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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Manet, Vincent;

    Ce document effectue une synthèse d'articles relatifs à la fatigue des composites. Les renforts 3D et essais accélérés sont aussi abordés.

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    Authors: Sliwa, Julia; Takahashi, Daniel Y; Shepherd, Stephen V;

    International audience; Primates, like all animals live in an environment that includes others. They can be detected by others and can influence the likelihood (and consequences) of this detection by sending signals. Signals are bodily features or behaviors of the signaler that trigger specific behaviors in the receiver. The receiver, signaler, signal and medium are the four basic building blocks of any communication cycle. Each component can be considered separately, but in the service of communication they are interdependent and defined only in relation to one other. Cycles of reciprocal signal exchange mediate social interactions, but even “asocial” species coordinate reproduction, manage conflict over territory, and may anticipate and influence potential predators and prey. Communication arose long before the evolution of primates, animals and even neurons, yet is a crucial aspect of primate behavior and of their nervous system evolution. In this review, we examine how exchanges take place among primates and how neural systems act to mediate them.; Les primates, comme tous les animaux, vivent dans un environnement qui comprend d'autres individus. Ils peuvent être détectés par ceux-ci et influencer la probabilité (et les conséquences) de cette détection en envoyant des signaux. Les signaux sont des caractéristiques corporelles transitoires ou des comportements produits par l’émetteur qui déclenchent des comportements spécifiques chez le récepteur. Le récepteur, l’émetteur, le signal (ou message) et les signes qui constituent le message sont les quatre éléments de base du cycle de communication. Chaque composant peut être considéré séparément, mais au service de la communication, ils sont interdépendants et définis uniquement les uns par rapport aux autres. Les échanges de signaux interviennent pendant les interactions sociales, mais même les espèces « non-sociales » coordonnent leur reproduction, gèrent les conflits sur leur territoire et peuvent anticiper et influencer les prédateurs et les proies potentiels. La communication est apparue bien avant l'évolution des primates, des animaux et même des neurones, mais constitue un aspect crucial du comportement des primates et de l'évolution de leur système nerveux. Dans cette revue, nous examinons comment les primates communiquent entre eux et comment les systèmes neuronaux sous-tendent ces échanges.

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      Article . 2018
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    Authors: Cassin, S.; Leffler, C.W.; Tyler, T.L.;

    International audience

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    Other literature type . 1977
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      Hyper Article en Ligne
      Other literature type . 1977
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      Hal-Diderot
      Other literature type . 1977
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    Authors: Denis-Delacour, Christopher;

    Ces contributions ont été présentées entre 2012 et 2013 à l’occasion de deux espaces de discussion. Le premier est le Séminaire doctoral de Marseille, commun entre Aix-Marseille Université et l’EHESS, qui visait à produire un lieu d’échanges scientifiques entre des jeunes chercheurs et des historiens statutaires ; le second, à l’occasion d’une demi-journée aux Archives municipales de Marseille, toujours dans la même optique. Retravaillées afin d’une part de conserver une trace de ces discussions, d’autre part de montrer le processus d’écriture propre à chaque chercheur en histoire, elles constituent une archive en tant que telle des thèmes et débats doctoraux de ces années, et un état de la jeune recherche sur Marseille en 2014.; Cette contribution fait partie d’un ensemble de textes produits par de jeunes chercheurs en histoire entre 2011 et 2013. Elle permet de souligner les apports historiographiques de l’histoire sociale et urbaine sur Marseille au cours de ces années, et la vitalité et fécondité des études d’alors. Ce texte doit ainsi être vu comme un jalon supplémentaire dans la compréhension d’une ville qui ne cesse d’interroger et de fasciner

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    Other literature type . 2014
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    Authors: Guillemin, Anissa;

