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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Rasim Somer Diler;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Bulletin of Clinical...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Bulletin of Clinical...arrow_drop_down
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Thirunavukkarasu, Sundaram; Gwang-Woo, Jeong; Tae-Hoon, Kim; Gwang-Won, Kim; +2 Authors

    Objective: To assess the dynamic activations of the key brain areas associated with the time-course of the sexual arousal evoked by visual sexual stimuli in healthy male subjects. Materials and Methods: Fourteen right-handed heterosexual male volunteers participated in this study. Alternatively combined rest period and erotic video visual stimulation were used according to the standard block design. In order to illustrate and quantify the spatiotemporal activation patterns of the key brain regions, the activation period was divided into three different stages as the EARLY, MID and LATE stages. Results: For the group result (p < 0.05), when comparing the MID stage with the EARLY stage, a significant increase of the brain activation was observed in the areas that included the inferior frontal gyrus, the supplementary motor area, the hippocampus, the head of the caudate nucleus, the midbrain, the superior occipital gyrus and the fusiform gyrus. At the same time, when comparing the EARLY stage with the MID stage, the putamen, the globus pallidus, the pons, the thalamus, the hypothalamus, the lingual gyrus and the cuneus yielded significantly increased activations. When comparing the LATE stage with the MID stage, all the above mentioned brain regions showed elevated activations except the hippocampus. Conclusion: Our results illustrate the spatiotemporal activation patterns of the key brain regions across the three stages of visual sexual arousal.

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    Korean Journal of Radiology
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    License: CC BY NC
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    Korean Journal of Radiology
    Article . 2010 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC
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      Korean Journal of Radiology
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      Korean Journal of Radiology
      Article . 2010 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: C-C, Wu; C-S, Lin; G-J, Wu; Y-H, Lin; +3 Authors

    Background and objective To evaluate and compare the effect of two clinically available central nervous system stimulants, namely doxapram and aminophylline on arousal from sevoflurane anaesthesia and bispectral index. Methods This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, prospective study was conducted in 90 adult females, ASA I-II, scheduled for elective lower abdominal surgeries at Taipei Medical University Hospital. At 5 min before the completion of surgery, under sevoflurane anaesthesia, patients were divided into three groups to receive doxapram 1 mg kg(-1), aminophylline 2 mg kg(-1) or saline placebo intravenous. Standard vital signs, end-tidal CO(2), end-expiratory sevoflurane concentration, bispectral index and neuromuscular blockade were measured plus clinical parameters of recovery from general anaesthesia. Results Compared with the control group, patients receiving doxapram or aminophylline showed a similarly faster recovery from sevoflurane anaesthesia correlated with increase in bispectral index. Conclusion Intravenous administration of doxapram 1 mg kg(-1) or aminophylline 2 mg kg(-1) hastened the early recovery from sevoflurane anaesthesia. The arousal effect of aminophylline and doxapram appears to be similar.

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  • Authors: B, Dreher; L J, Cottee;

    1. Receptive-field properties of single neurons in cat's cortical area 18 were studied before and after partial bilateral lesions of area 17. 2. The majority of cells recorded from animals with intact visual cortex exhibited orientation selectivity, directional selectivity, and could be independently activated through either eye. All cells responded well to moving targets and nearly all of them exhibited broadly tuned preferences with respect to speed of the target. Over 45% of cells responded optimally or exclusively at very fast (above 50 degrees/s) speeds. 3. The majority of neurons recorded from animals with intact visual cortex responded weakly but clearly to appropriately oriented localized stationary stimuli flashed on and off. About one-third of the cells responded with mixed on-off discharges from all over their receptive field. In the receptive fields of 10% of cells, separate on- and off-discharge regions could be revealed. In the receptive fields of the remaining cells, only on- or only off-discharge regions could be revealed. 4. The majority of neurons recorded after ablation of area 17 were orientation selective; 50% of the cells were also direction selective. All neurons responded well to moving targets; about 65% of them responded optimally or exclusively at very fast target speeds. 5. Destruction of the dorsolateral part of contralaterial area 17 and most of contralateral area 18 caused significant reduction in proportion of cells in area 18 which could be activated through either eye. 6. The majority of neurons recorded after ablation responded to appropriately oriented localized stationary stimuli flashed on and off. Cells with mixed on-off discharge regions all over the receptive field with separate on- and off-discharge regions and with only on- or only off-discharge regions were found. 7. It is concluded that the processing of afferent visual information in area 18 is, to a great extent, independent of the information carried to this area by associational fibers from cells of area 17.

