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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Ekaterina, Kopeikina; Marina, Dukhinova; Amanda W Y, Yung; Tatyana, Veremeyko; +4 Authors

    The drugs currently available for treating epilepsy are only partially effective in managing this condition. Therefore, it is crucial to investigate new pathways that induce and promote epilepsy development. Previously, we found that platelets interact with neuronal glycolipids and actively secrete pro-inflammatory mediators during central nervous system (CNS) pathological conditions such as neuroinflammation and traumatic brain injury (TBI). These factors increase the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which may create a predisposition to epileptic seizures. In this study, we demonstrated that platelets substantially enhanced epileptic seizures in a mouse model of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) -induced seizures. We found that platelets actively secreted serotonin, contributed to increased BBB permeability, and were present in the CNS parenchyma during epileptic seizures. Furthermore, platelets directly stimulated neuronal electric activity and induced the expression of specific genes related to early neuronal response, neuroinflammation, and oxidative phosphorylation, leading to oxidative stress in neurons. The intracranial injection of physiological numbers of platelets that mimicked TBI-associated bleeding was sufficient to induce severe seizures, which resembled conventional PTZ-induced epileptic activity. These findings highlight a conceptually new role of platelets in the development of epileptic seizures, and indicate a potential new therapeutic approach targeting platelets to prevent and treat epilepsy.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Progress in Neurobio...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Progress in Neurobiology
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Progress in Neurobio...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Progress in Neurobiology
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Hilit, Serby; Elad, Yom-Tov; Gideon F, Inbar;

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) is a system for direct communication between brain and computer. The BCI developed in this work is based on a BCI described by Farwell and Donchin in 1988, which allows a subject to communicate one of 36 symbols presented on a 6 /spl times/ 6 matrix. The system exploits the P300 component of event-related brain potentials (ERP) as a medium for communication. The processing methods distinguish this work from Donchin's work. In this work, independent component analysis (ICA) was used to separate the P300 source from the background noise. A matched filter was used together with averaging and threshold techniques for detecting the existence of P300s. The processing method was evaluated offline on data recorded from six healthy subjects. The method achieved a communication rate of 5.45 symbols/min with an accuracy of 92.1% compared to 4.8 symbols/min with an accuracy of 90% in Donchin's work. The online interface was tested with the same six subjects. The average communication rate achieved was 4.5 symbols/min with an accuracy of 79.5% as apposed to the 4.8 symbols/min with an accuracy of 56% in Donchin's work. The presented BCI achieves excellent performance compared to other existing BCIs, and allows a reasonable communication rate, while maintaining a low error rate.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao IEEE Transactions on...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
    Article . 2005 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao IEEE Transactions on...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
      Article . 2005 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Weilin, Liu; Peiyuan, Zhuo; Long, Li; Hao, Jin; +9 Authors

    An essential feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is implicated in brain energy metabolic impairment that is considered underlying pathogenesis of cognitive impairment. Therefore, therapeutic interventions to allay cognitive deficits that target energy metabolism may be an efficacy strategy in AD. In this study, we found that electroacupuncture (EA) at the DU20 acupoint obviously increased glucose metabolism in specific brain regions such as cortex, hippocampus, cingulate gyrus, basal forebrain septum, brain stem, and cerebellum in APP/PS1 transgenic mice by animal 18F-Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-Glucose (18F-FDG)/positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, accompanied by cognitive improvements in the spatial reference learning and memory and memory flexibility and novel object recognition performances. Further evidence shown energy metabolism occurred in neurons or non-neuronal cells of the cortex and hippocampus in terms of the co-location of GLUT3/NeuN and GLUT1/GFAP. Simultaneously, metabolic homeostatic factors were critical for glucose metabolism, including phosphorylated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and AKT serine/threonine kinase. Furthermore, EA-induced phosphorylated AMPK and AKT inhibited the phosphorylation level of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) to decrease the accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) in the cortex and hippocampus. These findings are concluded that EA is a potential therapeutic target for delaying memory decline and Aβ deposition of AD. The AMPK and AKT are implicated in the EA-induced cortical and hippocampal energy metabolism, which served as a contributor to improving cognitive function and Aβ deposition in a transgenic mouse model of AD.

