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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Mobasher, B.; Capak, P.; Scoville, N. Z.; Dahlen, T.; +25 Authors

    We measure photometric redshifts and spectral types for galaxies in the COSMOS survey. We use template fitting technique combined with luminosity function priors and with the option to simultaneously estimate dust extinction (i.e. E(B-V)) for each galaxy.Our estimated redshifts are accurate to i<25 and z~1.2. Using simulations with sampling and noise characteristics similar to those in COSMOS, the accuracy and reliability is estimated for the photometric redshifts as a function of the magnitude limits of the sample, S/N ratios and the number of bands used. From the simulations we find that the ratio of derived 95% confidence interval in the redshift probability distribution to the estimated photometric redshift (D95) can be used to identify and exclude the catastrophic failures in the photometric redshift estimates. We compare the derived redshifts with high-reliability spectroscopic redshifts for a sample of 868 normal galaxies with z < 1.2 from zCOSMOS. Considering different scenarios, depending on using prior, no prior and/or extinction, we compare the photometric and spectroscopic redshifts for this sample. This corresponds to an rms scatter of 0.031, with a small number of outliers (<2.5%). We also find good agreement (rms=0.10) between photometric and spectroscopic redshifts for Type II AGNs. We compare results from our photometric redshift procedure with three other independent codes and find them in excellent agreement. We show preliminary results, based on photometric redshifts for the entire COSMOS sample (to i < 25 mag.). 38 pages; 14 Figures; 7 Tables. Accepted for Publication in ApJS. COSMOS Special Issue

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    Caltech Authors
    Article . 2007 . Peer-reviewed
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    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series
    Article . 2007 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Crossref
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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2006
    License: arXiv Non-Exclusive Distribution
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    Other literature type . Preprint . 2006
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      Article . 2007 . Peer-reviewed
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      The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series
      Article . 2007 . Peer-reviewed
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      https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
      Article . 2006
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    Authors: Grynberg, Alain; Athias, Pierre; Degois, M.;

    Neonatal rat heart cells cultivated in either of two different media which varied only in their serum supplements were transferred to chemically defined medium (Ham's F10) for 24 h before measuring a variety of parameters. The 24-h period of exposure to chemically defined medium was not sufficient to reverse the effects imposed on the cells by the serum used in the first phase of growth. The cells differed in rate and duration of action potentials and contractions. The initial serum composition affected the response of the cells to calcium deficiency. Studies involving the effects of pharmaceutical reagents such as isoproterenol were also influenced by the serum. In attempting to determine the cause and possible mechanism, it was found that mitochondrial membrane permeability for nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) was unchanged. Although the serum supplements differed in fatty acid composition, the fatty acid profiles of the cell phospholipids were relatively constant. We conclude that (a) the function of the cells is affected by the growth environment, particularly serum; (b) that a short exposure to a uniform chemically defined medium is not sufficient to reverse these effects; and (c) that the differences in effects are not the result of changes in the fatty acid composition of the whole cell phospholipids nor in mitochondrial membrane permeability as measured by NBT.

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    In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology
    Article . 1986 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Springer TDM
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology
      Article . 1986 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Springer TDM
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Iaffaldano, Gampiero; Husson, Laurent; Bunge, H.;

    International audience; Short-term plate motion variations on the order of a few Myr are a powerful probe into the nature of plate boundary forces, as mantle-related buoyancies evolve on longer time-scales. New reconstructions of the ocean-floor spreading record reveal an increasing number of such variations, but the dynamic mechanisms producing them are still unclear. Here we show quantitatively that climate changes may impact the shortterm evolution of plate motion by linking explicitly the observed counter-clockwise rotation of the Indian plate since ~10 Ma to increased erosion and reduced elevation along the eastern Himalayas, due to temporal variations in monsoon intensity. By assimilating observations into empirical relations for the competing contributions of erosion and mountain building, we estimate the first-order decrease in elevation along the eastern Himalayas since initial strengthening of the monsoon. Furthermore, we show with global geodynamic models of the coupled mantle/lithosphere system that the inferred reduction in elevation is consistent with the Indian plate motion record over the same period of time, and that lowered gravitational potential energy in the eastern Himalayas following stronger erosion is a key factor to foster plate convergence in this region. Our study implicates lateral variations in plate coupling and their temporal changes as an efficient source to induce an uncommon form of plate motion where the Euler pole falls within its associated plate.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Earth and Planetary ...arrow_drop_down
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    Earth and Planetary Science Letters
    Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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    Article . 2011
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    Authors: Mathieu Santonja; Adriane Aupic-Samain; Estelle Forey; Matthieu Chauvat;