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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Jeffery L, Peyton; W Thomas, Bass; Bonnie L, Burke; L Matthew, Frank;

    Recent reports suggest that learning is enhanced by emotion, spontaneity, and play. The mechanisms of this enhancement are unclear and might involve increased cortical stimulation by the limbic system. Since neuronal activity is tightly coupled to changes in cerebral blood flow and volume, the demonstration of increased cortical blood volume during playful versus routine motor and somatosensory activity would imply enhanced neuronal activity and provide insight into the complex interaction between play and learning. Near-infrared spectroscopy was used to detect changes in cortical blood volume during performance of (1) rudimentary visual, motor, and speech tasks; (2) integration of the tasks in a familiar routine manner; and (3) integration of the tasks in a novel, spontaneous, playful manner. No significant differences in cortical blood volume were found during the performance of the individual rudimentary tasks and their routine integration. However, the novel integration activity was associated with a significantly greater increase in frontal lobe oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, and total hemoglobin, as well as parietal lobe total hemoglobin. This small pilot study provides a limited measure of physiologic support for a relationship between play and learning. ( J Child Neurol 2005;20:817—821).

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Journal of Child Neu...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Journal of Child Neurology
    Article . 2005 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Journal of Child Neu...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Journal of Child Neurology
      Article . 2005 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Luc, Leybaert; Marijke, De Bock; Marijke, Van Moorhem; Elke, Decrock; +1 Authors

    AbstractGlucose transport over the blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a nonrate‐limiting step and has therefore received little attention as a possible adjustment point within the transport reaction cascade from blood glucose to brain cell glycolysis. Considerations of the normal working point of facilitated BBB glucose shuttling via the GLUT‐1 protein indicate that the transport is working at about one‐third of Tmax under basal conditions. Substitution of Tmax estimates indicates that the transport is then just enough to keep up with glucose consumption, maintaining the steady state. After brain activation, glucose transport has to be stimulated, and this can be accomplished by increasing the driving force or changing the Tmax and/or Kt parameters of BBB transport. The first possibility involves a decrease of brain interstitial glucose with subsequent flow stimulation according to the law of mass action (LMA), whereas the second possibility involves signaling from activated neurons to the BBB, a regulation loop that we propose to be called “neurobarrier coupling” (NBC). Theoretical analysis of the LMA effect and comparison with data on glucose dynamics during brain activation suggest that this factor alone only covers about half of the stimulation necessary to bring glucose delivery into line with the elevated glucose consumption during activation. Adjusting glucose entry with demand thus probably involves both LMA and NBC effects, depending on the degree of brain activation. Further work is needed to demonstrate NBC effects following physiological brain activation in vivo and to identify the signals that lead to NBC in in vitro experiments. © 2007 Wiley‐Liss, Inc.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Journal of Neuroscie...arrow_drop_down
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    Journal of Neuroscience Research
    Article . 2007 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Journal of Neuroscie...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Journal of Neuroscience Research
      Article . 2007 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: Neveu, A.;

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  • Authors: Kaushik, S.J.; Dabrowski, K.; Bergot, Pierre;

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    Authors: Vaillant, Alain;

