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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Denis-Delacour, Christopher;

    Ces contributions ont été présentées entre 2012 et 2013 à l’occasion de deux espaces de discussion. Le premier est le Séminaire doctoral de Marseille, commun entre Aix-Marseille Université et l’EHESS, qui visait à produire un lieu d’échanges scientifiques entre des jeunes chercheurs et des historiens statutaires ; le second, à l’occasion d’une demi-journée aux Archives municipales de Marseille, toujours dans la même optique. Retravaillées afin d’une part de conserver une trace de ces discussions, d’autre part de montrer le processus d’écriture propre à chaque chercheur en histoire, elles constituent une archive en tant que telle des thèmes et débats doctoraux de ces années, et un état de la jeune recherche sur Marseille en 2014.; Cette contribution fait partie d’un ensemble de textes produits par de jeunes chercheurs en histoire entre 2011 et 2013. Elle permet de souligner les apports historiographiques de l’histoire sociale et urbaine sur Marseille au cours de ces années, et la vitalité et fécondité des études d’alors. Ce texte doit ainsi être vu comme un jalon supplémentaire dans la compréhension d’une ville qui ne cesse d’interroger et de fasciner

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    Hyper Article en Ligne
    Other literature type . 2014
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    Authors: Viseras, J; García-Fernández, P; Adroher, Fj;

    International audience

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    Hyper Article en Ligne
    Other literature type . 1997
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    Hal-Diderot
    Other literature type . 1997
    Data sources: Hal-Diderot
    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 1997
    Data sources: Hal-Diderot
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Hyper Article en Lig...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Hyper Article en Ligne
      Other literature type . 1997
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      Hal-Diderot
      Other literature type . 1997
      Data sources: Hal-Diderot
      Hal-Diderot
      Article . 1997
      Data sources: Hal-Diderot
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Poher, Yoann; Ponel, Philippe; Guiter, Frédéric; Andrieu-Ponel, Valérie; +1 Authors

    International audience; Un carottage effectué sur un étang relictuel littoral situé sur l'île Cavallo (archipel des Lavezzi, Corse-du-Sud) a fourni de riches assemblages de Coléoptères fossiles couvrant les 7 derniers millénaires. Ces assemblages fournissent une image originale des changements environnementaux qui ont eu lieu sur cette île sous l'action combinée de l'Homme et de la remontée du niveau marin. La comparaison de la faune de Coléoptères vivant actuellement sur l'île avec celle extraite du profil sédimentaire à l'état fossile montre que 70 taxons de coléoptères aquatiques et hygrophiles associés aux eaux douces ont localement disparu, vraisemblablement en réponse à une augmentation de la salinité dans l'étang d'eau douce, liée à une remontée du niveau marin. La majeure partie de ces extinctions locales s'est produite il y a 3700 ans, lorsque le niveau relatif de la mer Méditerranée était situé 1,5±0,3 mètres en-dessous de son niveau actuel. Ces changements ont été aggravés récemment par la pression anthropique sur l'île, qui a conduit à une réduction considérable de la superficie des zones humides de l'île. Simultanément, la composition des communautés de Coléoptères terrestres paraît avoir été affectée par des phénomènes d'extinction locale d'espèces et de début de spéciation (Coléoptères du genre Percus), peut-être en réponse à un isolement accru de l'île Cavallo et à une réduction de sa superficie. Cette approche rétrospective originale fournit aussi une préfiguration des changements dans la biodiversité entomologique qui pourraient se produire dans le futur dans les écosystèmes lagunaires des côtes méditerranéennes.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Hyper Article en Lig...arrow_drop_down
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    Hyper Article en Ligne; Hal-Diderot
    Other literature type . Conference object . 2018
    HAL AMU
    Conference object . 2018
    Data sources: HAL AMU
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    Authors: M. Sallovitz, Juan; I. Zonco Menghini, María; E. Lanusse, Carlos;

    International audience

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    Hyper Article en Ligne
    Other literature type . 1998
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    Hal-Diderot
    Other literature type . 1998
    Data sources: Hal-Diderot
    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 1998
    Data sources: Hal-Diderot
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Hyper Article en Lig...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Hyper Article en Ligne
      Other literature type . 1998
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Hal-Diderot
      Other literature type . 1998
      Data sources: Hal-Diderot
      Hal-Diderot
      Article . 1998
      Data sources: Hal-Diderot
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Gu, Liya;