    International audience; Collembola is an abundant group of soil organisms playing a major role on litter decomposition process and nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems. Habitat structure strongly influences Collembola assemblages as plant litter physical characteristics and quantity provide structural niches and determine the outcome of their interactions with predators. Collembola are also extremely sensitive to environmental conditions such as soil temperature that control their demographic parameters and activity. In this context, increasing temperature with the ongoing climate change can have strong impact on Collembola assemblages and their responses to predation either directly by altering their behaviour or indirectly by altering their habitat structure. We therefore examined how the increase of temperature combined to the decrease of specific leaf area (SLA, a major functional plant trait) of the European common oak (Quercus robur L.) and the presence of a centipede predator (Chilopoda Lithobiidae) will affect the abundance of Folsomia candida (Collembola Isotomidae) in a 5-week microcosm experiment. Increasing temperature, decreasing SLA and presence of centipede altered F. candida abundance. We observed a significant temperature × predation interaction suggesting differential effects of increasing temperature on F. candida abundance with and without predator. We also observed a significant SLA × predation interaction highlighting that lower SLA decreases F. candida abundance only in predator presence. Finally, our findings evidenced that increasing temperature and decreasing SLA amplify the negative effect of centipede predation on F. candida abundance, suggesting that both direct and indirect effects of climate change would conjointly strengthen the top-down control of predators on preys.

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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    European Journal of Soil Biology
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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    Article . 2018
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    Other literature type . Conference object . 2018
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    Authors: Morau, Dominique; RAKOTONDRAMIARANA, Hery; RANAIVOARISOA, Tojo; ANDRIAMAMONJY, Ando;

    International audience; A green roof is an option for improving a building thermal comfort. The investigation is here performed within the specific climate context of Reunion Island in south hemisphere. This type of roof system involves choice difficulties for plant species that are more favorable to establish that comfort. The objective of this work is to simulate the dynamic behavior of this system towards external requests in wet tropical zones and vis-à-vis influences of certain number of physical parameters related to this system. As long as possible, authors used the electrical analogy method to establish a mathematical model associated to the studied system. Based on this model, a Matlab computing code was finalized. Weather data of Reunion Island were used for simulations; the green roof potential and benefit were highlighted by surveying the temperature gain and the heat flux crossing the roof as well as the energy saving performance. Furthermore, the energy consumption being surveyed while doing sensitivity analysis with Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test method, the most influential parameters of the model were identified. Full scale experimental results are provided and consisting in monitoring green roof on the top of a public building. According to the results, we can assert that the green roof decreases heat flux entering through the roof during the day and restrains the restoration of accumulated heat at night. Indeed, the support on which the plantation ground bases affects the building thermal insulation. The experimental data are also conducted to prove the effectiveness of thermal insulation by green roofs in reducing temperature in the building between 5°C and 7°C in relation to plants type and the canopy Leaf Area Index (LAI). A comparison of experimental values and model results is done. Among other uses, this code can be used as a tool for choosing the plants and the drain materials to be experimented on the green roof. The results offer hints to optimize the design and thermal performance of extensive green roofs.

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    Energy Procedia
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC ND
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    Other literature type . Conference object . 2013
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    Authors: Lott, François; Martin, Armel;

    Abstract A heuristic model is used to study the synoptic response to mountain gravity waves (GWs) absorbed at directional critical levels. The model is a semigeostrophic version of the Eady model for baroclinic instability adapted by Smith to study lee cyclogenesis. The GWs exert a force on the large-scale flow where they encounter directional critical levels. This force is taken into account in the model herein and produces potential vorticity (PV) anomalies in the midtroposphere. First, the authors consider the case of an idealized mountain range such that the orographic variance is well separated between small- and large-scale contributions. In the absence of tropopause, the PV produced by the GW force has a surface impact that is significant compared to the surface response due to the large scales. For a cold front, the GW force produces a trough over the mountain and a larger-amplitude ridge immediately downstream. It opposes somehow to the response due to the large scales of the mountain range, which is anticyclonic aloft and cyclonic downstream. For a warm front, the GW force produces a ridge over the mountain and a trough downstream; hence it reinforces the response due to the large scales. Second, the robustness of the previous results is verified by a series of sensitivity tests. The authors change the specifications of the mountain range and of the background flow. They also repeat some experiments by including baroclinic instabilities, or by using the quasigeostrophic approximation. Finally, they consider the case of a small-scale orographic spectrum representative of the Alps. The significance of the results is discussed in the context of GW parameterization in the general circulation models. The results may also help to interpret the complex PV structures occurring when mountain gravity waves break in a baroclinic environment.