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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Free Radical Biology and Medicine
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Free Radical Biology...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Free Radical Biology and Medicine
      Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: Bo, Hong; Soumyadipta, Acharya; Nitish, Thakor; Shangkai, Gao;

    Dynamic synchronization between different brain regions has long been considered as the underlying neural mechanism of sensory, motor and cognitive functions. Practical methods of accurately quantifying this kind of dynamics by using scalp EEG are plagued by volume conduction effects and background noise. We propose a new method of measuring transient phase locking between independent components underlying cognitive brain activities. This unique combination of independent component analysis (ICA) and phase locking statistics (PLS) provides a promising technique for investigating the dynamics of neural synchronization between different cortical regions, without the contamination of background coherence. This method was tested on the EEG from a cross-modal working memory experiment and its efficacy in detecting transient phase synchrony was demonstrated.

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    Authors: Yan Chen; Ming Jiang; Onur Kesten; Stéphane Robin; +1 Authors

    Rang CNRS : 1; International audience; We compare the performance of the Boston Immediate Acceptance (IA) and Gale–Shapley Deferred Acceptance (DA) mechanisms in a laboratory setting where we increase the number of participants per match. In our experiment, we first increase the number of students per match from 4 to 40; when we do so, participant truth-telling increases under DA but decreases under IA, leading to a decrease in efficiency under both mechanisms. Furthermore, we find that DA remains more stable than IA, regardless of scale. We then further increase the number of participants per match to 4,000 through the introduction of robots. When robots report their preferences truthfully, we find that scale has no effect on human best response behavior. By contrast, when we program the robots to draw their strategies from the distribution of empirical human strategies, we find that our increase in scale increases human ex-post best responses under both mechanisms.

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    Games and Economic Behavior
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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    SSRN Electronic Journal
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Fei-Fei Xu; Zi-Bin Zhang; Yang-Yang Wang; Ting-Hua Wang;

    Brain damage can cause lung injury. To explore the mechanism underlying the lung injury induced by acute cerebral ischemia (ACI), we established a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model in male Sprague-Dawley rats. We focused on glia maturation factor β (GMFB) based on quantitative analysis of the global rat serum proteome. Polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, and immunofluorescence revealed that GMFB was over-expressed in astrocytes in the brains of rats subjected to MCAO. We cultured rat primary astrocytes and confirmed that GMFB was also up-regulated in primary astrocytes after oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). We subjected the primary astrocytes to Gmfb RNA interference before OGD and collected the conditioned medium (CM) after OGD. We then used the CM to culture pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) acquired in advance and assessed their status. The viability of the PMVECs improved significantly when Gmfb was blocked. Moreover, ELISA assays revealed an elevation in GMFB concentration in the medium after OGD. Cell cultures containing recombinant GMFB showed increased levels of reactive oxygen species and a deterioration in the state of the cells. In conclusion, GMFB is up-regulated in astrocytes after ACI, and brain-derived GMFB damages PMVECs by increasing reactive oxygen species. GMFB might thus be an initiator of the lung injury induced by ACI. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1007/s12264-018-0283-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2018
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    Neuroscience Bulletin
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    Neuroscience Bulletin
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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      Europe PubMed Central
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      Neuroscience Bulletin
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      Neuroscience Bulletin
      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: Xiuqin, Jia; Lin, Shi; Tianyi, Qian; Ying, Li; +3 Authors

    Objective: This study aimed to test the hypothesis that the statistical Chinese brain template would be more effective to detect gray matter (GM) changes in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) in Chinese populations. Materials and Methods: In total, 50 patients with AD and 50 sex-matched and age-matched healthy controls were included in this study. Chinese2020, a typical statistical Chinese brain template, and MNI152, a typical Caucasian template were used for spatial normalization respectively. The GM volume alterations in patients with AD were examined by using voxel-based morphometry with education level and total intracranial volume as nuisance variables. The GM proportions of the identified brain areas with group difference were compared. Results: By using Chinese2020 and MNI152, significant GM atrophies in patients with AD were commonly detected in the bilateral medial temporal lobe, lateral temporal lobe, inferior/medial frontal cortex, as well as left thalamus. However, higher GM percentages of detected regions were acquired when Chinese2020 was used rather than MNI152. Furthermore, stronger statistical powers in the detected clusters were observed using Chinese2020 than MNI152. In addition, the laterality index analysis showed the bilateral atrophies with no hemispheric laterality in the para/hippocampus when using population-specific brain atlas (ie, Chinese2020). Conclusions: These findings indicated that applying the population-specific brain atlas to neuroimaging studies may achieve higher accuracy in activation detection. This may have implications to the imaging study of neurodegenerative diseases.

