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  • Neuroinformatics
  • 14. Life underwater

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Chevaldonné, P.; Sket, B.; Marschal, C.; Lejeusne, C.; +1 Authors

    Dark littoral submarine caves can act as enclaves of the deep aphotic zone in shallow coastal areas, and their survey has revealed the existence of a very particular fauna of specialized and poorly known organisms among which crustaceans are particularly well represented. In these particular habitats, the use of conventional sampling techniques, such as hand nets, is often not recommended since they disturb bottom sediments causing hazardous situations to scientific divers. The use of baited traps, while technically possible, is not. always practical is such remote habitats. The present work describes a simple and inexpensive manual device that can be operated by divers ill submarine caves and other cryptic habitats to recurrently catch small motile organisms such as mysid crustaceans, caridean shrimps, or even gobiid fishes. This small suction bottle derived and improved from the original "Sket bottle" design considerably reduces the risks of disturbing the cave's bottom sediment and can be easily operated using a single hand. The described sampling device can also be easily used outside caves, in a variety of particular habitats, e.g., rubble filled bottoms, branching coral reefs, cracks, and small holes on rocky surfaces, in which small motile organisms usually escape from traditional sampling gears, e.g., fishnets and traps, or simply go unnoticed by researchers during sampling. info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion

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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Journal of Crustacean Biology
    Article . 2008 . Peer-reviewed
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    Other literature type . Article . 2007
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    Other literature type . Article . 2008
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Saillard , Marc; Forget , Philippe; Soriano , Gabriel; Joelson , Maminirina; +2 Authors

    Abstract In a first part, this paper describes radar experiments aimed at probing the sea surface from the coast. To capture small-scale changes in a coastal environment, a flexible high resolution, Doppler L-band radar with high resolution in range has been used. The data exhibit significant sensitivity to current and wind, which justifies the development of a model for inversion. The second part of the paper is thus devoted to our first attempt to model radar echoes, in order to accurately describe the influence of the geophysical parameters of interest. Here, the focus is put on waves generated by a local wind. The key point consists in taking properly into account non-linear hydrodynamic interactions between waves to generate a realistic moving sea surface. From the electromagnetic point of view, since standard low-frequency approximations no longer hold at L-band, a small-slope approximation has been implemented to compute the backscattered field. Numerical results show that for light winds (less than 5 m s −1 ) the model correctly predicts the behaviour of the data with respect to wind speed and direction. To cite this article: M. Saillard et al., C. R. Physique 6 (2005).

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Comptes Rendus Physi...arrow_drop_down
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    Comptes Rendus Physique
    Article . 2005 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Ismail, H.; Lemriss, S.; Ben Aoun, Z.; Mhadhebi, L.; +4 Authors

    Abstract Crude extracts and semi-purified fractions (F5, F6) from the Mediterranean sea cucumber, Holothuria polii , collected from the bay of Tabarka (Tunisia coast) were evaluated for their antifungal activity against filamentous fungi and yeast. The activity was determined in vitro, using the well diffusion test in the casitone agar medium. Both the aqueous and the methanolic extracts were found to produce, in a concentration-related manner (600–1500 μg/well) a significant antifungal activity. The semi-purified fractions (F5, F6) of both extracts exhibited also a significant antifungal activity in a concentration-related manner (150–300 μg/well). The strains of Aspergillus fumigatus were more susceptible to these extracts and derived fractions, while those of Trichophyton rubrum were found to be less susceptible. No activity was observed against strains of Candida albicans . These findings suggest that the polar active fractions (F5, F6) obtained from aqueous and methanolic extracts could contain a new antifungal compound(s). The purification and the determination of chemical structure of compound(s) of these active fractions are under investigation.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Journal de Mycologie...arrow_drop_down
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    Journal de Mycologie Médicale
    Article . 2008 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 2008
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Journal de Mycologie...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Journal de Mycologie Médicale
      Article . 2008 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2008
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Bureau Du Colombier, Sarah; Jacobs, Louis; Gesset, Charline; Elie, Pierre; +1 Authors

    [Departement_IRSTEA]Eaux [TR1_IRSTEA]QUASARE; International audience; In the context of the severe decrease in temperate eel abundance, understanding and control of eel maturation has strong interest for scientific and commercial purposes. Possible use of ultrasonography for improvement of sex determination and maturation monitoring in silver eel was investigated. Gonads of 96 Anguilla anguilla silver eels were observed using portable equipment associated to a 6-15MHz probe, and sex determination was tried before artificial induction of maturation. To estimate gonad mass and monitor individual gonadosomatic index (GSI) in females, cross-sectional images were captured at different times of maturation and gonad length was measured at scanning. Two methods were tried for ovary mass estimation using ultrasonography: one based on a linear model and another on calculating ovary volume from a representation of gonad shape. Ultrasonography resulted in 100% success in sex determination. Ovary mass estimated by ultrasonography was strongly correlated to true ovary mass (R2=0.97). The use of a linear model for gonad mass and then GSI estimation seemed more appropriate than the use of a representation of gonad shape. Evolution of GSI estimates during maturation supports possible detection of early inter-individual differences in maturation using ultrasonography in female silver eels. This non-invasive tool can then obviously be exploited to improve sex determination in silver eels caught in the wild and to monitor maturation at the individual level. Ultrasonography thus has great potential for use in eel both for conservation and aquaculture. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the use of ultrasonography on eels or any anguillid species.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Fisheries Researcharrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Fisheries Research
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Fisheries Researcharrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Fisheries Research
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Lee, H.B.; Guillaume, J.; Chou, R.; Cuzon, G.; +2 Authors