    Dans nos travaux, nous travaillons sur le problème de l?équilibrage de la ligne d?assemblage (ALBP). C?est un problème d?optimisation combinatoire qui permet de définir la répartition des opérations et leur affectation aux stations qui constituent la ligne d?assemblage tout en respectant différentes contraintes de façon à optimiser un critère d?efficacité donné. Deux types de problèmes sont définis d?après l?objectif à minimiser. Le problème de type I (SALBP-1) minimise le nombre de stations sous un temps de cycle donné. Et le problème de type II (SALBP-2) minimise le temps de cycle déterminé par le temps de station le plus grand avec un nombre donné de stations. Nous considérons dans nos travaux uniquement des problèmes de type II. Nous proposons d?abord une méthode pour déterminer la borne inférieure du temps de cycle qui assure de respecter le nombre donné de stations. Cette méthode combine la relaxation lagrangienne et la génération de colonnes. La relaxation lagrangienne est utilisée pour relaxer les contraintes de précédence. Le problème lagrangien de la relaxation lagrangienne est résolu par la génération de colonnes. Ensuite, nous proposons un heuristique pour résoudre les problèmes SALBP-2. L?heuristique proposé se compose de deux phases. Dans la première phase, une solution initiale est produite par un heuristique basé sur un poids correspondant à la position des opérations et d'un certain seuil défini selon les poids pour chaque station. La solution est ensuite améliorée par un procédé de transfert et d?échange dans la deuxième phase. Enfin, les méta-heuristiques sont utilisés pour résoudre le problème déterministe ainsi que le problème stochastique. Ainsi deux méthodes basées sur la génération sont utilisées : l?algorithme de electromagnetism-like mechanism (EM) et l?estimation de distribution (ED). Les résultats de simulation sont comparés avec ceux du recuit simulé (SA). De part sa meilleure performance, EM est choisi pour équilibrer les lignes stochastiques qui considèrent les temps des opérationsomme aléatoires. Dans ce cas, les temps de cycle sont minimisés de façon à assurer que la fiabilité de la ligne est supérieure à une valeur donnée. EM est aussi utilisé pour résoudre les problèmes de type multi-objectif avec minimisation du temps de cycle et maximisation de la fiabilité de la ligne en déterminant un ensemble de solutions Pareto-optimales Our work considers the problem of balancing the assembly line (ALBP). This is a combinatorial optimization problem which consists in assigning operations to stations of the assembly line while respecting various constraints in order to optimize a criterion of efficiency. Two types of problems are defined, based on the objective to minimize. The type I problem (SALBP-1) minimizes the number of stations in a given cycle time. And the problem of type II (SALBP-2) minimizes the cycle time given by the largest time station with a given number of stations. Problems of type II are only considered in our work. Firstly, a method for determining the lower bound of the cycle time which respects the number of stations is determined. This method combines the Lagrangian relaxation and the columns generation method. The Lagrangian relaxation is used to relax the constraints of precedence. The problem of the Lagrangian relaxation is given by the columns generation. Then, a new heuristic is proposed for solving the SALBP-2 problem. This heuristic consists of two steps. In the first step, an initial solution is produced by an heuristic based on a weight corresponding to the position of operations and a threshold defined for each station. The, in the second step, the solution is improved by a process of transfer and exchange. Finally, meta-heuristics are used to solve deterministic and stochastic problems.Two main meta-heuristics are considered: the electromagnetism-like mechanism algorithm (EM) and the estimated distribution (ED). The performance of our method is confirmed via simulation and it is compared with simulated annealing (SA). Due to its better performance, EM was chosen to balance the stochastic lines with random operation times. In this case, the cycle time is minimized under constraint of the reliability of the line which must be greater than a given value. EM is also used to solve multi-objective problems such as minimizing the cycle time and maximizing the reliability of the line by determining a set of Pareto-optimal solutions

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Hyper Article en Lig...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Moraldo, Delphine;