    Cette étude porte sur les mécanismes de prise de décision de cellules métazoaires en relation avec la stochasticité de l'expression des gènes SEG. Notre hypothèse est que la variabilité de l'expression des gènes favorise la prise de décision des cellules à se différencier. Si l'on voit la différenciation du point de vue de la théorie des systèmes dynamiques, les cellules en auto-renouvellement et les cellules différenciées sont dans des états dits "attracteurs" semblables à des vallées, séparés par une colline, le tout placé dans un paysage épigénétique. La forme de ce paysage est le résultat de l'état du réseau de régulation de gènes sous-jacent. Pour se différencier, les cellules doivent s'échapper de l'état d'auto-renouvellement pour transiter à travers la colline et atteindre l'état différencié. La SEG pourrait activer la prise de décision des cellules à se différencier en contrôlant la forme du paysage via le réseau de régulation de gènes. Les travaux présentés dans ce manuscrit montrent des résultats en faveur de cette hypothèse. Grâce à des données d'expression génique en cellule unique, nous avons observé une augmentation de la SEG pendant l’érythropoïèse avant l'engagement définitif des cellules dans la différenciation. A partir de ces mêmes données, un réseau de régulation de gènes a été inféré par un algorithme, WASABI, cherchant à définir les mécanismes moléculaires sous-jacents au processus de différenciation. En modifiant expérimentalement le niveau de SEG dans les cellules par des drogues, nous avons démontré le rôle causal de la SEG dans le processus de différenciation érythrocytaire. Nous avons également montré que ces mêmes drogues avaient un effet sur la différenciation musculaire, renforçant la généralité de ce lien entre SEG et différenciation. Enfin, nous avons exploré un nouveau point de vue dynamique sur des cellules de leucémie myéloïde chronique et montré l'existence de sous-populations au sein des cellules leucémiques qui pourraient être à l'origine de la résistance aux traitements. Tous ces résultats suggèrent que pour prendre une décision, les cellules se servent de l'hétérogénéité inter-cellulaire, ce qui leur permet d'activer des processus tels que la différenciation This study aims on cell making-decision mechanisms in metazoan cells, in relation with stochastic gene expression SGE. Our hypothesis is that SGE favors cell making-decision to differentiate. If one sees differentiation from the point of view of dynamical systems theory, self-renewing cells and differentiated cells are in "attractor" states, such as valleys, separated by a hill, in an epigenetic landscape. The shape of this landscape is the result of the gene regulatory network state. To differentiate, cells have to escape from this self-renewal state to transit through the hill and to attain the differentiated state. SGE could activate cell decision-making to differentiate by controlling the landscape shape via the gene regulatory network. Results presented here support this hypothesis. Using single cell transcriptomic data, we observed a surge in SGE during erythropoiesis before irreversible cell commitment. Using the same data, a gene regulatory network was inferred by WASABI, a dedicated algorithm, looking for molecular mechanisms behind differentiation. By experimentally modifying SGE level in cells using drugs, we demonstrated the causative role of SGE in erythroid differentiation. We also showed that these drugs have an effect on muscular differentiation, supporting the generality of this link between SGE and differentiation. Finally, we explored a new dynamical point of view on chronic myeloid leukemia cells and showed the existence of subpopulations in leukemic cells that could be the source of treatment resistance. All these results suggest that to make decision, cells use cell-to-cell heterogeneity, allowing the activation of processes, such as differentiation

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    Other literature type . 2018
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      Other literature type . 2018
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    Authors: Castin, Yvan;

    Notre activité de recherche, commencée en 1988, comporte deux périodes. La première, jusqu'en 1995, fut consacrée à la théorie du refroidissement d'atomes par laser : nous avons effectué une étude entièrement quantique du refroidissement à gradient de polarisation, et grâce à la méthode des fonctions d'onde Monte-Carlo, reformulation stochastique de l'équation pilote que nous avons contribué à développer, nous avons pu reproduire les résultats expérimentaux à trois dimensions. La deuxième période, commencée en 1995, est consacrée à la théorie des gaz quantiques, en particulier des condensats de Bose-Einstein : nous avons clarifié le concept de phase d'un champ atomique et prédit une dynamique quantique non triviale de cette phase; nous avons trouvé des solutions par changement d'échelle décrivant l'évolution d'un gaz quantique dans un potentiel harmonique dépendant du temps; nous avons découvert le mécanisme de formation des réseaux de tourbillons quantiques à l'oeuvre dans les expériences du groupe de Jean Dalibard; nous avons étudié quelques propriétés classiques et quantiques des solitons d'ondes de matière et nous avons proposé une méthode ayant permis la première observation expérimentales de ces solitons; nous avons développé de nouveaux outils pour la théorie des gaz quantiques, comme des méthodes de champ classique, de Monte-Carlo quantique et une extension de la méthode de Bogoliubov aux quasi-condensats en dimensionalité réduite. Our research activity started in 1988 and can be divided in two periods. The first one, until 1995, was devoted to laser cooling: We have performed a fully quantum study of polarisation gradient coo ling, and thanks to the Monte Carlo wavefunction method (that we have developed with other authors) we reproduced the experimental results in 3D. The second period started in 1995 and was devoted to the theory of quantum gases, in particular Bos e-Einstein condensates: We have clarified the concept of the phase of an atomic field and predicted a non-trivial dynamics of this phase; we have found scaling solutions describing the evolution of a quantum gas in a time dependent harmonic potential; we have discovered the mechanism of vortex lattice formation in Dalibard's experiments on rotating condensates; we have studied the properties of matter wave solitons and we have proposed a method having allowed the first experimental observation of these solitons; we have developed new theoretical tools for the theory of quantum gases, such as classical field methods, quantum Monte Carlo methods, and an extension of Bogoliubov method to quasi-condensates in 1D and 2D.

