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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Packiasamy A R, Juliet; Deepak, Balasubramaniam; Naveen, Balasubramaniam; Chinnakannu, Panneerselvam;

    A wide range of morphological and biochemical changes occur in the central nervous system with increasing age. L-carnitine, a naturally occurring compound, plays a vital role in fatty acid transport across the mitochondrial membrane. L-carnitine (300 mg/kg body wt/day) was administered intraperitoneally to young and old male Wistar rats for 7, 14, and 21 days. Carnitine, dopamine, epinephrine, and serotonin levels were assayed in discrete regions of the brain. Carnitine supplementation increased the levels of dopamine, epinephrine, and serotonin in the experimental animals in our study. Response to carnitine supplementation varied among the brain regions that have been studied. The regions rich in cholinergic neurons such as the cortex, hippocampus, and striatum showed more response after 21 days of carnitine treatment. The results of the present study suggest the role of L-carnitine as a neuromodulator and antiaging medication.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ The Journals of Gero...arrow_drop_down
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    The Journals of Gerontology Series A
    Article . 2003 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ The Journals of Gero...arrow_drop_down
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      The Journals of Gerontology Series A
      Article . 2003 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Christopher, Tolleson; Srivatsan, Pallavaram; Chen, Li; John, Fang; +6 Authors

    <b><i>Background:</i></b> Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus internus is established as efficacious for dystonia, yet the optimal target within this structure is not well defined. Published evidence suggests that spatial normalization provides a better estimate of DBS lead location than traditional methods based on standard stereotactic coordinates. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> We retrospectively reviewed our pallidal implanted dystonia population. Patient imaging scans were morphed into an MRI atlas using a nonlinear image registration algorithm. Active contact locations were projected onto the atlas and clusters analyzed for the degree of variance in two groups: (1) good and poor responders and (2) cervical (CD) and generalized dystonia (GD). <b><i>Results:</i></b> The average active contact location between CD and GD good responders was distinct but not significantly different. The mean active contact for CD poor responders was significantly different from CD responders and GD poor responders in the dorsoventral direction. <b><i>Conclusions:</i></b> A normalized imaging space is arguably more accurate in visualizing postoperative leads. Despite some separation between groups, this data suggests there was not an optimal pallidal target for common dystonia patients. Degrees of variance overlapped due to a large degree of individual target variation. Patient selection may ultimately be the key to maximizing patient outcomes. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2014
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2014
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    Authors: S, Uchida; M, Matsuura; S, Ogata; T, Yamamoto; +1 Authors

    This article critically reviews 8 computer implementations of Fujimori's method for EEG waveform recognition, with methodological considerations for the application of this method to the analysis of all-night sleep EEG. Fujimori's method has been considered one of the most appropriate waveform analyses for EEG. This kind of analysis is advantageous for measuring frequency and amplitude of each EEG wave separately. However, current implementations have drawbacks which must be resolved before they can be used on all-night sleep EEG. An optimal sampling rate should be determined which is appropriate to the purpose of analysis. Amplitude thresholds for wave recognition, which are now set arbitrarily, should also be improved. Measurement of waves in higher orders of superimposition is also necessary, although existing systems are limited to the second order. Additional algorithms, such as for the separate detection of sleep slow waves, may be useful. Further applications for Fujimori's method are suggested.

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    Journal of Neuroscience Methods
    Article . 1996 . Peer-reviewed
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      Journal of Neuroscience Methods
      Article . 1996 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Mobasher, B.; Capak, P.; Scoville, N. Z.; Dahlen, T.; +25 Authors