    Cette thèse propose une approche socio-historique de l’excellence en alpinisme, sur une période qui s’étend de l’apparition de l’Alpine Club britannique, le premier club alpin au monde, créé en 1856, jusqu’au début du XXIe siècle. L’excellence est envisagée sous l’angle d’un triple rapport : un rapport à la pratique, qui désigne les manières légitimes de pratiquer, un rapport à soi-même, qui renvoie à la façon dont les alpinistes excellents (les « grands alpinistes ») se perçoivent et envisagent leurs trajectoires biographiques, et un rapport aux autres individus, c'est-à-dire la manière dont ces alpinistes appréhendent et se distinguent des autres usagers de la montagne et des non-alpinistes. À partir des discours des membres de l’élite de l’alpinisme britannique et français, la question est posée de savoir comment se crée, se transmet, se diffuse dans l’espace et se maintient dans le temps un « esprit de l’alpinisme » entendu à la fois comme mentalité, esprit de corps, ethos, et principes éthiques au fondement de l’excellence, fortement distinctif, identitaire et fédérateur, au principe d’un sentiment d’appartenance, voire d’une identité collective. Centré sur le Royaume-Uni, berceau de l’alpinisme et lieu de codification d’une forme originelle d’excellence, encore perçue comme spécifique de nos jours, ce travail considère l’alpinisme français, d’apparition plus tardive, comme contre-point comparatif servant notamment à étudier des phénomènes de diffusion de la conception britannique de l’excellence. La question de la genèse historique d’un « grand alpinisme » sur le temps long se double enfin de celle de la fabrique biographique du « grand alpiniste », sur le temps court de la trajectoire biographique. Ce faisant, c’est un travail de dénaturalisation de l’excellence, pensée comme un construit historique et social, qui est entrepris. L’étude des trois dimensions de l’excellence (rapport à l’activité, à soi, et aux autres) se fait en premier lieu à partir d’un matériau original : un corpus de 62 autobiographies d’alpinistes. Son usage s’accompagne d’une réflexion méthodologique sur les conditions de sa validité sociologique. Afin de réinscrire ces discours dans leurs cadres historiques et sociaux d’énonciation, d’autres matériaux sont mobilisés : 16 entretiens, deux bases de données (dont l’une permet de mener une analyse prosopographique), les articles et les notices nécrologiques des revues des grands clubs alpins sélectifs des deux pays. This thesis proposes a socio-historical approach of excellence in mountaineering, from the creation of the British Alpine Club, the first alpine club in the world, founded in 1856, up until the beginning of the 21st century. Excellence is defined by three relations: a relation to the activity of mountaineering, that is, the legitimate ways of practicing this activity, a relation to oneself, that is, the ways in which excellent mountaineers (the “great mountaineers”) see themselves and consider their biographical trajectories, and a relation to others, that is, the ways in which these mountaineers apprehend and distinguish themselves from the other users of mountains and from non-mountaineers. From the study of the discourses of the elite of British and French mountaineering, we seek to understand how a “spirit of mountaineering” (a mentality as well as an “esprit de corps”, an ethos, and a set of ethical principles at the foundation of excellence) has been created, transmitted, has travelled between countries and has been maintained over time. This “spirit” is the basis of a sense of belonging, even of a collective identity. Centered on Britain, as the cradle of mountaineering and the place where an original form of excellence, still perceived today as specific, was initially codified, this study considers French mountaineering, of later appearance, as a comparative point of reference, useful to point out a phenomenon of diffusion of the British conception of excellence. The issue of the historical genesis of a “great mountaineering” on the long-term scale doubles up with the issue of the biographical making of the “great mountaineer”, considered on the short-term scale of the biographical trajectory. By doing so, it is a work of denaturalization of excellence, seen as a historical and social construct, which is undertaken. The study of the three dimensions of excellence (as a relation to activity, to oneself, and to the others) is carried on in the first place with the help of an unusual material: a corpus of 62 autobiographies of mountaineers. Its use is backed with methodological observations regarding the conditions of its sociological validity. In order to consider these discourses within their historical and social frames of enunciation, other materials are used: 16 interviews, two databases (one of them used to carry out a prosopography), the articles and necrologies of the journals of the selective alpine clubs of the two countries.

