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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Bureau Du Colombier, Sarah; Jacobs, Louis; Gesset, Charline; Elie, Pierre; +1 Authors

    [Departement_IRSTEA]Eaux [TR1_IRSTEA]QUASARE; International audience; In the context of the severe decrease in temperate eel abundance, understanding and control of eel maturation has strong interest for scientific and commercial purposes. Possible use of ultrasonography for improvement of sex determination and maturation monitoring in silver eel was investigated. Gonads of 96 Anguilla anguilla silver eels were observed using portable equipment associated to a 6-15MHz probe, and sex determination was tried before artificial induction of maturation. To estimate gonad mass and monitor individual gonadosomatic index (GSI) in females, cross-sectional images were captured at different times of maturation and gonad length was measured at scanning. Two methods were tried for ovary mass estimation using ultrasonography: one based on a linear model and another on calculating ovary volume from a representation of gonad shape. Ultrasonography resulted in 100% success in sex determination. Ovary mass estimated by ultrasonography was strongly correlated to true ovary mass (R2=0.97). The use of a linear model for gonad mass and then GSI estimation seemed more appropriate than the use of a representation of gonad shape. Evolution of GSI estimates during maturation supports possible detection of early inter-individual differences in maturation using ultrasonography in female silver eels. This non-invasive tool can then obviously be exploited to improve sex determination in silver eels caught in the wild and to monitor maturation at the individual level. Ultrasonography thus has great potential for use in eel both for conservation and aquaculture. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the use of ultrasonography on eels or any anguillid species.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Fisheries Researcharrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Fisheries Research
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Fisheries Researcharrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Fisheries Research
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Ismail, H.; Lemriss, S.; Ben Aoun, Z.; Mhadhebi, L.; +4 Authors

    Abstract Crude extracts and semi-purified fractions (F5, F6) from the Mediterranean sea cucumber, Holothuria polii , collected from the bay of Tabarka (Tunisia coast) were evaluated for their antifungal activity against filamentous fungi and yeast. The activity was determined in vitro, using the well diffusion test in the casitone agar medium. Both the aqueous and the methanolic extracts were found to produce, in a concentration-related manner (600–1500 μg/well) a significant antifungal activity. The semi-purified fractions (F5, F6) of both extracts exhibited also a significant antifungal activity in a concentration-related manner (150–300 μg/well). The strains of Aspergillus fumigatus were more susceptible to these extracts and derived fractions, while those of Trichophyton rubrum were found to be less susceptible. No activity was observed against strains of Candida albicans . These findings suggest that the polar active fractions (F5, F6) obtained from aqueous and methanolic extracts could contain a new antifungal compound(s). The purification and the determination of chemical structure of compound(s) of these active fractions are under investigation.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Journal de Mycologie...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Journal de Mycologie Médicale
    Article . 2008 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 2008
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Journal de Mycologie...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Journal de Mycologie Médicale
      Article . 2008 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2008
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Eichinger, Marie; Poggiale, Jean-Christophe; van Wambeke, France; Lefèvre, Dominique; +1 Authors

    A Monod (1942) model was used to describe the interaction and dynamics between marine bacteria and labile-dissolved organic carbon (l-DOC) using data obtained from 36 biodegra- dation experiments. This model is governed by 2 state variables, DOC and bacterial biomass (BB), and 3 parameters, specific maximum assimilation rate (Vmax), half-saturation constant (KS) and bac- terial growth efficiency (BGE). The calibrations were obtained from biodegradation experiments carried out in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean over different seasons and at different depths. We also conducted a sensitivity analysis to determine (1) which parameter had the greatest influence on the model, and (2) whether the model was robust with regard to experimental errors. Our results indicate that BGE is greater in surface layers than in deeper waters, with minimum values observed during winter. In contrast, the Vmax/KS ratio is inversely dependent on depth and does not show any seasonal trend. This reflects an increase in bacterial affinity for substrate with increasing depth (decrease of KS) and/or better specific maximum assimilation rates (increase of Vmax). The sensitivity and robust- ness analyses demonstrate that the model is more sensitive to the Vmax/KS ratio than to BGE, and that the parameters estimated are reliable. However, although the BGE values are close to those esti- mated experimentally, the use of a constant Vmax/KS ratio and BGE in a 1-dimensional model is not appropriate as these parameters should be described as variables that take depth and season into account.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Aquatic Microbial Ec...arrow_drop_down
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    Aquatic Microbial Ecology
    Article . 2006 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Beaugrand, Gregory; Edwards, Martin; Raybaud, Virginie; Goberville, Eric; +1 Authors