    This paper describes the effort of the Marine Aquaculture Section of the Primary Production Department in Singapore and the Institut Francais de Recherche pour l'Exploitation de la Mer in developing adequate facilities for fish nutritional requirement studies in Singapore, and in introducing appropriate nutritional methodology so that results are reliable and accurate. One of the first achievements was the demonstration of homogeneous fish (tropical seabass, Lates calcarifer Bloch) growth response in a newly established tank system before any nutritional experiments were initiated. The application of statistical procedures that take into consideration the power of a test and number of replications required has allowed for more accurate interpretation of results. This can be seen in the results of the first nutritional requirement experiment on the optimal dietary protein level of the seabass at constant energy.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Journal of Applied I...arrow_drop_down
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    Journal of Applied Ichthyology
    Article . 1995 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Journal of Applied I...arrow_drop_down
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      Journal of Applied Ichthyology
      Article . 1995 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: Ayari, Mohamed; Coatanhay, Arnaud; Khenchaf, Ali;

    International audience

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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Nogaro, Géraldine; Mermillod-Blondin, Florian; François-Carcaillet, Frédérique; Gaudet, Jean-Paul; +2 Authors

    Summary1. Invertebrate bioturbation can strongly affect water‐sediment exchanges in aquatic ecosystems. The objective of this study was to quantify the influence of invertebrates on the physical characteristics of an infiltration system clogged with fine sediment.2. Two taxa (chironomids and tubificids) with different bioturbation activities were studied in experimental slow infiltration columns filled with sand and gravel and clogged with a 2 cm layer of fine sediment at the surface. We measured the effects of each taxon separately and combined on hydraulic head, water mobility and sediment reworking.3. The results showed that invertebrates could reduce sediment clogging and this effect was linked to the functional mode of bioturbation of each group. Tubificid worms dug networks of galleries in the fine sediment, creating pathways for water flow, which reduced the clogging of sediment. In contrast, the U‐shaped tubes of chironomids were restricted to the superficial layer of fine sediments and did not modify the hydraulic conductivity of experimental columns. The combination of invertebrates did not show any interactive effects between tubificids and chironomids. The occurrence of 80 tubificids in the combination was enough to maintain the same hydraulic conductivity that 160 worms did in monospecific treatment.4. The invertebrates like tubificid worms can have a great benefit on functioning of clogged interfaces by maintaining high hydraulic conductivity, which contributes to increased water‐sediment exchanges and stimulates biogeochemical and microbial processes occurring in river sediments.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Freshwater Biologyarrow_drop_down
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    Freshwater Biology
    Article . 2006 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Bodin, N.; Burgeot, T.; Stanisière, J.Y.; Bocquené, G.; +6 Authors

    International audience; Seasonal variations of six mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) biomarkers at two sites in the Mediterranean Sea were compared with physiological indices (condition, growth and gonad maturation), environmental parameters (temperature, salinity and turbidity), and chemical contamination levels. The basal levels of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), DNA adducts, benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase (BPH), heat-shock proteins (HSP70), metallothioneins (MT) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) were estimated as early warning signals in caged mussels sampled at Carteau (native site) and La Fourcade (transplantation site) over a 2-year period. The Carteau and La Fourcade mussels have specific chemical contamination profiles but a similar range of values. For example, both are highly contaminated by heavy metals (201 and 258.4 mg kg−1 dw, respectively) and considered as moderately impacted for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). However, contamination levels at Carteau are twice as high for PAHs (101.5 mg g−1 dw) and PCBs (90.2 mg g−1 dw) than La Fourcade. The seasonal contamination trend at Carteau showed six-fold higher levels of pyrolytic pollutants in winter. Although few tissue lesions were detected in individuals studied at either site, greater parasitic infestation was observed at Carteau. The results of findings from the two Mediterranean pilot studies support the adaptability of transplanted mussels to be used as biomarkers and to establish physiological endpoints for chemical contaminant exposure.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Comparative Biochemi...arrow_drop_down
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    Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C Toxicology & Pharmacology
    Article . 2004 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: Dadouchi, Florian; Huillery, Julien; Gervaise, Cedric; Mars, Jerome;