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    HAL-ENS-LYON; Hyper Article en Ligne
    Other literature type . Doctoral thesis . 2017
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      HAL-ENS-LYON; Hyper Article en Ligne
      Other literature type . Doctoral thesis . 2017
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    Authors: Ababou, A; Davis, Wc; Levy, D;

    International audience

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    Hyper Article en Ligne; Hal-Diderot
    Other literature type . Article . 1993
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      Other literature type . Article . 1993
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    Authors: Bottecchia, Sébastien; Christiano, Maxime; Guerrini, Gilles; Couture, Nadine;

    Lorsque deux individus ne sont pas côte à côte et que l’un souhaite amener le regard de l’autre vers un point d’intérêt désigné, et que la seule modalité disponible pour communiquer est la modalité audio, alors le guidage peut se révéler compliqué et source d’erreurs. C’est pourquoi nous proposons CParlà !, un système de guidage qui utilise le canal tactile puis le canal visuel ; vibrations pour emmener l’utilisateur dans une direction, puis encadrement visuel du point d’intérêt dès qu’il se trouve dans le champ visuel. When two peoples are not side by side and one wishes to bring the other’s eyesight to a designated point of interest, and when the only available modality to communicate is the audio one, then the guidance can show itself complicated and source of errors. That is why we propose CParlà !, a guidance system which uses, according to the context, the most relevant modality.

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    Authors: Escudero, E; Espuny, A; Vicente, Ms; Cárceles, Cm;

    International audience

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      Other literature type . Article . 1996
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    Authors: Gaudeau, Yann;

    L'imagerie médicale moderne génère des données considérables pouvant rapidement saturer les systèmes de transmission et de stockage. La nécessité de compresser les images apparaît donc aujourd'hui incontournable. Actuellement, la seule compression tolérée par les médecins est celle sans pertes. Cependant ce type de compression n'offre que des gains limités. Dans ce contexte, la compression "avec pertes" maîtrisées peut être la réponse la plus appropriée.Ainsi, nous proposons une méthode de compression avec pertes basée sur une transformée en ondelettes 3D suivie d'une Quantification Vectorielle Algébrique avec Zone Morte 3D (QVAZM 3D) pour les images radiologiques. La principale contribution de ce travail réside dans la conception d'une zone morte multidimensionnelle qui permet de prendre en compte les corrélations entre les voxels voisins. Les résultats sur une base d'IRM et scanner couramment utilisés montrent une supériorité visuelle et numérique de notre méthode par rapport à plusieurs des meilleurs codeurs. Ces résultats visuels prometteurs sont confirmés sur des scanners ORL à travers une évaluation de deux spécialistes du domaine.La seconde contribution de cette thèse concerne l'évaluation de l'impact d'une compression avec pertes sur les performances d'un CAD (outil d'aide à la décision) performant pour la détection automatique de nodules pulmonaires. Ce travail original sur une population significative de 120 scanners de poumons a montré que la détection n'était pas détériorée par la compression jusqu'à un niveau de compression de 48 : 1 et restait robuste jusqu'à 96 : 1.La dernière contribution de cette thèse traite de la réduction de la complexité de notre schéma de compression. Nous proposons deux méthodes d'allocations de débits pour les images naturelles et médicales. La première allocation consacrée à la QVAZM 2D s'appuie sur un ajustement précis des courbes débit-distorsion (R-D) en les approximant par un simple modèle exponentiel. La seconde allocation proposée pour les images naturelles 2D et médicales 3D utilise des modèles statistiques par blocs pour modéliser les courbes R-D. Ces modèles R-D s'appuient sur une modélisation de la distribution conjointe des vecteurs de coefficients d'ondelettes par un mélange de gaussiennes généralisées (multidimensionnelles). The huge amounts of volumetric data generated by current medical imaging techniques in the context of an increasing demand for long term archiving solutions, as well as the rapid development of teleradiology make the use of compression inevitable. Indeed, if the medical community has sided until now with lossless compression, most of applications suffer from compression ratios which are too low with this kind compression. In this context, lossy compression with acceptable losses could be the most appropriate answer. So, we propose a new lossy coding scheme based on 3D Wavelet Transform and Dead Zone Lattice Vector Quantization 3D (DZLVQ) for medical images. Our algorithm has been evaluated on several CT an MR image volumes. The main contribution of this work is the design of a multidimensional dead zone which enables to take into account correlations between neighbor voxels. At high compression ratios, we show that it can outperform visually and numerically the best existing methods. These promising results are confirmed on head CT by two medical patriciansThe second contribution of this document assesses the effect lossy image compression on CAD (Computered-Aided Decision) detection performance of solid lung nodules. This work on 120 significant lungs MTCDT shows that detection did not suffer until 48:1 compression and still was robust at 96:1.The last contribution consists in the complexity reduction of our compression scheme. The first allocation dedicated to 2D DZLVQ uses an exponential of the rate-distortion (R-D) functions. The second allocation for 2D and 3D medical images is based on block statistical model to estimate the R-D curves. These R-D models are based on the joint distribution of wavelet vectors using a multidimensional mixture of generalized Gaussian (MMGG) densities.