    International audience; La poétique du banal : de l'indicible au risible L'indicible insignifiance du quotidien. Pour un humoriste de spectacle, c'est un numéro classique, qui fait toujours son effet au lever de rideau. Il entre en scène et commence à se livrer à des actions totalement banales ; par exemple, il classe des papiers, s'assoit et se met à lire le journal, fait un peu de ménage, etc. Le public est d'abord un peu interloqué, puis il se met très vite à rire. S'il rit, c'est bien sûr qu'il est venu pour cela, puisqu'il a payé pour voir un humoriste. Mais s'il ne s'agissait pas d'un spectacle comique et qu'il était dans un théâtre plus sérieux, il imaginerait alors que ces gestes ordinaires cachent une philosophie profonde, un message existentiel : c'était le principe même du théâtre de l'absurde, dans les années cinquante. Dans les deux cas, le public est face à un problème qui exige de lui une solution immédiate : comment réagir face à une situation insignifiante, à laquelle il se sent provisoirement incapable d'accorder une valeur quelconque ? Il lui faut, toute affaire cessante, donner un sens à ce qui en paraît totalement dépourvu : ici, une leçon métaphysique ; là, une portée comique. L'ordre normal des choses est rétabli : il peut à nouveau se désoler ou s'amuser en paix. En effet, c'est une donnée que l'anthropologie et les sciences cognitives ont maintenant solidement établie 1. L'être humain, parmi les espèces vivantes, a ce pouvoir singulier de jouir du monde en spectateur. Il le fait parce qu'il a la capacité neuronale de reproduire en esprit cette réalité qu'il observe (c'est le principe des neurones miroirs 2) et qu'il ne cesse de fabriquer des scénarios imaginaires pour se l'expliquer à lui-même. Cette fictionalisation permanente et inconsciente (le « cinéma mental ») lui permet de faire face à toutes les interactions auxquelles il est confronté. Mais c'est elle aussi qui permet de comprendre la jouissance éprouvée face à toutes les fictions culturelles (théâtre, roman, films, fictions audio-visuelles). Platon et Aristote s'en étonnaient dans l'Antiquité et l'expliquaient par le plaisir suscité par le fait même d'imiter (quelles que soient les situations imitées, bonnes ou mauvaises) 3 : de fait, cette intuition philosophique préfigurait déjà les acquis les plus récents de la science. Mais cette capacité psychique a son corollaire : l'être humain, confronté à une situation quelconque, est pour ainsi dire naturellement contraint de l'intégrer à un système explicatif, de lui donner un sens, de la valoriser. Cette survalorisation du réel, c'est le principe même de la poétique de Balzac, dans La Comédie humaine. Balzac est en effet le contemporain d'un événement majeur de la littérature française (et

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  • Authors: Osaer, A.; Quénol, Hervé; Saint Hillary, H.; Triot, M.; +1 Authors
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Rasim Somer Diler;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Bulletin of Clinical...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Thirunavukkarasu, Sundaram; Gwang-Woo, Jeong; Tae-Hoon, Kim; Gwang-Won, Kim; +2 Authors

    Objective: To assess the dynamic activations of the key brain areas associated with the time-course of the sexual arousal evoked by visual sexual stimuli in healthy male subjects. Materials and Methods: Fourteen right-handed heterosexual male volunteers participated in this study. Alternatively combined rest period and erotic video visual stimulation were used according to the standard block design. In order to illustrate and quantify the spatiotemporal activation patterns of the key brain regions, the activation period was divided into three different stages as the EARLY, MID and LATE stages. Results: For the group result (p < 0.05), when comparing the MID stage with the EARLY stage, a significant increase of the brain activation was observed in the areas that included the inferior frontal gyrus, the supplementary motor area, the hippocampus, the head of the caudate nucleus, the midbrain, the superior occipital gyrus and the fusiform gyrus. At the same time, when comparing the EARLY stage with the MID stage, the putamen, the globus pallidus, the pons, the thalamus, the hypothalamus, the lingual gyrus and the cuneus yielded significantly increased activations. When comparing the LATE stage with the MID stage, all the above mentioned brain regions showed elevated activations except the hippocampus. Conclusion: Our results illustrate the spatiotemporal activation patterns of the key brain regions across the three stages of visual sexual arousal.