    Many studies have implied significant effects of global climate change on marine life. Setting these alterations into the context of historical natural change has not been attempted so far, however. Here, using a theoretical framework, we estimate the sensitivity of marine pelagic biodiversity to temperature change and evaluate its past (mid-Pliocene and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM)), contemporaneous (1960–2013) and future (2081–2100; 4 scenarios of warming) vulnerability. Our biodiversity reconstructions were highly correlated to real data for several pelagic taxa for the contemporary and the past (LGM and mid-Pliocene) periods. Our results indicate that local species loss will be a prominent phenomenon of climate warming in permanently stratified regions, and that local species invasion will prevail in temperate and polar biomes under all climate change scenarios. Although a small amount of warming under the RCP2.6 scenario is expected to have a minor influence on marine pelagic biodiversity, moderate warming (RCP4.5) will increase by threefold the changes already observed over the past 50 years. Of most concern is that severe warming (RCP6.0 and 8.5) will affect marine pelagic biodiversity to a greater extent than temperature changes that took place between either the LGM or the mid-Pliocene and today, over an area of between 50 (RCP6.0: 46.9–52.4%) and 70% (RCP8.5: 69.4–73.4%) of the global ocean. International audience

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Nature Climate Chang...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Nature Climate Change
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Springer TDM
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    Article . 2015
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Panserat, Stéphane; Blin, C; Medale, Francoise; Plagnes Juan, E; +3 Authors

    The enzyme glucokinase (GK) (EC 2.7.1.1) plays an important role in the control of glucose homeostasis. Qualitative and/or quantitative variations in GK enzyme have been postulated by previous studies to explain why dietary carbohydrate utilisation is lower in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) than in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). In this study, we report the isolation and characterisation of a full-length cDNA coding for GK in these teleosts. Amino acid sequences derived from these cDNA clones are highly similar to other vertebrate GKs. These findings, including a detailed phylogenetic analysis, reveal that GK gene highly homologous to mammalian GK exists in these fish species with similar tissue specific expression (mainly liver).

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Biochimica et Biophy...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General Subjects
    Article . 2000 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Mélanie Debiais-Thibaud; Cushla J. Metcalfe; Jacob Pollack; Isabelle Germon; +5 Authors

    Background: The Dlx gene family encodes transcription factors involved in the development of a wide variety of morphological innovations that first evolved at the origins of vertebrates or of the jawed vertebrates. This gene family expanded with the two rounds of genome duplications that occurred before jawed vertebrates diversified. It includes at least three bigene pairs sharing conserved regulatory sequences in tetrapods and teleost fish, but has been only partially characterized in chondrichthyans, the third major group of jawed vertebrates. Here we take advantage of developmental and molecular tools applied to the shark Scyliorhinus canicula to fill in the gap and provide an overview of the evolution of the Dlx family in the jawed vertebrates. These results are analyzed in the theoretical framework of the DDC (Duplication-Degeneration-Complementation) model.Results: The genomic organisation of the catshark Dlx genes is similar to that previously described for tetrapods. Conserved non-coding elements identified in bony fish were also identified in catshark Dlx clusters and showed regulatory activity in transgenic zebrafish. Gene expression patterns in the catshark showed that there are some expression sites with high conservation of the expressed paralog(s) and other expression sites with events of paralog sub-functionalization during jawed vertebrate diversification, resulting in a wide variety of evolutionary scenarios within this gene family.Conclusion: Dlx gene expression patterns in the catshark show that there has been little neo-functionalization in Dlx genes over gnathostome evolution. In most cases, one tandem duplication and two rounds of vertebrate genome duplication have led to at least six Dlx coding sequences with redundant expression patterns followed by some instances of paralog sub-functionalization. Regulatory constraints such as shared enhancers, and functional constraints including gene pleiotropy, may have contributed to the evolutionary inertia leading to high redundancy between gene expression patterns. International audience

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: López-Barneo, J; Nurse, C A; Nilsson, G E; Buck, L T; +2 Authors