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    Authors: Bidault, Sébastien;

    Nous avons utilisé une technique d'orientation tout-optique pour manipuler l'organisation de chromophores non-linéaires et luminescents dans des couches minces polymères par interférence de chemins d'absorption multiphotoniques. Cette procédure holographique nous a permis d'inscrire localement des anisotropies de non-linéarité et de luminescence prédéterminées dans des matériaux organiques en contrôlant l'état de polarisation des champs incidents. La symétrie et la dynamique des ordres orientationnels pairs et impairs ont été étudiées théoriquement et expérimentalement en utilisant un formalisme sphérique irréductible appliqué aux susceptibilités moléculaires et aux tenseurs champs. Des processus de transfert d'excitation entre chromophores voisins ont été démontrés et discutés. Les réponses en polarisation des signaux non-linéaires générés par des ensembles orientés d'octupôles ont été analysées en utilisant un modèle analytique du type valence bond-charge transfer décrivant les polarisabilités moléculaires. Ce travail ouvre des pers-pectives intéressantes pour le stockage holographique non-linéaire de l'information optique qui est démontré ici à l'échelle du micromètre. Polymer thin films doped with nonlinear and luminescent chromophores were poled by an all-optical process based on the interference of multiphoton absorption pathways. This holographic technique enabled us to imprint locally controlled nonlinear and luminescence anisotropies in organic materials by governing the photoinduced molecular distribution through the polarization state of the exciting laser beams. The symmetry and the dynamics of the odd and even order parameters of the induced distribution were studied theoretically and experimentally using an irreducible spherical tensor-based formalism jointly applied to the molecular polarizabilities and field tensors. Excitation transfer processes between neighboring molecules were demonstrated and analyzed. The nonlinear polarization responses of poled assemblies of octupolar organometallic molecules were discussed using a valence bond-charge transfer model describing the molecular polarisability tensors. This research leads to interesting perspectives in the field of nonlinear holographic storage, which is experimentally demonstrated at the microscopic scale in this work.

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    Other literature type . 2004
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    Doctoral thesis . 2004
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      Doctoral thesis . 2004
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    Authors: Ubelmann, Florent;