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  • Authors: Ran, Wen; Qing, Zhang; Pan, Xu; Jie, Bai; +3 Authors

    Xingnaojing microemulsion (XNJ-M) administered intranasally is used for stroke treatment. In order to decrease the XNJ-M-induced mucosal irritation, XNJ-M modified by mPEG2000-PLA (XNJ-MM) were prepared in a previous work. The present work aimed to assess the impact of mPEG2000-PLA on pharmacokinetic features and brain-targeting ability of XNJ-M. The bioavailability and brain-target effects of borneol and geniposide in XNJ-M and XNJ-MM were compared in mice after intravenous (i.v.) and intranasal (i.n.) administrations. Gas chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry methods were developed for the quantification of borneol and geniposide. Blood and brain samples were collected from mice at different time points after i.v. and i.n. treatments with borneol at 8.0 mg/kg, geniposide at 4.12 mg/kg. In addition, near-infrared fluorescence dye, 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethyl indotricarbocyanine iodide was loaded into microemulsions to evaluate the brain-targeting ability of XNJ-M and XNJ-MM by near-infrared fluorescence imaging in vivo and ex vivo. For XNJ-M and XNJ-MM, the relative brain targeted coefficients (Re) were 134.59% and 198.09% (borneol), 89.70% and 188.33% (geniposide), respectively. Besides, significant near-infrared fluorescent signal was detected in the brain after i.n. administration of microemulsions, compared with that of groups for i.v. administration. These findings indicated that mPEG2000-PLA modified microemulsion improved drug entry into blood and brain compared with normal microemulsion: the introduction of mPEG2000-PLA in microemulsion resulted in brain-targeting enhancement of both fat-soluble and water-soluble drugs. These findings provide a basis for the significance of mPEG2000-PLA addition in microemulsion, defining its effects on the drugs in microemulsion.

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  • Authors: Zhi-Ping, Liu; Yong, Wang; Xiang-Sun, Zhang; Weiming, Xia; +1 Authors

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) generally results in neuronal loss due to protein dysfunction in various brain regions. Genome-wide data have provided new opportunities to analyze the underlying mechanisms of AD. Here, we present a novel network-based systems biology framework to identify and analyze differentially activated pathways by integrating human protein-protein interaction data and gene expression profile data in six brain regions. Specifically, we propose a new scoring system by ranking the edges associated with AD. Then, an edge expansion algorithm is designed to identify the dysfunctional pathways implicated in AD pathogenesis in six brain regions respectively. The analyses of the similarities and differences of these dysfunctional pathways provide insights into understanding the dynamics of AD progression in six brain regions from a network perspective, which will further shed light on the pathogenesis of AD.

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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: X. Ding; C.-Y. Li; Q.-S. Wang; F.-Z. Du; +4 Authors

    Abstract Object To investigate whether resting-state functional connectivity (FC) differed in the default mode network (DMN) in stroke patients with and without post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI vs. Non-PSCI) and to explore the relationship between DMN connectivity and the cognitive performance in stroke patients. Methods We totally enrolled twenty healthy controls and 18 stroke patients. The stroke patients were divided into two subgroups on the basis of the cognitive assays. Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores were recorded 10 days and 3 months after the stroke. Independent component analysis was used to isolate the DMN. One-way analysis of variance was performed to detect different FC among groups. Pearson correlation analyses were conducted to determine the relationships between FC strength and the MoCA and MMSE scores. Results Compared to healthy controls, both Non-PSCI patients and PSCI patients showed significantly decreased FC in the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus (PCC/PCu), as well as increased FC in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and left hippocampus. However, Non-PSCI patients showed more significantly increased FC in the MPFC and hippocampus than PSCI patients did. The FC in the PCC/PCu was related to the MoCA score measured at a 10-day follow-up, and the FC in the left hippocampus predicted the MoCA score measured at 3 months follow-up. Conclusions Our findings may be helpful for facilitating further understanding of the potential mechanism underlying PSCI, and suggests that resting-state DMN connectivity could serve as neuroimaging biomarkers for future interventional studies.