    Survival success under conditions of acute oxygen deprivation depends on efficiency of the central and peripheral chemoreception, optimization of oxygen extraction from the hypoxic environment and its delivery to the periphery, and adjustments of energy production and consumption. This article uses a comparative approach to assess the efficiency of adaptive strategies used by anoxia-tolerant and hypoxia-sensitive species to support survival during the first minutes to 1 h of oxygen deprivation. An aquatic environment is much more demanding in terms of diurnal and seasonal variations of the ambient oxygen availability from anoxia to hyperoxia than is an air environment. Therefore, fishes and aquatic turtles have developed a number of adaptive responses, which are lacking in most of the terrestrial mammals, to cope with these extreme conditions. These include efficient central and peripheral chemoreception, acute changes in respiratory rate and amplitude, and acute increase of the gas-exchange interface. A special set of adaptive mechanisms are engaged in reduction of the energy expenditure of the major oxygen-consuming organs: the brain and the heart. Both reduction of ATP consumption and a switch to alterative energy sources contribute to the maintenance of ATP and ion balance in hypoxia-tolerant animals. Hypoxia and hyperoxia are conditions favoring development of oxidative stress. Efficient protection from oxidation in anoxia-tolerant species includes reduction in the glutamate levels in the brain, stabilization of the mitochondrial function, and maintenance of nitric oxide production under conditions of oxygen deprivation. We give an overview of the current state of knowledge on some selected molecular and cellular acute adaptive mechanisms. These include the mechanisms of chemoreception in adult and neonatal mammals and in fishes, acute metabolic adaptive responses in the brain, and the role of nitrite in the preservation of heart function under hypoxic conditions.

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    Physiological and Biochemical Zoology
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    https://doi.org/10.5167/uzh-43...
    Other literature type . 2010
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      Physiological and Biochemical Zoology
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      https://doi.org/10.5167/uzh-43...
      Other literature type . 2010
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    Authors: Boisteau, Benjamin; Marion, Loic;

    Resume L'etude a porte sur l'analyse des relations spatiales existant entre repartition et taille des colonies de herons cendres dans deux zones refuges apres le declin du XIXe siecle : la Bretagne meridionale (Loire-Atlantique et Morbihan) et l'Est de la France (Haute-Saone, Saone-et-Loire, Meurthe-et-Moselle, Vosges), totalisant 112 colonies en 1994, qui ont ete testees par SIG a l'aide de 35 descripteurs du reseau hydrographique d'un niveau local a un niveau regional. Les resultats montrent que, quelle que soit l'echelle, l'installation des colonies n'est pas regie par les memes elements du reseau hydrographique d'un departement a l'autre. On distingue deux strategies d'utilisation du milieu entre l'Ouest et l'Est de la France, mais on peut egalement discerner deux situations bien distinctes entre le Morbihan et la Loire-Atlantique. Cette etude souligne l'importance du type et de l'organisation des elements hydrographiques, mais aussi de l'histoire des populations, dans la localisation des colonies de herons cendres. Pour citer cet article : B. Boisteau, L. Marion, C. R. Biologies 329 (2006).

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    Comptes Rendus Biologies
    Article . 2006 . Peer-reviewed
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      Comptes Rendus Biologies
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    Authors: Nicolas Puillandre; Philippe Bouchet; Thomas F. Duda; S. Kauferstein; +4 Authors

    We present a large-scale molecular phylogeny that includes 320 of the 761 recognized valid species of the cone snails (Conus), one of the most diverse groups of marine molluscs, based on three mitochondrial genes (COI, 16S rDNA and 12S rDNA). This is the first phylogeny of the taxon to employ concatenated sequences of several genes, and it includes more than twice as many species as the last published molecular phylogeny of the entire group nearly a decade ago. Most of the numerous molecular phylogenies published during the last 15 years are limited to rather small fractions of its species diversity. Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses are mostly congruent and confirm the presence of three previously reported highly divergent lineages among cone snails, and one identified here using molecular data. About 85% of the species cluster in the single Large Major Cade; the others are divided between the Small Major Cade (similar to 12%), the Conus califomicus lineage (one species), and a newly defined clade (similar to 3%). We also define several subclades within the Large and Small major clades, but most of their relationships remain poorly supported. To illustrate the usefulness of molecular phylogenies in addressing specific evolutionary questions, we analyse the evolution of the diet, the biogeography and the toxins of cone snails. All cone snails whose feeding biology is known inject venom into large prey animals and swallow them whole. Predation on polychaete worms is inferred as the ancestral state, and diet shifts to molluscs and fishes occurred rarely. The ancestor of cone snails probably originated from the Indo-Pacific; rather few colonisations of other biogeographic provinces have probably occurred. A new classification of the Conidae, based on the molecular phylogeny, is published in an accompanying paper.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2014
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    Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2014
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      Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
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    Authors: Bodin, N.; Burgeot, T.; Stanisière, J.Y.; Bocquené, G.; +6 Authors