    We measure photometric redshifts and spectral types for galaxies in the COSMOS survey. We use template fitting technique combined with luminosity function priors and with the option to simultaneously estimate dust extinction (i.e. E(B-V)) for each galaxy.Our estimated redshifts are accurate to i<25 and z~1.2. Using simulations with sampling and noise characteristics similar to those in COSMOS, the accuracy and reliability is estimated for the photometric redshifts as a function of the magnitude limits of the sample, S/N ratios and the number of bands used. From the simulations we find that the ratio of derived 95% confidence interval in the redshift probability distribution to the estimated photometric redshift (D95) can be used to identify and exclude the catastrophic failures in the photometric redshift estimates. We compare the derived redshifts with high-reliability spectroscopic redshifts for a sample of 868 normal galaxies with z < 1.2 from zCOSMOS. Considering different scenarios, depending on using prior, no prior and/or extinction, we compare the photometric and spectroscopic redshifts for this sample. This corresponds to an rms scatter of 0.031, with a small number of outliers (<2.5%). We also find good agreement (rms=0.10) between photometric and spectroscopic redshifts for Type II AGNs. We compare results from our photometric redshift procedure with three other independent codes and find them in excellent agreement. We show preliminary results, based on photometric redshifts for the entire COSMOS sample (to i < 25 mag.). 38 pages; 14 Figures; 7 Tables. Accepted for Publication in ApJS. COSMOS Special Issue

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    Caltech Authors
    Article . 2007 . Peer-reviewed
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    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series
    Article . 2007 . Peer-reviewed
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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2006
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    Other literature type . Preprint . 2006
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      The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series
      Article . 2007 . Peer-reviewed
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      https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
      Article . 2006
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    Authors: Risa Saito; Takeharu Bando; Miyako Kotaniguchi; Tsutomu Tamura; +5 Authors

    AbstractEthanolamine plasmalogens (EPls) are the only known ligands of a novel receptor, G protein‐coupled receptor 61, and bovine brain EPls stimulate follicle‐stimulating hormone (FSH) but not luteinizing hormone (LH), secreted by bovine gonadotrophs. We hypothesized that the brain EPls of whales (Balaenoptera edeni), another Cetartiodactyla with at least twice the lifespan of bovines, could stimulate FSH secretion by gonadotrophs. To test this hypothesis, bovine gonadotrophs (from approximately 2‐year‐old Japanese Black heifers) were cultured for 3.5 days and treated with increasing concentrations of brain EP1s from whales (approximately 22 years old). FSH and LH secretion was stimulated by all tested concentrations of whale EPls (p < 0.05). To clarify the important differences between bovine and whale EPls, we utilized two‐dimensional liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, which revealed 35 peaks. Among them, we observed significant differences between 12 EPl molecular species. Additionally, we identified differentially expressed genes for enzymes involved in EPl synthesis or degradation in the hypothalamus of young heifers and old cows (approximately 10 years old) as compared to whales (approximately 28 years old) via deep sequencing of the transcriptome. We conclude that whale brains contain unique EPls that stimulate both FSH and LH secretion by bovine gonadotrophs.

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    Animal Science Journal
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Animal Science Journal
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Geir Bjørklund; Alexey A. Tinkov; Maryam Dadar; Md. Mostafizur Rahman; +6 Authors

    Mercury (Hg), which is a non-essential element, is considered a highly toxic pollutant for biological systems even when present at trace levels. Elevated Hg exposure with the growing release of atmospheric pollutant Hg and rising accumulations of mono-methylmercury (highly neurotoxic) in seafood products have increased its toxic potential for humans. This review aims to highlight the potential relationship between Hg exposure and Alzheimer's disease (AD), based on the existing literature in the field. Recent reports have hypothesized that Hg exposure could increase the potential risk of developing AD. Also, AD is known as a complex neurological disorder with increased amounts of both extracellular neuritic plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, which may also be related to lifestyle and genetic variables. Research reports on AD and relationships between Hg and AD indicate that neurotransmitters such as serotonin, acetylcholine, dopamine, norepinephrine, and glutamate are dysregulated in patients with AD. Many researchers have suggested that AD patients should be evaluated for Hg exposure and toxicity. Some authors suggest further exploration of the Hg concentrations in AD patients. Dysfunctional signaling pathways in AD and Hg exposure appear to be interlinked with some driving factors such as arachidonic acid, homocysteine, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) sulfate, hydrogen peroxide, glucosamine glycans, glutathione, acetyl-L carnitine, melatonin, and HDL. This evidence suggests the need for a better understanding of the relationship between AD and Hg exposure, and potential mechanisms underlying the effects of Hg exposure on regional brain functions. Also, further studies evaluating brain functions are needed to explore the long-term effects of subclinical and untreated Hg toxicity on the brain function of AD patients.

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    Journal of Molecular Neuroscience
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      Journal of Molecular Neuroscience
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Kentaro Fujimoto; Yoshiyasu Matsumoto; Kohki Oikawa; Jun-ichi Nomura; +6 Authors

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether cerebral hyperperfusion after revascularization inhibits development of cerebral ischemic lesions due to artery-to-artery emboli during exposure of the carotid arteries in carotid endarterectomy (CEA). In patients undergoing CEA for internal carotid artery stenosis (≥70%), cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) before and immediately after CEA. Microembolic signals (MES) were identified using transcranial Doppler during carotid exposure. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) was performed within 24 h after surgery. Of 32 patients with a combination of reduced cerebrovascular reactivity to acetazolamide on preoperative brain perfusion SPECT and MES during carotid exposure, 14 (44%) showed cerebral hyperperfusion (defined as postoperative CBF increase ≥100% compared with preoperative values), and 16 (50%) developed DWI-characterized postoperative cerebral ischemic lesions. Postoperative cerebral hyperperfusion was significantly associated with the absence of DWI-characterized postoperative cerebral ischemic lesions (95% confidence interval, 0.001–0.179; p = 0.0009). These data suggest that cerebral hyperperfusion after revascularization inhibits development of cerebral ischemic lesions due to artery-to-artery emboli during carotid exposure in CEA, supporting the “impaired clearance of emboli” concept. Blood pressure elevation following carotid declamping would be effective when embolism not accompanied by cerebral hyperperfusion occurs during CEA.

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    International Journal of Molecular Sciences
    Other literature type . Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2016
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      International Journal of Molecular Sciences
      Other literature type . Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2016
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Alexandria Béland-Millar; Masaki Takimoto; Taku Hamada; Claude Messier;

    There is evidence suggesting that the effects of diet and physical activity on physical and mental well-being are the result of altered metabolic profiles. Though the central and peripheral systems work in tandem, the interactions between peripheral and central changes that lead to these altered states of well-being remains elusive. We measured changes in the metabolic profile of brain (cortex) and muscle (soleus and plantaris) tissue in rats following 5-weeks of treadmill exercise and/or a high-fat diet to evaluate peripheral and central interactions as well as identify any common adaptive mechanisms. To characterize changes in metabolic profiles, we measured relative changes in key metabolic enzymes (COX IV, hexokinase, LDHB, PFK), substrates (BHB, FFA, glucose, lactate, insulin, glycogen, BDNF) and transporters (MCT1, MCT2, MCT4, GLUT1, GLUT3). In the cortex, there was an increase in MCT1 and a decrease in glycogen following the high-fat diet, suggesting an increased reliance on monocarboxylates. Muscle changes were dependent muscle type. Within the plantaris, a high-fat diet increased the oxidative capacity of the muscle likely supported by increased glycolysis, whereas exercise increased the oxidative capacity of the muscle likely supported via increased glycogen synthesis. There was no effect of diet on soleus measurements, but exercise increased its oxidative capacity likely fueled by endogenous and exogenous monocarboxylates. For both the plantaris and soleus, combining exercise training and high-fat diet mediated results, resulting in a middling effect. Together, these results indicate the variable adaptions of two main metabolic pathways: glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation. The results also suggest a dynamic relationship between the brain and body.

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    Brain Research
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Brain Researcharrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Brain Research
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Kazuki, Sueyoshi; Tomiki, Sumiyoshi;

    Motivation is associated with electrophysiological markers, such as awake state delta oscillation and frontal alpha asymmetry, as well as event-related potentials, such as error-related negativity, feedback-related negativity, and prepulse inhibition. These indicators provide an objective measure of motivational deficits in psychiatric conditions, and response to treatment. Also, these modalities of brain activities are drawing attention as a target of neurofeedback training. The aim of this article is to provide a brief overview on electrophysiological findings relevant to the understanding of the mechanisms underlying impaired motivation in psychiatric disorders and clinical practice.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Clinical EEG and Neu...arrow_drop_down
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    Clinical EEG and Neuroscience
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Clinical EEG and Neu...arrow_drop_down
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      Clinical EEG and Neuroscience
      Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Naohiro, Yamamoto; Shin, Okazaki; Ichiro, Kuki; Naoki, Yamada; +9 Authors