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    Korean Journal of Radiology
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    Korean Journal of Radiology
    Article . 2010 . Peer-reviewed
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      Korean Journal of Radiology
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      Korean Journal of Radiology
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  • Authors: C-C, Wu; C-S, Lin; G-J, Wu; Y-H, Lin; +3 Authors

    Background and objective To evaluate and compare the effect of two clinically available central nervous system stimulants, namely doxapram and aminophylline on arousal from sevoflurane anaesthesia and bispectral index. Methods This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, prospective study was conducted in 90 adult females, ASA I-II, scheduled for elective lower abdominal surgeries at Taipei Medical University Hospital. At 5 min before the completion of surgery, under sevoflurane anaesthesia, patients were divided into three groups to receive doxapram 1 mg kg(-1), aminophylline 2 mg kg(-1) or saline placebo intravenous. Standard vital signs, end-tidal CO(2), end-expiratory sevoflurane concentration, bispectral index and neuromuscular blockade were measured plus clinical parameters of recovery from general anaesthesia. Results Compared with the control group, patients receiving doxapram or aminophylline showed a similarly faster recovery from sevoflurane anaesthesia correlated with increase in bispectral index. Conclusion Intravenous administration of doxapram 1 mg kg(-1) or aminophylline 2 mg kg(-1) hastened the early recovery from sevoflurane anaesthesia. The arousal effect of aminophylline and doxapram appears to be similar.

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  • Authors: B, Dreher; L J, Cottee;

    1. Receptive-field properties of single neurons in cat's cortical area 18 were studied before and after partial bilateral lesions of area 17. 2. The majority of cells recorded from animals with intact visual cortex exhibited orientation selectivity, directional selectivity, and could be independently activated through either eye. All cells responded well to moving targets and nearly all of them exhibited broadly tuned preferences with respect to speed of the target. Over 45% of cells responded optimally or exclusively at very fast (above 50 degrees/s) speeds. 3. The majority of neurons recorded from animals with intact visual cortex responded weakly but clearly to appropriately oriented localized stationary stimuli flashed on and off. About one-third of the cells responded with mixed on-off discharges from all over their receptive field. In the receptive fields of 10% of cells, separate on- and off-discharge regions could be revealed. In the receptive fields of the remaining cells, only on- or only off-discharge regions could be revealed. 4. The majority of neurons recorded after ablation of area 17 were orientation selective; 50% of the cells were also direction selective. All neurons responded well to moving targets; about 65% of them responded optimally or exclusively at very fast target speeds. 5. Destruction of the dorsolateral part of contralaterial area 17 and most of contralateral area 18 caused significant reduction in proportion of cells in area 18 which could be activated through either eye. 6. The majority of neurons recorded after ablation responded to appropriately oriented localized stationary stimuli flashed on and off. Cells with mixed on-off discharge regions all over the receptive field with separate on- and off-discharge regions and with only on- or only off-discharge regions were found. 7. It is concluded that the processing of afferent visual information in area 18 is, to a great extent, independent of the information carried to this area by associational fibers from cells of area 17.

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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Jeffery L, Peyton; W Thomas, Bass; Bonnie L, Burke; L Matthew, Frank;

    Recent reports suggest that learning is enhanced by emotion, spontaneity, and play. The mechanisms of this enhancement are unclear and might involve increased cortical stimulation by the limbic system. Since neuronal activity is tightly coupled to changes in cerebral blood flow and volume, the demonstration of increased cortical blood volume during playful versus routine motor and somatosensory activity would imply enhanced neuronal activity and provide insight into the complex interaction between play and learning. Near-infrared spectroscopy was used to detect changes in cortical blood volume during performance of (1) rudimentary visual, motor, and speech tasks; (2) integration of the tasks in a familiar routine manner; and (3) integration of the tasks in a novel, spontaneous, playful manner. No significant differences in cortical blood volume were found during the performance of the individual rudimentary tasks and their routine integration. However, the novel integration activity was associated with a significantly greater increase in frontal lobe oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, and total hemoglobin, as well as parietal lobe total hemoglobin. This small pilot study provides a limited measure of physiologic support for a relationship between play and learning. ( J Child Neurol 2005;20:817—821).

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    Journal of Child Neurology
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Journal of Child Neu...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao