïdaux (au premier ordre). Les effets topographiques et la rotation doivent alors être pris en compte correctement dans le modèle physique. Les méthodes analytiques et numériques existantes (en géométrie déformée) ne peuvent plus alors être couplées facilement et efficacement aux algorithmes d'inversion. Pour remédier à ce problème, nous avons développé une nouvelle méthode de Galerkin semi-analytique en ellipsoïdes tri-axes. Elle repose sur une décomposition polynomiale explicite, en coordonnées cartésiennes, des écoulements potentiels en ellipsoïdes. Nous illustrons la méthode en considérant les modes acoustiques d'un fluide compressible, uniforme et homentropique, avec une condition de Dirichlet homogène à la paroi (condition isobare). Nous validons nos résultats avec des simulations numériques réalisées avec le logiciel comsol. Nous étendrons cette méthode novatrice afin de prendre en compte des effets physiques supplémentaires, afin de décrire plus précisément les conditions expérimentales.

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    Other literature type . 2019
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    Authors: Branger, Hubert; Paillard, B.; Luneau, C; Bourras, D; +2 Authors

    Dans le cadre du contrat Région PACA AEROPITCH et du projet SpinFloat porté par EOLFI, nous avons étudié les effets que pourraient apporter le contrôle-commande du calage des pales (pitch) pour une éolienne à axe de rotation verticale, à trois pales, destinée à terme à être posée en mer sur un support flottant. Nous avons construit une maquette à l’échelle que nous avons testéedans la grande soufflerie air-mer de l’Institut Pythéas sur Luminy à Marseille. Nous avons conçu un système de servomoteurs permettant de tourner de façon indépendante les trois pales de l’éolienne pour ajuster au mieux l’angle d’attaque des pales par rapport au vent incident à chaque instant de la rotation. Nous avons mesuré les efforts, les vitesses de rotation, et l’écoulement d’air autour des pales par un système d’imagerie de particules (PIV) avec un large système d’ensemencement de particules. Nous avons optimisé des lois de pitch pour atteindre des vitesses de rotation maximales en utilisant une boucle automatique d’optimisation de paramètres par algorithme génétique. Nous avons ensuite développé des simulations numériques CFD prenant en compte le pitchage des pales pendant la rotation. Les résultats numériques sont discutés par comparaison aux mesures PIV. In the framework of the PACA Region AEROPITCH contract and the EOLFI project SpinFloat, we have studied the potential benefits of pitching the blades for an offshore vertical axis wind turbine. We built an experimental scale model with a system of three servomotors able to change continuously the angle of wind attack of the three blades continuously during the turbine rotation. Experiments were conducted in the large air-sea wind tunnel of Pytheas Institute in Luminy-Marseille. We have measured the forces, moments, and the rotational speed. We used a particle imaging system (PIV) to characterize the air flow around the blades by a particle imaging system (PIV) with a large seeding particles system. We succeeded to optimize the pitch-control laws to achieve maximum rotational speeds by using a loop optimizer based on genetic algorithm. We then developed CFD numerical simulations taking into account the blade pitching. Numerical results are discussed in comparison with PIV measurements.

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    Authors: Gérardin, Jonathan; Aumeunier, Marie-Hélène; Firdaouss, Mehdi; Gardarein, Jean-Laurent; +1 Authors

    National audience; Une méthode de réduction de modèle par Méthode d’Identification Modale a été mise en place afin de simuler la température de surface de composants face au plasma dans les machines de fusion. Une des difficultés à la mise en place de cette méthode est la prise en compt e d’un flux de chaleur très hétérogène sur la surface du composant. La méthode permet de fournir la température de surface transitoire du composant en un temps très réduit par rapport à des méthodes de référence de type éléments finis (MEF) (12 000 fois plus vite) pour une erreur en température de l’ordre de quelques pourcents.

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    Other literature type . 2017
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    Authors: Gama, Remigius;

    Tout modèle cinématique appliqué à la propagation du rift sud kenyan (RSK) et à sa divergence vers l’ouest au nord de la Tanzanie (DNT) doit nécessairement intégrer la vallée axiale Magadi-Natron (études antérieures), mais aussi le bloc soulevé Oldoinyo Ogol (OOB) à l’ouest (ce travail). Notre étude, basée pour l'essentiel sur l'interprétation d'imagerie satellitale SRTM 30 m, nous permet (1) de préciser l'organisation morphostructurale de l'ensemble du RSK, (2) d'identifier 2 systèmes successifs de failles bordières, (3) d'affirmer le rôle majeur de celle d'Oldoinyo Ogol, (4) d'élaborer un modèle de rifting en 2 étapes (7-3 Ma et <3 Ma) et (5) d'attribuer le « shift » latéral du domaine rifté (OOB), puis sa divergence le long de la branche d'Eyasi (DNT) à la présence d'une discontinuité transverse protérozoïque, à laquelle on rapporte aussi le développement précoce et 'hors axe' du segment magmatique des « Crater Highlands », démontrant ainsi l'importance de l'héritage structural sur la cinématique du rifting. L’analyse quantitative des populations de failles démontre le caractère « restricted » des failles intrarift et aboutit aussi à préciser l'évolution, dans l'espace et le temps, du taux d'extension, depuis un stade précoce à déformation localisée jusqu'à un stade récent à déformation diffuse (<3 Ma). L’analyse des réseaux de drainage identifiés sur le compartiment de socle bordant à l'ouest le dispositif RSK-NTD démontre (1) leur contrôle étroit par le dispositif lithologique et tectonique du socle, (2) la nature polyphasée du soulèvement lié aux failles bordières, et (3) le caractère déséquilibré du réseau actuel en cours de soulèvement. Any kinematic model applied to the southerly-propagating and diverging South Kenya rift (SKR) should necessarily integrate the structure of the Magadi-Natron axial trough (previous studies), but also those of the Oldoinyo Ogol (OOB) offset block to the west. Our work is chiefly based on SRTM 30 m satellite imagery analysis, and allows us (1) to precise the morphostructural arrangement of the entire SKR,(2) to identify 2 successive border faults systems, (3) to emphasize the role of the Ol Doinyo Ogol master fault, (4) to elaborate a 2-stage rift model (7-3 Ma et <3 Ma), and (5) to attribute a key-role to a transverse Proterozoic discontinuity on the lateral shift of the OOB, as well as on the split of the rift into the Eyasi rift arm and on the off-axis location of the early Crater Highlands magmatic segment, hence demonstrating the importance of basement structural inheritance on rift kinematics.The quantitative analysis of fault populations shows the restricted nature of most intra-rift faults, and leads us to precise the spatiotemporal evolution of extension from a stage of localized strain (border faults) to a stage of diffuse extension (<3 Ma).From the analysis of the river drainage extracted from the basement uplifted block bounding the rift system to the west, it is assumed that (1) lithological and tectonic basement features exerted a strong control on the river network, (2) fault-related basement uplift is polyphased, and (3) the unsteady nature of the present-day river drainage is due to still active rift-flank uplift in the southern portion of the rift system.

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    Authors: Désangles, Victor;

    Cette thèse a eu pour objectif le développement d’un contrôle du profil de rotation d’une colonne de plasma. Cette étude est menée dans le but du développement d’une nouvelle génération d’expériences utilisant les plasmas à fort taux d’ionisation pour étudier les phénomènes d’induction magnétique. Au cours de cette thèse, un grand nombre de techniques de mesures optiques et électrostatiques ont été mis en place. Ces dispositifs expérimentaux ont permis la caractérisation de l’évolution des paramètres plasmas en fonction des paramètres expérimentaux et une meilleure description du plasma. Une attention particulière a été porté à la mesure de la température ionique du plasma par deux dispositifs optiques différents : un Fabry-Pérot de grande finesse et un dispositif de Fluorescence induite par laser (LIF). L’établissement du profil de vitesse azimutal du plasma a été mesuré grâce à des sondes de Mach et expliqué en s’appuyant sur les profils radiaux des paramètres plasmas. L’impact sur cette vitesse azimutale de l’injection localisée de courant dans le plasma par une électrode émissive de grande taille a été étudié. Nous avons démontré qu’il est possible de contrôler la forme du profil de vitesse ainsi que son amplitude grâce à ce dispositif d’injection de courant. Enfin, l’apparition d’ondes de dérives pour de fort champs magnétiques a été observée, ainsi que l’interaction entre l’émission de courant dans le plasma et la dynamique de ces ondes. The goal of this PhD is to develop a setup controlling the rotation profile of a plasma column. This study is realized within the aim of developing a new type of experiments using the strongly ionized plasmas to study magnetic induction phenomena. A great number of plasma diagnostics have been set up during the PhD, including electrostatic and optical diagnostics. These measurement technics have allowed us to characterize the evolution of the plasma parameters depending on the experimental conditions and to build a better description of the plasma. A special focus has been made on the measurement of the ion temperature by two different setups: a Fabry-Pérot with a high finesse and a Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) setup. The mean azimuthal velocity profile of the plasma has been measured using Mach probes and explained based on the plasma parameters radial profiles. The effect of localized current injection inside the plasma by a large size emissive electrode has been studied. We have shown that the shape and the amplitude of the velocity profile can be controlled thanks to this setup. Finally, the appearance of drift waves with high magnetic fields has been observed, along with the interaction between the current injection and the dynamic of these waves.

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    Authors: Prud'Homme, Julie; Madelin, Malika; Baudet-Michel, Sophie;

    Nous proposons de présenter les premiers résultats d’un protocole de mesure mis en place dans le 14ème arrondissement de Paris pour estimer l’exposition des enfants à la pollution de l’air (PM10) sur le chemin de l’école. L’objectif est de construire une hiérarchisation des espaces autour des écoles en termes de pollution de l’air pour in fine être en capacité d’identifier des espaces moins exposés à la pollution de l’air. We propose to present first results of a measurement protocol developed in the 14th district of Paris to estimate personal exposure of children on their way to school to air pollution (PM10). The aim is to establish a ranking of spaces around schools in air pollution terms

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    Authors: Guyot, Sylvain; METENIER, Marie; Tommasi, Greta;

    International audience; This article explores interrelations between artists, environment and rural gentrification, through researches conducted in England and France. In these geographical contexts, it will be argued that artists emphasize socio-spatial changes and emerging socio-environmental inequalities. Firstly, the paper highlights multiple links between artists and rural and protected areas, in particular spatial forms of artistic establishment and their effects in terms of gentrification. Secondly, the paper seeks to deconstruct the role of artists in rural gentrification. Either pioneers or catalysts of the process, artists can locally boost social and spatial 1 Les trois auteurs ont contribué de manière égale à l'article.

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    Oskar Bordeaux
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: Oskar Bordeaux
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    Oskar Bordeaux
    Article . 2019
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    Authors: Saint-Raymond, Léa;

    This paper attempts to reconstruct the Parisian art world of the 1920s through the prism of the social sciences. Geography, sociology and network analysis shed new light on a caricature drawn by Sem, entitled Les Montparnos, which was published in 1929 in L’Illustration. The reconstruction of the artistic field strips away the masks, and leads us to conclude that Sem, the star of the Parisian Belle Epoque, was trying to reverse the stigma of his increasingly marginalized position by mocking a new generation of rising stars—such as Foujita, Man Ray, and Kiki de Montparnasse—who were starting to dominate the Parisian art scene and market. Cet article tente une reconstitution du monde de l’art parisien des années 1920 au prisme des sciences sociales. La géographie, la sociologie et l'analyse de réseaux apportent un éclairage inédit à une caricature de Sem,Les Montparnos, parue en 1929 dansL'Illustration. La reconstitution du champ artistique fait tomber les masques et porte à conclure que Sem, roi de la Belle Époque Parisienne, cherche à retourner le stigmate de sa position désormais périphérique, en moquant la nouvelle génération des Foujita, Man Ray, et Kiki de Montparnasse devenue incontournable sur la scène et le marché de l’art parisiens

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    Authors: Mahler, Guillaume;

    Les amas de galaxies sont des structures massives composées à plus de 80% de matière noire. Leur coeur peut atteindre une densité de masse critique qui en déformant l'espace-temps fait converger les rayons lumineux vers l'observateur. Grâce à des relevés photométriques profonds de l'amas Abell 2744, de nombreux systèmes multiples ont été découverts. Identifier ces systèmes reste un défi, j'ai donc développé une méthode robuste basée sur les propriétés photométriques conservées par l'effet de lentille gravitationnelle qui permet de les détecter automatiquement. Le meilleur moyen de prouver que des images proviennent de la même galaxie reste la mesure de leur distance(redshifts) grâce à leur spectre. En analysant les données collectées par le spectrographe à intégrale de champ MUSE j'ai mesuré un grand nombre de sources (514) dont 83 d'entre elles sont des images multiples. Bénéficiant de cette large couverture spectrale, j'ai créé un modèle paramétrique de masse parmi les plus contraints à ce jour. La sensibilité atteinte par le modèle permet de sonder l'influence de structures périphériques (jusqu'à une distance de 700kpc), révélant ainsi des erreurs systématiques sur la mesure de la masse due à la paramétrisation du modèle (6%). Comparé aux précédentes études, on voit une diminution de 10% de la masse dans un rayon 100 kpc montrant ainsi en partie le gain offert par la spectroscopie. Ce gain, bien que négligeable sur la mesure de l'amplification, s'est avéré pouvoir contraindre la balance en masse entre les différentes composantes de notre modèle, dépassant par endroits 2 fois l'incertitude statistique Clusters of galaxies are large and massive structures containing more than 80% of dark matter. In the cluster core, the mass density can reach a critical threshold making the curvature of space-time large enough to bend light path and then allow multiple convergence of images from the same sources to appear on the observer field of view. Thanks to deep photometric coverage of Abell 2744, a lot of multiply-imaged systems were discovered. Nevertheless, finding them remain a challenge and based on the preserved photometric properties by lensing, I developed a robust method to automatically find them. However, measuring the redshifts for each multiple images remains the best way to surely associate them. The deep coverage of the integral field spectrograph MUSE allowed me to identify a large number of sources ( 514 ) among them 83 were multiple images. Thanks to this large spectroscopic coverage, I built one of the most constrained parametric mass model for lensing cluster to date. The sensitivity raised by this model allow me to probe the influence of outskirts substructures ( at 700 kpc distance ), revealing systematic sources of uncertainties related to the mass model parametrisation ( 6% ). Compared to previous studies, I notice a 10% lower mass in the center ( within 100kpc ) showing one of the benefit of large spectroscopic constraints. This benefit, is smaller on the amplification estimation but shows a significant discrepancy between different mass counterparts in the models, up to 2 times the statistical uncertainties

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    Authors: Arvor, Damien;