    Abstract17p13.1‐2 microdeletion syndrome is a congenital anomaly syndrome with characteristic facial features and multiple malformations. The prevalence of epilepsy with 17p13.1–2 microdeletion is low, with only one case reported for late‐onset spasms. Late‐onset spasms is one of the rare epilepsy syndromes and one of the developmental epileptic encephalopathies requiring urgent treatment. We experienced two cases of 17p13.1‐2 microdeletion syndrome, one of which presented with epileptic spasms in cluster at 18 months of age. EEG showed symmetrical hypsarrhythmia during interictal periods and a paroxysmal fast wave superimposed on widespread slow waves during seizures, leading to the diagnosis of late‐onset spasms. Another case had no epilepsy. Comparing the extent of deletion in the two cases with that of previous reports, the involvement of the USP6 gene was suspected. However, the accumulation of additional case reports is needed to confirm the genetic involvement in late‐onset spasms.

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    Epileptic Disorders
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Epileptic Disorders
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Packiasamy A R, Juliet; Deepak, Balasubramaniam; Naveen, Balasubramaniam; Chinnakannu, Panneerselvam;

    A wide range of morphological and biochemical changes occur in the central nervous system with increasing age. L-carnitine, a naturally occurring compound, plays a vital role in fatty acid transport across the mitochondrial membrane. L-carnitine (300 mg/kg body wt/day) was administered intraperitoneally to young and old male Wistar rats for 7, 14, and 21 days. Carnitine, dopamine, epinephrine, and serotonin levels were assayed in discrete regions of the brain. Carnitine supplementation increased the levels of dopamine, epinephrine, and serotonin in the experimental animals in our study. Response to carnitine supplementation varied among the brain regions that have been studied. The regions rich in cholinergic neurons such as the cortex, hippocampus, and striatum showed more response after 21 days of carnitine treatment. The results of the present study suggest the role of L-carnitine as a neuromodulator and antiaging medication.

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    The Journals of Gerontology Series A
    Article . 2003 . Peer-reviewed
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      The Journals of Gerontology Series A
      Article . 2003 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Christopher, Tolleson; Srivatsan, Pallavaram; Chen, Li; John, Fang; +6 Authors

    <b><i>Background:</i></b> Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus internus is established as efficacious for dystonia, yet the optimal target within this structure is not well defined. Published evidence suggests that spatial normalization provides a better estimate of DBS lead location than traditional methods based on standard stereotactic coordinates. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> We retrospectively reviewed our pallidal implanted dystonia population. Patient imaging scans were morphed into an MRI atlas using a nonlinear image registration algorithm. Active contact locations were projected onto the atlas and clusters analyzed for the degree of variance in two groups: (1) good and poor responders and (2) cervical (CD) and generalized dystonia (GD). <b><i>Results:</i></b> The average active contact location between CD and GD good responders was distinct but not significantly different. The mean active contact for CD poor responders was significantly different from CD responders and GD poor responders in the dorsoventral direction. <b><i>Conclusions:</i></b> A normalized imaging space is arguably more accurate in visualizing postoperative leads. Despite some separation between groups, this data suggests there was not an optimal pallidal target for common dystonia patients. Degrees of variance overlapped due to a large degree of individual target variation. Patient selection may ultimately be the key to maximizing patient outcomes. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2014
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      Europe PubMed Central
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: S, Uchida; M, Matsuura; S, Ogata; T, Yamamoto; +1 Authors

    This article critically reviews 8 computer implementations of Fujimori's method for EEG waveform recognition, with methodological considerations for the application of this method to the analysis of all-night sleep EEG. Fujimori's method has been considered one of the most appropriate waveform analyses for EEG. This kind of analysis is advantageous for measuring frequency and amplitude of each EEG wave separately. However, current implementations have drawbacks which must be resolved before they can be used on all-night sleep EEG. An optimal sampling rate should be determined which is appropriate to the purpose of analysis. Amplitude thresholds for wave recognition, which are now set arbitrarily, should also be improved. Measurement of waves in higher orders of superimposition is also necessary, although existing systems are limited to the second order. Additional algorithms, such as for the separate detection of sleep slow waves, may be useful. Further applications for Fujimori's method are suggested.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Journal of Neuroscie...arrow_drop_down
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    Journal of Neuroscience Methods
    Article . 1996 . Peer-reviewed
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