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    Authors: Denis-Delacour, Christopher;

    Ces contributions ont été présentées entre 2012 et 2013 à l’occasion de deux espaces de discussion. Le premier est le Séminaire doctoral de Marseille, commun entre Aix-Marseille Université et l’EHESS, qui visait à produire un lieu d’échanges scientifiques entre des jeunes chercheurs et des historiens statutaires ; le second, à l’occasion d’une demi-journée aux Archives municipales de Marseille, toujours dans la même optique. Retravaillées afin d’une part de conserver une trace de ces discussions, d’autre part de montrer le processus d’écriture propre à chaque chercheur en histoire, elles constituent une archive en tant que telle des thèmes et débats doctoraux de ces années, et un état de la jeune recherche sur Marseille en 2014.; Cette contribution fait partie d’un ensemble de textes produits par de jeunes chercheurs en histoire entre 2011 et 2013. Elle permet de souligner les apports historiographiques de l’histoire sociale et urbaine sur Marseille au cours de ces années, et la vitalité et fécondité des études d’alors. Ce texte doit ainsi être vu comme un jalon supplémentaire dans la compréhension d’une ville qui ne cesse d’interroger et de fasciner

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    Authors: Viseras, J; García-Fernández, P; Adroher, Fj;

    International audience

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    Authors: Poher, Yoann; Ponel, Philippe; Guiter, Frédéric; Andrieu-Ponel, Valérie; +1 Authors

    International audience; Un carottage effectué sur un étang relictuel littoral situé sur l'île Cavallo (archipel des Lavezzi, Corse-du-Sud) a fourni de riches assemblages de Coléoptères fossiles couvrant les 7 derniers millénaires. Ces assemblages fournissent une image originale des changements environnementaux qui ont eu lieu sur cette île sous l'action combinée de l'Homme et de la remontée du niveau marin. La comparaison de la faune de Coléoptères vivant actuellement sur l'île avec celle extraite du profil sédimentaire à l'état fossile montre que 70 taxons de coléoptères aquatiques et hygrophiles associés aux eaux douces ont localement disparu, vraisemblablement en réponse à une augmentation de la salinité dans l'étang d'eau douce, liée à une remontée du niveau marin. La majeure partie de ces extinctions locales s'est produite il y a 3700 ans, lorsque le niveau relatif de la mer Méditerranée était situé 1,5±0,3 mètres en-dessous de son niveau actuel. Ces changements ont été aggravés récemment par la pression anthropique sur l'île, qui a conduit à une réduction considérable de la superficie des zones humides de l'île. Simultanément, la composition des communautés de Coléoptères terrestres paraît avoir été affectée par des phénomènes d'extinction locale d'espèces et de début de spéciation (Coléoptères du genre Percus), peut-être en réponse à un isolement accru de l'île Cavallo et à une réduction de sa superficie. Cette approche rétrospective originale fournit aussi une préfiguration des changements dans la biodiversité entomologique qui pourraient se produire dans le futur dans les écosystèmes lagunaires des côtes méditerranéennes.