    Since 2005, Mato Grosso became the first soybean producer State in Brazil. This evolution is the result of the progression of a pioneer frontier, which brought about undeniable positive socio-economic development but also high deforestation rates. The objective of this PhD is to contribute to a better knowledge of the interactions climate / society in Mato Grosso. More precisely, this work aims at determining the role of soybean dynamic as a driving force of the pioneer frontier, as well as evaluating the way rainfalls acts on the evolution of soybean territories. The analysis of these dynamics is carried out using classifications of temporal series of MODIS TERRA/EVI remotely sensed data. Our results indicate that the soybean agricultural expansion between 2000 and 2007 explains 12 % of the deforestation in Mato Grosso. In addition, 71 % of newly cultivated soybean fields in Mato Grosso are sewed in formerly deforested areas. Another important observation is that the agricultural sector is now initiating a new stage of development based on agricultural intensification: 46 % of the increase of agricultural production was obtained through changes in agricultural management practices. This is the consequence of the adoption of double cropping systems, which concern 30 % of the cultivated area in 2007 (against 6 % in 2000). We also show that agricultural intensification is affected by a strong spatial variability linked to the rainy season characteristics (annual rainfall, onset, end and duration of the rainy season). Those were computed using precipitation estimates from remotely sensed TRMM 3B42 products. Our results demonstrate a narrow relationship between intense rainy seasons and agricultural intensification. Depuis 2005, le Mato Grosso est devenu le premier Etat producteur de soja du Brésil. Cette évolution est le résultat de la progression d'un front pionnier qui a apporté un développement socioéconomique indéniable, mais a entraîné une déforestation intense. Cette thèse vise à définir l'état des interactions climat / société au Mato Grosso en déterminant le rôle de la dynamique du soja en tant que moteur du front pionnier et en évaluant comment les précipitations sont un facteur guidant l'évolution des territoires du soja. Ces dynamiques sont étudiées à partir de classifications de séries temporelles de données satellitaires MODIS TERRA/EVI. Les résultats indiquent que l'expansion agricole entre 2000 et 2007 explique 12% de la déforestation au Mato Grosso ; 71% des nouvelles cultures de soja au Mato Grosso ont été semées sur des parcelles anciennement défrichées. Actuellement, le secteur agricole semble rentrer dans une nouvelle phase de développement axée sur l'intensification agricole : 46% de l'augmentation de la production agricole est due à des changements de pratiques culturales. Ceci est la conséquence de l'adoption de systèmes de production en double cultures commerciales qui concernent 30% des surfaces agricoles en 2007 (contre 6% en 2000). Ces changements sont affectés par une forte variabilité spatiale qui est notamment liée aux conditions pluviométriques (cumul annuel, début, fin et durée de la saison des pluies). Celles-ci sont déterminées à partir des estimations de précipitations des produits TRMM 3B42. Les résultats démontrent que les régions les plus intensives sont celles où la saison des pluies est la plus longue et où le volume précipité est le plus important.

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    Authors: Vidal, Jérémie; Su, Sylvie; Cébron, David;