    Covering the apex of intestinal cells, microvilli are microscopic membrane protrusions structured by a network of actin filaments organized by actin binding proteins. The objective of my thesis consists on investigating how the microvillar actin binding proteins regulate two key features of these organelles: their functionality and plasticity. From a structural point of view, the actin filaments supporting microvilli are tightly packed together by three actin bundling proteins: villin, espin and plastin-1. Using a combined knockout approach, we demonstrate that these three proteins are dispensable to enable and maintain microvilli protrusions. They however confer the appropriate actin organization required for the apical retention of proteins essential for normal intestinal physiology. Besides its structural role, villin also nucleates, caps, and severs actin filaments in a calcium dependent manner, suggesting a central role in microvilli cytoskeleton dynamics. The brush border is indeed subject to major cellular remodeling upon various intestinal stresses (nutrition, pathogen infection, mechanical stress, injury....), which highlights the importance of such cell shape changes. We provide evidences that villin plays a critical role during tissue healing through the initiation of apex disassembly. Such cellular remodeling releases a pool of actin that is remobilized to build efficient migratory structures. Overall, this thesis work documents two important aspects of the epithelial cell biology of the intestine: how the functionality of the apical cellular domain is established and how it can be dynamically remodelled allowing the enterocytes to rapidly respond to a stress. Les microvillosités apicales des cellules intestinales, sont de fines expansions membranaires structurées par un réseau de filaments d'actine organisé par plusieurs protéines de liaison à l'actine. L'objectif de ce travail de thèse consiste à mieux comprendre comment ces protéines de liaison à l'actine régulent deux fonctions critiques de ces organelles : leur fonctionnalité et leur plasticité. Ttrois protéines de liaison à l'actine organisent le réseau de microfilaments soutenant les microvillosités : villine, espine et plastine 1. Nous avons montré que ces protéines ne sont pas essentielles à la formation des microvillosités. En revanche, elles assurent l'agencement d'une fine architecture d'actine qui est requise pour la rétention à la membrane des microvillosités des protéines nécessaires pour la physiologie intestinale. En plus de sa fonction structurale, la villine fragmente les filaments d'actine, suggérant un rôle central dans la dynamique du cytosquelette de la microvillosité. Celles-ci sont en effet sujettes à des réorganisations morphologiques majeures lors de stress intestinaux. Nous avons apporté les preuves définitives montrant que la villine joue un rôle critique au cours de la réparation tissulaire en participant au processus de migration cellulaire par l'initiation du désassemblage du pôle apical. Le pool d'actine microvillositaire est alors remobilisé pour assurer la formation de structures migratoires efficaces. Ces travaux de thèse documentent ainsi deux aspects importants de la biologie de la cellule épithéliale intestinale: l'établissement de la fonctionnalité du pôle apical et son remodelage dynamique permettant une réponse rapide à un stress.

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    Authors: Jonquet, Clement; Shah, Nigam; Musen, Mark,;

    National audience; The range of publicly available biomedical data is enormous and is expanding fast. This expansion means that researchers now face a hurdle to extracting the data they need from the large numbers of data that are available. Biomedical researchers have turned to ontologies and terminologies to structure and annotate their data with ontology concepts for better search and retrieval. However, this annotation process cannot be easily automated and often requires expert curators. Plus, there is a lack of easy-to-use systems that facilitate the use of ontologies for annotation. This paper presents the Open Biomedical Annotator (OBA), an ontology-based Web service that annotates public datasets with biomedical ontology concepts based on their textual metadata. The biomedical community can use the annotator service to tag datasets automatically with ontology and terminology terms (from UMLS and NCBO). We have used the annotator service internally to index several online datasets (e.g., ArrayExpress, PubMed, ClinicalTrial.gov). The index is directly queriable in the NCBO BioPortal ontology repository (www.bioontology.org). Such semantic annotations facilitate translational discoveries by integrating annotated data.

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    Authors: Le Gouvello, Raphaëla;