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    Authors: M. Sallovitz, Juan; I. Zonco Menghini, María; E. Lanusse, Carlos;

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    Authors: Gu, Liya;

    Dans nos travaux, nous travaillons sur le problème de l?équilibrage de la ligne d?assemblage (ALBP). C?est un problème d?optimisation combinatoire qui permet de définir la répartition des opérations et leur affectation aux stations qui constituent la ligne d?assemblage tout en respectant différentes contraintes de façon à optimiser un critère d?efficacité donné. Deux types de problèmes sont définis d?après l?objectif à minimiser. Le problème de type I (SALBP-1) minimise le nombre de stations sous un temps de cycle donné. Et le problème de type II (SALBP-2) minimise le temps de cycle déterminé par le temps de station le plus grand avec un nombre donné de stations. Nous considérons dans nos travaux uniquement des problèmes de type II. Nous proposons d?abord une méthode pour déterminer la borne inférieure du temps de cycle qui assure de respecter le nombre donné de stations. Cette méthode combine la relaxation lagrangienne et la génération de colonnes. La relaxation lagrangienne est utilisée pour relaxer les contraintes de précédence. Le problème lagrangien de la relaxation lagrangienne est résolu par la génération de colonnes. Ensuite, nous proposons un heuristique pour résoudre les problèmes SALBP-2. L?heuristique proposé se compose de deux phases. Dans la première phase, une solution initiale est produite par un heuristique basé sur un poids correspondant à la position des opérations et d'un certain seuil défini selon les poids pour chaque station. La solution est ensuite améliorée par un procédé de transfert et d?échange dans la deuxième phase. Enfin, les méta-heuristiques sont utilisés pour résoudre le problème déterministe ainsi que le problème stochastique. Ainsi deux méthodes basées sur la génération sont utilisées : l?algorithme de electromagnetism-like mechanism (EM) et l?estimation de distribution (ED). Les résultats de simulation sont comparés avec ceux du recuit simulé (SA). De part sa meilleure performance, EM est choisi pour équilibrer les lignes stochastiques qui considèrent les temps des opérationsomme aléatoires. Dans ce cas, les temps de cycle sont minimisés de façon à assurer que la fiabilité de la ligne est supérieure à une valeur donnée. EM est aussi utilisé pour résoudre les problèmes de type multi-objectif avec minimisation du temps de cycle et maximisation de la fiabilité de la ligne en déterminant un ensemble de solutions Pareto-optimales Our work considers the problem of balancing the assembly line (ALBP). This is a combinatorial optimization problem which consists in assigning operations to stations of the assembly line while respecting various constraints in order to optimize a criterion of efficiency. Two types of problems are defined, based on the objective to minimize. The type I problem (SALBP-1) minimizes the number of stations in a given cycle time. And the problem of type II (SALBP-2) minimizes the cycle time given by the largest time station with a given number of stations. Problems of type II are only considered in our work. Firstly, a method for determining the lower bound of the cycle time which respects the number of stations is determined. This method combines the Lagrangian relaxation and the columns generation method. The Lagrangian relaxation is used to relax the constraints of precedence. The problem of the Lagrangian relaxation is given by the columns generation. Then, a new heuristic is proposed for solving the SALBP-2 problem. This heuristic consists of two steps. In the first step, an initial solution is produced by an heuristic based on a weight corresponding to the position of operations and a threshold defined for each station. The, in the second step, the solution is improved by a process of transfer and exchange. Finally, meta-heuristics are used to solve deterministic and stochastic problems.Two main meta-heuristics are considered: the electromagnetism-like mechanism algorithm (EM) and the estimated distribution (ED). The performance of our method is confirmed via simulation and it is compared with simulated annealing (SA). Due to its better performance, EM was chosen to balance the stochastic lines with random operation times. In this case, the cycle time is minimized under constraint of the reliability of the line which must be greater than a given value. EM is also used to solve multi-objective problems such as minimizing the cycle time and maximizing the reliability of the line by determining a set of Pareto-optimal solutions

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    Authors: Moraldo, Delphine;