    Acoustic eigenmodes are often used to passively infer physical properties of the interiors of rotating planets and stars. Acoustic wave imaging has been also introduced in fluid dynamics. The experimental technique consists in observing and analysing the splitting in frequency of the acoustic modes, by solving an inverse problem. For instance, the presence of an (unknown) rotational profile disturbs the acoustic spectrum. Moreover, a topographic splitting is often superimposed on the rotational splitting. Indeed, rotating celestial objects are rather ellipsoidal than spherical at the leading order, as well as laboratory experiments which are weakly non-spherical (due to mechanical deformations). Rotation and topography should be taken into account simultaneously, but the acoustic problem does not admit exact solutions in the presence of rotation. Fully numerical solutions are often computed. However, they cannot be easily combined with inversion schemes to yield robust results. Hence, the usual approach is to consider small perturbations to non-rotating solutions. As an alternative, we present a new description of the compressible modes, relying on the method of weighted residuals. Here, we present a new spectral method to describe potential flows in triaxial ellipsoids. It relies on an explicit Galerkin expansion, made of global polynomials expressed in Cartesian coordinates. We illustrate this method by considering the canonical situation of diffusionless acoustic modes in an homogeneous, compressible and homentropic fluid ellipsoid at rest. The pressure satisfies a Dirichlet condition (sound soft boundary). We validate our results against fully numerical simulations performed with the commercial software comsol, showing a perfect quantitative agreement. This new method will be extended to include additional effects and alternative boundary conditions. Les modes acoustiques sont couramment utilisés pour déterminer les propriétés physiques de l'intérieur des planètes et des étoiles. La méthode d'imagerie par vélocimétrie acoustique a été récemment introduite en mécanique des fluides, en complément des méthodes d'imagerie existantes. Elle consiste à reconstruire l'écoulement à partir de la levée de dégénérescence des modes acoustiques, observée expérimentalement (par exemple) en présence d'un profil de rotation. Ainsi, des algorithmes d'inversion sont nécessaires pour reconstruire indirectement l'écoulement en rotation dans des expériences en géométrie quasi-sphérique. Cependant, les objets célestes et les expériences ne sont pas rigoureusement sphériques, mais plutôt ellipsoïdaux (au premier ordre). Les effets topographiques et la rotation doivent alors être pris en compte correctement dans le modèle physique. Les méthodes analytiques et numériques existantes (en géométrie déformée) ne peuvent plus alors être couplées facilement et efficacement aux algorithmes d'inversion. Pour remédier à ce problème, nous avons développé une nouvelle méthode de Galerkin semi-analytique en ellipsoïdes tri-axes. Elle repose sur une décomposition polynomiale explicite, en coordonnées cartésiennes, des écoulements potentiels en ellipsoïdes. Nous illustrons la méthode en considérant les modes acoustiques d'un fluide compressible, uniforme et homentropique, avec une condition de Dirichlet homogène à la paroi (condition isobare). Nous validons nos résultats avec des simulations numériques réalisées avec le logiciel comsol. Nous étendrons cette méthode novatrice afin de prendre en compte des effets physiques supplémentaires, afin de décrire plus précisément les conditions expérimentales.

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    Authors: Branger, Hubert; Paillard, B.; Luneau, C; Bourras, D; +2 Authors

    Dans le cadre du contrat Région PACA AEROPITCH et du projet SpinFloat porté par EOLFI, nous avons étudié les effets que pourraient apporter le contrôle-commande du calage des pales (pitch) pour une éolienne à axe de rotation verticale, à trois pales, destinée à terme à être posée en mer sur un support flottant. Nous avons construit une maquette à l’échelle que nous avons testéedans la grande soufflerie air-mer de l’Institut Pythéas sur Luminy à Marseille. Nous avons conçu un système de servomoteurs permettant de tourner de façon indépendante les trois pales de l’éolienne pour ajuster au mieux l’angle d’attaque des pales par rapport au vent incident à chaque instant de la rotation. Nous avons mesuré les efforts, les vitesses de rotation, et l’écoulement d’air autour des pales par un système d’imagerie de particules (PIV) avec un large système d’ensemencement de particules. Nous avons optimisé des lois de pitch pour atteindre des vitesses de rotation maximales en utilisant une boucle automatique d’optimisation de paramètres par algorithme génétique. Nous avons ensuite développé des simulations numériques CFD prenant en compte le pitchage des pales pendant la rotation. Les résultats numériques sont discutés par comparaison aux mesures PIV. In the framework of the PACA Region AEROPITCH contract and the EOLFI project SpinFloat, we have studied the potential benefits of pitching the blades for an offshore vertical axis wind turbine. We built an experimental scale model with a system of three servomotors able to change continuously the angle of wind attack of the three blades continuously during the turbine rotation. Experiments were conducted in the large air-sea wind tunnel of Pytheas Institute in Luminy-Marseille. We have measured the forces, moments, and the rotational speed. We used a particle imaging system (PIV) to characterize the air flow around the blades by a particle imaging system (PIV) with a large seeding particles system. We succeeded to optimize the pitch-control laws to achieve maximum rotational speeds by using a loop optimizer based on genetic algorithm. We then developed CFD numerical simulations taking into account the blade pitching. Numerical results are discussed in comparison with PIV measurements.