    The years 2000 have favored the emergence of "Circular Economy" (CE) in the public debate, as opposed to the "linear economy", the dominant model that led to acknowledged economie and ecological limits. Our work is a first attempt to address the CE to a fishery-dependent socio-ecological System, the Cornouaille region in Brittany. The approach is systemic, multidimensional and dynamic. It implies the identification of marine boundaries, in which only Coastal fisheries are considered as a local production. The analysis is conducted along three main axes: an analysis of the upstream part at sea (fishing), an analysis looking at the downstream value chain, on land, and a third looking at the whole System. First, a Material Flow Cost Accounting (MFCA) analysis adapted to fisheries is proposed as a relevant tool to improve economy and environmental performance of fishers, providing evidence of hidden costs of fish discards.Second, the fish bioresource flow analysis indicates a strong dependency on importation and exportation flows to maintain land-based activities depending on sea products, albeit evidence of a significant contribution of Coastal fisheries to the local economy. Third, the exploration of the sardine sub-system through scenarii, ranging between from "business as usual" to those lined with CE, shows an alternative development trajectory, based upon a potential "basket of goods and services", a "territorial value", specifically linked to local fisheries. To achieve such a sustainable CE, we would need to not only aim at a more efficient use of local marine resources and decrease negative externalities, but also advocate for a shared governance, suited to the scale of the considered localised socio-ecological System. L'économie circulaire (EC) émerge depuis les années 2000 dans le débat public, en opposition à l'économie linéaire, modèle dominant aux limites économiques et écologiques reconnues. Cette thèse constitue une première confrontation opérationnelle de l'EC à un système socio-écologique dépendant de la pêche, le Pays de la Cornouaille en Bretagne. Le système est délimité dans sa façade maritime avec la pêche côtière, seule considérée comme production locale.L'approche est systémique, multidimensionnelle et dynamique. L'analyse comporte trois volets : le premier sur l'amont du circuit en mer, le deuxième sur l'aval du système à terre et le dernier sur le système complet. Premièrement, le coût caché des rejets est visualisé via une analyse comptable de flux de matière ("Material Flow Cost Accounting" MFCA) adaptée à la pêche, proposé comme outil pertinent pour améliorer la performance économique et environnementale des pêcheurs. Deuxièmement, l’analyse de flux révèle une forte dépendance des activités à terre vis-à-vis des importations et exportations de bioressources halieutiques malgré un apport significatif de la pêche côtière à l'économie locale. Troisièmement, des scenarii sur le sous-système Sardine, du "business as usual" a l'EC, servent à proposer une trajectoire alternative de développement basée sur un "panier" de biens et services territorialises et la construction d'une valeur territoire à partir de ressources halieutiques locales. Pour atteindre cette EC durable, il s'agira d'optimiser l'utilisation des ressources locales et diminuer les externalités négatives, en plus d'aller vers une gouvernance partagée, adaptée à l'échelle du système socio-écologique considéré.

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    Authors: Manet, Vincent;

    Ce document effectue une synthèse d'articles relatifs à la fatigue des composites. Les renforts 3D et essais accélérés sont aussi abordés.

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    Authors: Sliwa, Julia; Takahashi, Daniel Y; Shepherd, Stephen V;

    International audience; Primates, like all animals live in an environment that includes others. They can be detected by others and can influence the likelihood (and consequences) of this detection by sending signals. Signals are bodily features or behaviors of the signaler that trigger specific behaviors in the receiver. The receiver, signaler, signal and medium are the four basic building blocks of any communication cycle. Each component can be considered separately, but in the service of communication they are interdependent and defined only in relation to one other. Cycles of reciprocal signal exchange mediate social interactions, but even “asocial” species coordinate reproduction, manage conflict over territory, and may anticipate and influence potential predators and prey. Communication arose long before the evolution of primates, animals and even neurons, yet is a crucial aspect of primate behavior and of their nervous system evolution. In this review, we examine how exchanges take place among primates and how neural systems act to mediate them.; Les primates, comme tous les animaux, vivent dans un environnement qui comprend d'autres individus. Ils peuvent être détectés par ceux-ci et influencer la probabilité (et les conséquences) de cette détection en envoyant des signaux. Les signaux sont des caractéristiques corporelles transitoires ou des comportements produits par l’émetteur qui déclenchent des comportements spécifiques chez le récepteur. Le récepteur, l’émetteur, le signal (ou message) et les signes qui constituent le message sont les quatre éléments de base du cycle de communication. Chaque composant peut être considéré séparément, mais au service de la communication, ils sont interdépendants et définis uniquement les uns par rapport aux autres. Les échanges de signaux interviennent pendant les interactions sociales, mais même les espèces « non-sociales » coordonnent leur reproduction, gèrent les conflits sur leur territoire et peuvent anticiper et influencer les prédateurs et les proies potentiels. La communication est apparue bien avant l'évolution des primates, des animaux et même des neurones, mais constitue un aspect crucial du comportement des primates et de l'évolution de leur système nerveux. Dans cette revue, nous examinons comment les primates communiquent entre eux et comment les systèmes neuronaux sous-tendent ces échanges.