    International audience; The use of passive acoustic for the classification, localization, and density estimation of populations of marine mammals is a current area of interest. It is a cheap and an efficient alternative to visual surveys. However, the lack of an efficient automatic detector for unknown marine mammal calls greatly undermines the feasibility of those tasks, especially when dealing with species showing a great variability of calls. This study adds one more step toward the fully automatic detection of unknown bioacoustic signals in impulsive, non-stationary, and colored ocean noise. The detection procedure is a two-steps fully statistical method solely based on the knowledge of the background noise in the spectrogram. The first step models the noise power as a chi-squared distribution, which parameter is estimated. The signal is then detected using a Neyman-Pearson approach, providing a binary spectrogram that contains false and true detections. The second step removes a significant amount of false detections from the binary spectrogram. The time-frequency distribution of false detections is fitted with a correlated binomial distribution, which is used to discriminate patches of detections (signal) from uniformly distributed detections (false alarms). Examples showing the applicability of this method on several real underwater sounds are presented.

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    Authors: Nicolas Puillandre; Philippe Bouchet; Thomas F. Duda; S. Kauferstein; +4 Authors

    We present a large-scale molecular phylogeny that includes 320 of the 761 recognized valid species of the cone snails (Conus), one of the most diverse groups of marine molluscs, based on three mitochondrial genes (COI, 16S rDNA and 12S rDNA). This is the first phylogeny of the taxon to employ concatenated sequences of several genes, and it includes more than twice as many species as the last published molecular phylogeny of the entire group nearly a decade ago. Most of the numerous molecular phylogenies published during the last 15 years are limited to rather small fractions of its species diversity. Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses are mostly congruent and confirm the presence of three previously reported highly divergent lineages among cone snails, and one identified here using molecular data. About 85% of the species cluster in the single Large Major Cade; the others are divided between the Small Major Cade (similar to 12%), the Conus califomicus lineage (one species), and a newly defined clade (similar to 3%). We also define several subclades within the Large and Small major clades, but most of their relationships remain poorly supported. To illustrate the usefulness of molecular phylogenies in addressing specific evolutionary questions, we analyse the evolution of the diet, the biogeography and the toxins of cone snails. All cone snails whose feeding biology is known inject venom into large prey animals and swallow them whole. Predation on polychaete worms is inferred as the ancestral state, and diet shifts to molluscs and fishes occurred rarely. The ancestor of cone snails probably originated from the Indo-Pacific; rather few colonisations of other biogeographic provinces have probably occurred. A new classification of the Conidae, based on the molecular phylogeny, is published in an accompanying paper.

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    Other literature type . Article . 2014
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2014
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Chevaldonné, P.; Sket, B.; Marschal, C.; Lejeusne, C.; +1 Authors

    Dark littoral submarine caves can act as enclaves of the deep aphotic zone in shallow coastal areas, and their survey has revealed the existence of a very particular fauna of specialized and poorly known organisms among which crustaceans are particularly well represented. In these particular habitats, the use of conventional sampling techniques, such as hand nets, is often not recommended since they disturb bottom sediments causing hazardous situations to scientific divers. The use of baited traps, while technically possible, is not. always practical is such remote habitats. The present work describes a simple and inexpensive manual device that can be operated by divers ill submarine caves and other cryptic habitats to recurrently catch small motile organisms such as mysid crustaceans, caridean shrimps, or even gobiid fishes. This small suction bottle derived and improved from the original "Sket bottle" design considerably reduces the risks of disturbing the cave's bottom sediment and can be easily operated using a single hand. The described sampling device can also be easily used outside caves, in a variety of particular habitats, e.g., rubble filled bottoms, branching coral reefs, cracks, and small holes on rocky surfaces, in which small motile organisms usually escape from traditional sampling gears, e.g., fishnets and traps, or simply go unnoticed by researchers during sampling. info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion

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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Journal of Crustacean Biology
    Article . 2008 . Peer-reviewed
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    Other literature type . Article . 2007
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Saillard , Marc; Forget , Philippe; Soriano , Gabriel; Joelson , Maminirina; +2 Authors

    Abstract In a first part, this paper describes radar experiments aimed at probing the sea surface from the coast. To capture small-scale changes in a coastal environment, a flexible high resolution, Doppler L-band radar with high resolution in range has been used. The data exhibit significant sensitivity to current and wind, which justifies the development of a model for inversion. The second part of the paper is thus devoted to our first attempt to model radar echoes, in order to accurately describe the influence of the geophysical parameters of interest. Here, the focus is put on waves generated by a local wind. The key point consists in taking properly into account non-linear hydrodynamic interactions between waves to generate a realistic moving sea surface. From the electromagnetic point of view, since standard low-frequency approximations no longer hold at L-band, a small-slope approximation has been implemented to compute the backscattered field. Numerical results show that for light winds (less than 5 m s −1 ) the model correctly predicts the behaviour of the data with respect to wind speed and direction. To cite this article: M. Saillard et al., C. R. Physique 6 (2005).

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Comptes Rendus Physi...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Comptes Rendus Physique
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Comptes Rendus Physi...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Comptes Rendus Physique
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