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    Authors: Gérardin, Jonathan; Aumeunier, Marie-Hélène; Firdaouss, Mehdi; Gardarein, Jean-Laurent; +1 Authors

    National audience; Une méthode de réduction de modèle par Méthode d’Identification Modale a été mise en place afin de simuler la température de surface de composants face au plasma dans les machines de fusion. Une des difficultés à la mise en place de cette méthode est la prise en compt e d’un flux de chaleur très hétérogène sur la surface du composant. La méthode permet de fournir la température de surface transitoire du composant en un temps très réduit par rapport à des méthodes de référence de type éléments finis (MEF) (12 000 fois plus vite) pour une erreur en température de l’ordre de quelques pourcents.

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    Authors: Gama, Remigius;

    Tout modèle cinématique appliqué à la propagation du rift sud kenyan (RSK) et à sa divergence vers l’ouest au nord de la Tanzanie (DNT) doit nécessairement intégrer la vallée axiale Magadi-Natron (études antérieures), mais aussi le bloc soulevé Oldoinyo Ogol (OOB) à l’ouest (ce travail). Notre étude, basée pour l'essentiel sur l'interprétation d'imagerie satellitale SRTM 30 m, nous permet (1) de préciser l'organisation morphostructurale de l'ensemble du RSK, (2) d'identifier 2 systèmes successifs de failles bordières, (3) d'affirmer le rôle majeur de celle d'Oldoinyo Ogol, (4) d'élaborer un modèle de rifting en 2 étapes (7-3 Ma et <3 Ma) et (5) d'attribuer le « shift » latéral du domaine rifté (OOB), puis sa divergence le long de la branche d'Eyasi (DNT) à la présence d'une discontinuité transverse protérozoïque, à laquelle on rapporte aussi le développement précoce et 'hors axe' du segment magmatique des « Crater Highlands », démontrant ainsi l'importance de l'héritage structural sur la cinématique du rifting. L’analyse quantitative des populations de failles démontre le caractère « restricted » des failles intrarift et aboutit aussi à préciser l'évolution, dans l'espace et le temps, du taux d'extension, depuis un stade précoce à déformation localisée jusqu'à un stade récent à déformation diffuse (<3 Ma). L’analyse des réseaux de drainage identifiés sur le compartiment de socle bordant à l'ouest le dispositif RSK-NTD démontre (1) leur contrôle étroit par le dispositif lithologique et tectonique du socle, (2) la nature polyphasée du soulèvement lié aux failles bordières, et (3) le caractère déséquilibré du réseau actuel en cours de soulèvement. Any kinematic model applied to the southerly-propagating and diverging South Kenya rift (SKR) should necessarily integrate the structure of the Magadi-Natron axial trough (previous studies), but also those of the Oldoinyo Ogol (OOB) offset block to the west. Our work is chiefly based on SRTM 30 m satellite imagery analysis, and allows us (1) to precise the morphostructural arrangement of the entire SKR,(2) to identify 2 successive border faults systems, (3) to emphasize the role of the Ol Doinyo Ogol master fault, (4) to elaborate a 2-stage rift model (7-3 Ma et <3 Ma), and (5) to attribute a key-role to a transverse Proterozoic discontinuity on the lateral shift of the OOB, as well as on the split of the rift into the Eyasi rift arm and on the off-axis location of the early Crater Highlands magmatic segment, hence demonstrating the importance of basement structural inheritance on rift kinematics.The quantitative analysis of fault populations shows the restricted nature of most intra-rift faults, and leads us to precise the spatiotemporal evolution of extension from a stage of localized strain (border faults) to a stage of diffuse extension (<3 Ma).From the analysis of the river drainage extracted from the basement uplifted block bounding the rift system to the west, it is assumed that (1) lithological and tectonic basement features exerted a strong control on the river network, (2) fault-related basement uplift is polyphased, and (3) the unsteady nature of the present-day river drainage is due to still active rift-flank uplift in the southern portion of the rift system.