    Cette thèse propose une approche socio-historique de l’excellence en alpinisme, sur une période qui s’étend de l’apparition de l’Alpine Club britannique, le premier club alpin au monde, créé en 1856, jusqu’au début du XXIe siècle. L’excellence est envisagée sous l’angle d’un triple rapport : un rapport à la pratique, qui désigne les manières légitimes de pratiquer, un rapport à soi-même, qui renvoie à la façon dont les alpinistes excellents (les « grands alpinistes ») se perçoivent et envisagent leurs trajectoires biographiques, et un rapport aux autres individus, c'est-à-dire la manière dont ces alpinistes appréhendent et se distinguent des autres usagers de la montagne et des non-alpinistes. À partir des discours des membres de l’élite de l’alpinisme britannique et français, la question est posée de savoir comment se crée, se transmet, se diffuse dans l’espace et se maintient dans le temps un « esprit de l’alpinisme » entendu à la fois comme mentalité, esprit de corps, ethos, et principes éthiques au fondement de l’excellence, fortement distinctif, identitaire et fédérateur, au principe d’un sentiment d’appartenance, voire d’une identité collective. Centré sur le Royaume-Uni, berceau de l’alpinisme et lieu de codification d’une forme originelle d’excellence, encore perçue comme spécifique de nos jours, ce travail considère l’alpinisme français, d’apparition plus tardive, comme contre-point comparatif servant notamment à étudier des phénomènes de diffusion de la conception britannique de l’excellence. La question de la genèse historique d’un « grand alpinisme » sur le temps long se double enfin de celle de la fabrique biographique du « grand alpiniste », sur le temps court de la trajectoire biographique. Ce faisant, c’est un travail de dénaturalisation de l’excellence, pensée comme un construit historique et social, qui est entrepris. L’étude des trois dimensions de l’excellence (rapport à l’activité, à soi, et aux autres) se fait en premier lieu à partir d’un matériau original : un corpus de 62 autobiographies d’alpinistes. Son usage s’accompagne d’une réflexion méthodologique sur les conditions de sa validité sociologique. Afin de réinscrire ces discours dans leurs cadres historiques et sociaux d’énonciation, d’autres matériaux sont mobilisés : 16 entretiens, deux bases de données (dont l’une permet de mener une analyse prosopographique), les articles et les notices nécrologiques des revues des grands clubs alpins sélectifs des deux pays. This thesis proposes a socio-historical approach of excellence in mountaineering, from the creation of the British Alpine Club, the first alpine club in the world, founded in 1856, up until the beginning of the 21st century. Excellence is defined by three relations: a relation to the activity of mountaineering, that is, the legitimate ways of practicing this activity, a relation to oneself, that is, the ways in which excellent mountaineers (the “great mountaineers”) see themselves and consider their biographical trajectories, and a relation to others, that is, the ways in which these mountaineers apprehend and distinguish themselves from the other users of mountains and from non-mountaineers. From the study of the discourses of the elite of British and French mountaineering, we seek to understand how a “spirit of mountaineering” (a mentality as well as an “esprit de corps”, an ethos, and a set of ethical principles at the foundation of excellence) has been created, transmitted, has travelled between countries and has been maintained over time. This “spirit” is the basis of a sense of belonging, even of a collective identity. Centered on Britain, as the cradle of mountaineering and the place where an original form of excellence, still perceived today as specific, was initially codified, this study considers French mountaineering, of later appearance, as a comparative point of reference, useful to point out a phenomenon of diffusion of the British conception of excellence. The issue of the historical genesis of a “great mountaineering” on the long-term scale doubles up with the issue of the biographical making of the “great mountaineer”, considered on the short-term scale of the biographical trajectory. By doing so, it is a work of denaturalization of excellence, seen as a historical and social construct, which is undertaken. The study of the three dimensions of excellence (as a relation to activity, to oneself, and to the others) is carried on in the first place with the help of an unusual material: a corpus of 62 autobiographies of mountaineers. Its use is backed with methodological observations regarding the conditions of its sociological validity. In order to consider these discourses within their historical and social frames of enunciation, other materials are used: 16 interviews, two databases (one of them used to carry out a prosopography), the articles and necrologies of the journals of the selective alpine clubs of the two countries.

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    Other literature type . Doctoral thesis . 2017
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      Other literature type . Doctoral thesis . 2017
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    Authors: Ababou, A; Davis, Wc; Levy, D;

    International audience

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    Other literature type . Article . 1993
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