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    Authors: Cassin, S.; Leffler, C.W.; Tyler, T.L.;

    International audience

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    Other literature type . 1977
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    Authors: Denis-Delacour, Christopher;

    Ces contributions ont été présentées entre 2012 et 2013 à l’occasion de deux espaces de discussion. Le premier est le Séminaire doctoral de Marseille, commun entre Aix-Marseille Université et l’EHESS, qui visait à produire un lieu d’échanges scientifiques entre des jeunes chercheurs et des historiens statutaires ; le second, à l’occasion d’une demi-journée aux Archives municipales de Marseille, toujours dans la même optique. Retravaillées afin d’une part de conserver une trace de ces discussions, d’autre part de montrer le processus d’écriture propre à chaque chercheur en histoire, elles constituent une archive en tant que telle des thèmes et débats doctoraux de ces années, et un état de la jeune recherche sur Marseille en 2014.; Cette contribution fait partie d’un ensemble de textes produits par de jeunes chercheurs en histoire entre 2011 et 2013. Elle permet de souligner les apports historiographiques de l’histoire sociale et urbaine sur Marseille au cours de ces années, et la vitalité et fécondité des études d’alors. Ce texte doit ainsi être vu comme un jalon supplémentaire dans la compréhension d’une ville qui ne cesse d’interroger et de fasciner

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    Authors: Guillemin, Anissa;

    Cette étude porte sur les mécanismes de prise de décision de cellules métazoaires en relation avec la stochasticité de l'expression des gènes SEG. Notre hypothèse est que la variabilité de l'expression des gènes favorise la prise de décision des cellules à se différencier. Si l'on voit la différenciation du point de vue de la théorie des systèmes dynamiques, les cellules en auto-renouvellement et les cellules différenciées sont dans des états dits "attracteurs" semblables à des vallées, séparés par une colline, le tout placé dans un paysage épigénétique. La forme de ce paysage est le résultat de l'état du réseau de régulation de gènes sous-jacent. Pour se différencier, les cellules doivent s'échapper de l'état d'auto-renouvellement pour transiter à travers la colline et atteindre l'état différencié. La SEG pourrait activer la prise de décision des cellules à se différencier en contrôlant la forme du paysage via le réseau de régulation de gènes. Les travaux présentés dans ce manuscrit montrent des résultats en faveur de cette hypothèse. Grâce à des données d'expression génique en cellule unique, nous avons observé une augmentation de la SEG pendant l’érythropoïèse avant l'engagement définitif des cellules dans la différenciation. A partir de ces mêmes données, un réseau de régulation de gènes a été inféré par un algorithme, WASABI, cherchant à définir les mécanismes moléculaires sous-jacents au processus de différenciation. En modifiant expérimentalement le niveau de SEG dans les cellules par des drogues, nous avons démontré le rôle causal de la SEG dans le processus de différenciation érythrocytaire. Nous avons également montré que ces mêmes drogues avaient un effet sur la différenciation musculaire, renforçant la généralité de ce lien entre SEG et différenciation. Enfin, nous avons exploré un nouveau point de vue dynamique sur des cellules de leucémie myéloïde chronique et montré l'existence de sous-populations au sein des cellules leucémiques qui pourraient être à l'origine de la résistance aux traitements. Tous ces résultats suggèrent que pour prendre une décision, les cellules se servent de l'hétérogénéité inter-cellulaire, ce qui leur permet d'activer des processus tels que la différenciation This study aims on cell making-decision mechanisms in metazoan cells, in relation with stochastic gene expression SGE. Our hypothesis is that SGE favors cell making-decision to differentiate. If one sees differentiation from the point of view of dynamical systems theory, self-renewing cells and differentiated cells are in "attractor" states, such as valleys, separated by a hill, in an epigenetic landscape. The shape of this landscape is the result of the gene regulatory network state. To differentiate, cells have to escape from this self-renewal state to transit through the hill and to attain the differentiated state. SGE could activate cell decision-making to differentiate by controlling the landscape shape via the gene regulatory network. Results presented here support this hypothesis. Using single cell transcriptomic data, we observed a surge in SGE during erythropoiesis before irreversible cell commitment. Using the same data, a gene regulatory network was inferred by WASABI, a dedicated algorithm, looking for molecular mechanisms behind differentiation. By experimentally modifying SGE level in cells using drugs, we demonstrated the causative role of SGE in erythroid differentiation. We also showed that these drugs have an effect on muscular differentiation, supporting the generality of this link between SGE and differentiation. Finally, we explored a new dynamical point of view on chronic myeloid leukemia cells and showed the existence of subpopulations in leukemic cells that could be the source of treatment resistance. All these results suggest that to make decision, cells use cell-to-cell heterogeneity, allowing the activation of processes, such as differentiation

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    Authors: Castin, Yvan;