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    Authors: Désangles, Victor;

    Cette thèse a eu pour objectif le développement d’un contrôle du profil de rotation d’une colonne de plasma. Cette étude est menée dans le but du développement d’une nouvelle génération d’expériences utilisant les plasmas à fort taux d’ionisation pour étudier les phénomènes d’induction magnétique. Au cours de cette thèse, un grand nombre de techniques de mesures optiques et électrostatiques ont été mis en place. Ces dispositifs expérimentaux ont permis la caractérisation de l’évolution des paramètres plasmas en fonction des paramètres expérimentaux et une meilleure description du plasma. Une attention particulière a été porté à la mesure de la température ionique du plasma par deux dispositifs optiques différents : un Fabry-Pérot de grande finesse et un dispositif de Fluorescence induite par laser (LIF). L’établissement du profil de vitesse azimutal du plasma a été mesuré grâce à des sondes de Mach et expliqué en s’appuyant sur les profils radiaux des paramètres plasmas. L’impact sur cette vitesse azimutale de l’injection localisée de courant dans le plasma par une électrode émissive de grande taille a été étudié. Nous avons démontré qu’il est possible de contrôler la forme du profil de vitesse ainsi que son amplitude grâce à ce dispositif d’injection de courant. Enfin, l’apparition d’ondes de dérives pour de fort champs magnétiques a été observée, ainsi que l’interaction entre l’émission de courant dans le plasma et la dynamique de ces ondes. The goal of this PhD is to develop a setup controlling the rotation profile of a plasma column. This study is realized within the aim of developing a new type of experiments using the strongly ionized plasmas to study magnetic induction phenomena. A great number of plasma diagnostics have been set up during the PhD, including electrostatic and optical diagnostics. These measurement technics have allowed us to characterize the evolution of the plasma parameters depending on the experimental conditions and to build a better description of the plasma. A special focus has been made on the measurement of the ion temperature by two different setups: a Fabry-Pérot with a high finesse and a Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) setup. The mean azimuthal velocity profile of the plasma has been measured using Mach probes and explained based on the plasma parameters radial profiles. The effect of localized current injection inside the plasma by a large size emissive electrode has been studied. We have shown that the shape and the amplitude of the velocity profile can be controlled thanks to this setup. Finally, the appearance of drift waves with high magnetic fields has been observed, along with the interaction between the current injection and the dynamic of these waves.

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    Authors: Prud'Homme, Julie; Madelin, Malika; Baudet-Michel, Sophie;

    Nous proposons de présenter les premiers résultats d’un protocole de mesure mis en place dans le 14ème arrondissement de Paris pour estimer l’exposition des enfants à la pollution de l’air (PM10) sur le chemin de l’école. L’objectif est de construire une hiérarchisation des espaces autour des écoles en termes de pollution de l’air pour in fine être en capacité d’identifier des espaces moins exposés à la pollution de l’air. We propose to present first results of a measurement protocol developed in the 14th district of Paris to estimate personal exposure of children on their way to school to air pollution (PM10). The aim is to establish a ranking of spaces around schools in air pollution terms

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    Authors: Guyot, Sylvain; METENIER, Marie; Tommasi, Greta;

    International audience; This article explores interrelations between artists, environment and rural gentrification, through researches conducted in England and France. In these geographical contexts, it will be argued that artists emphasize socio-spatial changes and emerging socio-environmental inequalities. Firstly, the paper highlights multiple links between artists and rural and protected areas, in particular spatial forms of artistic establishment and their effects in terms of gentrification. Secondly, the paper seeks to deconstruct the role of artists in rural gentrification. Either pioneers or catalysts of the process, artists can locally boost social and spatial 1 Les trois auteurs ont contribué de manière égale à l'article.

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    Oskar Bordeaux
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: Oskar Bordeaux
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