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    Neuroscience
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Neurosciencearrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Neuroscience
      Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier TDM
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Ekaterina, Kopeikina; Marina, Dukhinova; Amanda W Y, Yung; Tatyana, Veremeyko; +4 Authors

    The drugs currently available for treating epilepsy are only partially effective in managing this condition. Therefore, it is crucial to investigate new pathways that induce and promote epilepsy development. Previously, we found that platelets interact with neuronal glycolipids and actively secrete pro-inflammatory mediators during central nervous system (CNS) pathological conditions such as neuroinflammation and traumatic brain injury (TBI). These factors increase the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which may create a predisposition to epileptic seizures. In this study, we demonstrated that platelets substantially enhanced epileptic seizures in a mouse model of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) -induced seizures. We found that platelets actively secreted serotonin, contributed to increased BBB permeability, and were present in the CNS parenchyma during epileptic seizures. Furthermore, platelets directly stimulated neuronal electric activity and induced the expression of specific genes related to early neuronal response, neuroinflammation, and oxidative phosphorylation, leading to oxidative stress in neurons. The intracranial injection of physiological numbers of platelets that mimicked TBI-associated bleeding was sufficient to induce severe seizures, which resembled conventional PTZ-induced epileptic activity. These findings highlight a conceptually new role of platelets in the development of epileptic seizures, and indicate a potential new therapeutic approach targeting platelets to prevent and treat epilepsy.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Progress in Neurobio...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Progress in Neurobiology
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Progress in Neurobio...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Progress in Neurobiology
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Hilit, Serby; Elad, Yom-Tov; Gideon F, Inbar;

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) is a system for direct communication between brain and computer. The BCI developed in this work is based on a BCI described by Farwell and Donchin in 1988, which allows a subject to communicate one of 36 symbols presented on a 6 /spl times/ 6 matrix. The system exploits the P300 component of event-related brain potentials (ERP) as a medium for communication. The processing methods distinguish this work from Donchin's work. In this work, independent component analysis (ICA) was used to separate the P300 source from the background noise. A matched filter was used together with averaging and threshold techniques for detecting the existence of P300s. The processing method was evaluated offline on data recorded from six healthy subjects. The method achieved a communication rate of 5.45 symbols/min with an accuracy of 92.1% compared to 4.8 symbols/min with an accuracy of 90% in Donchin's work. The online interface was tested with the same six subjects. The average communication rate achieved was 4.5 symbols/min with an accuracy of 79.5% as apposed to the 4.8 symbols/min with an accuracy of 56% in Donchin's work. The presented BCI achieves excellent performance compared to other existing BCIs, and allows a reasonable communication rate, while maintaining a low error rate.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao IEEE Transactions on...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
    Article . 2005 . Peer-reviewed
    License: IEEE Copyright
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao IEEE Transactions on...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
      Article . 2005 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Weilin, Liu; Peiyuan, Zhuo; Long, Li; Hao, Jin; +9 Authors

    An essential feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is implicated in brain energy metabolic impairment that is considered underlying pathogenesis of cognitive impairment. Therefore, therapeutic interventions to allay cognitive deficits that target energy metabolism may be an efficacy strategy in AD. In this study, we found that electroacupuncture (EA) at the DU20 acupoint obviously increased glucose metabolism in specific brain regions such as cortex, hippocampus, cingulate gyrus, basal forebrain septum, brain stem, and cerebellum in APP/PS1 transgenic mice by animal 18F-Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-Glucose (18F-FDG)/positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, accompanied by cognitive improvements in the spatial reference learning and memory and memory flexibility and novel object recognition performances. Further evidence shown energy metabolism occurred in neurons or non-neuronal cells of the cortex and hippocampus in terms of the co-location of GLUT3/NeuN and GLUT1/GFAP. Simultaneously, metabolic homeostatic factors were critical for glucose metabolism, including phosphorylated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and AKT serine/threonine kinase. Furthermore, EA-induced phosphorylated AMPK and AKT inhibited the phosphorylation level of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) to decrease the accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) in the cortex and hippocampus. These findings are concluded that EA is a potential therapeutic target for delaying memory decline and Aβ deposition of AD. The AMPK and AKT are implicated in the EA-induced cortical and hippocampal energy metabolism, which served as a contributor to improving cognitive function and Aβ deposition in a transgenic mouse model of AD.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Free Radical Biology...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Free Radical Biology and Medicine
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Free Radical Biology...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Free Radical Biology and Medicine
      Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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