    Notre activité de recherche, commencée en 1988, comporte deux périodes. La première, jusqu'en 1995, fut consacrée à la théorie du refroidissement d'atomes par laser : nous avons effectué une étude entièrement quantique du refroidissement à gradient de polarisation, et grâce à la méthode des fonctions d'onde Monte-Carlo, reformulation stochastique de l'équation pilote que nous avons contribué à développer, nous avons pu reproduire les résultats expérimentaux à trois dimensions. La deuxième période, commencée en 1995, est consacrée à la théorie des gaz quantiques, en particulier des condensats de Bose-Einstein : nous avons clarifié le concept de phase d'un champ atomique et prédit une dynamique quantique non triviale de cette phase; nous avons trouvé des solutions par changement d'échelle décrivant l'évolution d'un gaz quantique dans un potentiel harmonique dépendant du temps; nous avons découvert le mécanisme de formation des réseaux de tourbillons quantiques à l'oeuvre dans les expériences du groupe de Jean Dalibard; nous avons étudié quelques propriétés classiques et quantiques des solitons d'ondes de matière et nous avons proposé une méthode ayant permis la première observation expérimentales de ces solitons; nous avons développé de nouveaux outils pour la théorie des gaz quantiques, comme des méthodes de champ classique, de Monte-Carlo quantique et une extension de la méthode de Bogoliubov aux quasi-condensats en dimensionalité réduite. Our research activity started in 1988 and can be divided in two periods. The first one, until 1995, was devoted to laser cooling: We have performed a fully quantum study of polarisation gradient coo ling, and thanks to the Monte Carlo wavefunction method (that we have developed with other authors) we reproduced the experimental results in 3D. The second period started in 1995 and was devoted to the theory of quantum gases, in particular Bos e-Einstein condensates: We have clarified the concept of the phase of an atomic field and predicted a non-trivial dynamics of this phase; we have found scaling solutions describing the evolution of a quantum gas in a time dependent harmonic potential; we have discovered the mechanism of vortex lattice formation in Dalibard's experiments on rotating condensates; we have studied the properties of matter wave solitons and we have proposed a method having allowed the first experimental observation of these solitons; we have developed new theoretical tools for the theory of quantum gases, such as classical field methods, quantum Monte Carlo methods, and an extension of Bogoliubov method to quasi-condensates in 1D and 2D.

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    Authors: Bidault, Sébastien;

    Nous avons utilisé une technique d'orientation tout-optique pour manipuler l'organisation de chromophores non-linéaires et luminescents dans des couches minces polymères par interférence de chemins d'absorption multiphotoniques. Cette procédure holographique nous a permis d'inscrire localement des anisotropies de non-linéarité et de luminescence prédéterminées dans des matériaux organiques en contrôlant l'état de polarisation des champs incidents. La symétrie et la dynamique des ordres orientationnels pairs et impairs ont été étudiées théoriquement et expérimentalement en utilisant un formalisme sphérique irréductible appliqué aux susceptibilités moléculaires et aux tenseurs champs. Des processus de transfert d'excitation entre chromophores voisins ont été démontrés et discutés. Les réponses en polarisation des signaux non-linéaires générés par des ensembles orientés d'octupôles ont été analysées en utilisant un modèle analytique du type valence bond-charge transfer décrivant les polarisabilités moléculaires. Ce travail ouvre des pers-pectives intéressantes pour le stockage holographique non-linéaire de l'information optique qui est démontré ici à l'échelle du micromètre. Polymer thin films doped with nonlinear and luminescent chromophores were poled by an all-optical process based on the interference of multiphoton absorption pathways. This holographic technique enabled us to imprint locally controlled nonlinear and luminescence anisotropies in organic materials by governing the photoinduced molecular distribution through the polarization state of the exciting laser beams. The symmetry and the dynamics of the odd and even order parameters of the induced distribution were studied theoretically and experimentally using an irreducible spherical tensor-based formalism jointly applied to the molecular polarizabilities and field tensors. Excitation transfer processes between neighboring molecules were demonstrated and analyzed. The nonlinear polarization responses of poled assemblies of octupolar organometallic molecules were discussed using a valence bond-charge transfer model describing the molecular polarisability tensors. This research leads to interesting perspectives in the field of nonlinear holographic storage, which is experimentally demonstrated at the microscopic scale in this work.

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