    International audience; Seasonal variations of six mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) biomarkers at two sites in the Mediterranean Sea were compared with physiological indices (condition, growth and gonad maturation), environmental parameters (temperature, salinity and turbidity), and chemical contamination levels. The basal levels of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), DNA adducts, benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase (BPH), heat-shock proteins (HSP70), metallothioneins (MT) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) were estimated as early warning signals in caged mussels sampled at Carteau (native site) and La Fourcade (transplantation site) over a 2-year period. The Carteau and La Fourcade mussels have specific chemical contamination profiles but a similar range of values. For example, both are highly contaminated by heavy metals (201 and 258.4 mg kg−1 dw, respectively) and considered as moderately impacted for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). However, contamination levels at Carteau are twice as high for PAHs (101.5 mg g−1 dw) and PCBs (90.2 mg g−1 dw) than La Fourcade. The seasonal contamination trend at Carteau showed six-fold higher levels of pyrolytic pollutants in winter. Although few tissue lesions were detected in individuals studied at either site, greater parasitic infestation was observed at Carteau. The results of findings from the two Mediterranean pilot studies support the adaptability of transplanted mussels to be used as biomarkers and to establish physiological endpoints for chemical contaminant exposure.

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    Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C Toxicology & Pharmacology
    Article . 2004 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Bureau Du Colombier, Sarah; Jacobs, Louis; Gesset, Charline; Elie, Pierre; +1 Authors

    [Departement_IRSTEA]Eaux [TR1_IRSTEA]QUASARE; International audience; In the context of the severe decrease in temperate eel abundance, understanding and control of eel maturation has strong interest for scientific and commercial purposes. Possible use of ultrasonography for improvement of sex determination and maturation monitoring in silver eel was investigated. Gonads of 96 Anguilla anguilla silver eels were observed using portable equipment associated to a 6-15MHz probe, and sex determination was tried before artificial induction of maturation. To estimate gonad mass and monitor individual gonadosomatic index (GSI) in females, cross-sectional images were captured at different times of maturation and gonad length was measured at scanning. Two methods were tried for ovary mass estimation using ultrasonography: one based on a linear model and another on calculating ovary volume from a representation of gonad shape. Ultrasonography resulted in 100% success in sex determination. Ovary mass estimated by ultrasonography was strongly correlated to true ovary mass (R2=0.97). The use of a linear model for gonad mass and then GSI estimation seemed more appropriate than the use of a representation of gonad shape. Evolution of GSI estimates during maturation supports possible detection of early inter-individual differences in maturation using ultrasonography in female silver eels. This non-invasive tool can then obviously be exploited to improve sex determination in silver eels caught in the wild and to monitor maturation at the individual level. Ultrasonography thus has great potential for use in eel both for conservation and aquaculture. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the use of ultrasonography on eels or any anguillid species.

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    Fisheries Research
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      Fisheries Research
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    Authors: Ismail, H.; Lemriss, S.; Ben Aoun, Z.; Mhadhebi, L.; +4 Authors

    Abstract Crude extracts and semi-purified fractions (F5, F6) from the Mediterranean sea cucumber, Holothuria polii , collected from the bay of Tabarka (Tunisia coast) were evaluated for their antifungal activity against filamentous fungi and yeast. The activity was determined in vitro, using the well diffusion test in the casitone agar medium. Both the aqueous and the methanolic extracts were found to produce, in a concentration-related manner (600–1500 μg/well) a significant antifungal activity. The semi-purified fractions (F5, F6) of both extracts exhibited also a significant antifungal activity in a concentration-related manner (150–300 μg/well). The strains of Aspergillus fumigatus were more susceptible to these extracts and derived fractions, while those of Trichophyton rubrum were found to be less susceptible. No activity was observed against strains of Candida albicans . These findings suggest that the polar active fractions (F5, F6) obtained from aqueous and methanolic extracts could contain a new antifungal compound(s). The purification and the determination of chemical structure of compound(s) of these active fractions are under investigation.

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    Journal de Mycologie Médicale
    Article . 2008 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 2008
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