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    Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences
    Article . 2007 . Peer-reviewed
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      Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences
      Article . 2007 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Neal, C.; Whitehead, P. G.; Flynn, N.;

    International audience; This contribution brings to a close a special issue of Hydrology and Earth System Sciences concerning the assessment of nitrogen dynamics in catchments across Europe within a semi-distributed Integrated Nitrogen model for multiple source assessment in Catchments (INCA). The wide range of issues involved in relation to hydrology and within-catchment processes, scale (from small catchments to major river basins), climate (from sub-arctic to Mediterranean regimes) and pollution (atmospheric, agricultural and urban sources) is outlined. Consideration is then given to how well the model has performed and future research requirements are outlined. Keywords: nitrogen, nitrate, ammonium, organic nitrogen, catchments, streams, rivers, river basins

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    Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS)
    Article . 2002 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC SA
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    Other literature type . 2002
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    Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS)
    Article
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    Article . 2002
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      Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS)
      Article . 2002 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY NC SA
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      Other literature type . 2002
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      Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS)
      Article
      License: CC BY ND SA
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      Article . 2002
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    Authors: Vidal-Madjar, A.; Laurent, C.; Bruston, P.; Audouze, J.;

    A model, based on different observations of the local interstellar medium, indicates the presence of a very close interstellar cloud in front of the Scorpius-Ophiuchus association (almost in the direction of the galactic center) approaching the solar system from a distance of about 0.03 pc at a velocity of about 15--20 km s/sup -1/. These observations are as follows:1. The strong gradient of the hydrogen density in the interstellar medium deduced from current observations of this gas inside the solar system (n/sub H/approx.0.1 cm/sup -3/) and in front of many nearby stars in the anticenter direction (n/sub H/approx.0.01 cm/sup -3/).2. The anisotropy of the UV flux (around 950 A) from the brightest and closest O and B stars.3. The important variation of the deuterium to hydrogen ratio, which ranges from 2 x 10/sup -6/ in the ..cap alpha.. Cen A direction to 4 x 10/sup -5/ in the Aga Aur direction.A mechanism based on a selective radiation pressure effect that acts on deuterium atoms and not on hydrogen atoms explains satisfactorily the large spread in the deuterium abundance in the local interstellar medium. The operation of this mechanism requires that the geometrical configuration remain stable for approximately 10/sup 7/ years.more » This requirement implies the existence of a nearby interstellar cloud.Possible candidates do exist in the proper sky direction. One candidate, extensively discussed, presents a persistent interstellar absorption pattern over an angle of 40/sup 0/ related to a high column density, although covering only a few degrees in the sky, would lead to the same consequence. The presence of such condidates is not all contradicted by the interstellar reddening and absorption line observations.Other implications of the presence of such a close cloud are presented.« less

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    The Astrophysical Journal
    Article . 1978 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Crossref
    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 1978
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ The Astrophysical Jo...arrow_drop_down
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      The Astrophysical Journal
      Article . 1978 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Crossref
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      Article . 1978
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    Authors: Baiesi, M.; Paczuski, M.;

    We invoke a metric to quantify the correlation between any two earthquakes. This provides a simple and straightforward alternative to using space-time windows to detect aftershock sequences and obviates the need to distinguish main shocks from aftershocks. Directed networks of earthquakes are constructed by placing a link, directed from the past to the future, between pairs of events that are strongly correlated. Each link has a weight giving the relative strength of correlation such that the sum over the incoming links to any node equals unity for aftershocks, or zero if the event had no correlated predecessors. A correlation threshold is set to drastically reduce the size of the data set without losing significant information. Events can be aftershocks of many previous events, and also generate many aftershocks. The probability distribution for the number of incoming and outgoing links are both scale free, and the networks are highly clustered. The Omori law holds for aftershock rates up to a decorrelation time that scales with the magnitude, $m$, of the initiating shock as $t_{\rm cutoff} \sim 10^{\beta m}$ with $\beta \simeq 3/4$. Another scaling law relates distances between earthquakes and their aftershocks to the magnitude of the initiating shock. Our results are inconsistent with the hypothesis of finite aftershock zones. We also find evidence that seismicity is dominantly triggered by small earthquakes. Our approach, using concepts from the modern theory of complex networks, together with a metric to estimate correlations, opens up new avenues of research, as well as new tools to understand seismicity. Comment: 12 pages, 12 figures, revtex4

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    Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics (NPG)
    Article . 2005 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC SA
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    Other literature type . 2005
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    Hyper Article en Ligne
    Other literature type . 2005
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    Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics (NPG)
    Article
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    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2005
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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2004
    License: arXiv Non-Exclusive Distribution
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      Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics (NPG)
      Article . 2005 . Peer-reviewed
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      Other literature type . 2005
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      Other literature type . 2005
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      Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics (NPG)
      Article
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      https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
      Article . 2004
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    Authors: Marie-Elodie Perga; Stephen C. Maberly; Jean-Philippe Jenny; Benjamin Alric; +2 Authors

    AbstractNow that evasion of carbon dioxide (CO2) from inland waters is accounted for in global carbon models, it is crucial to quantify how these fluxes have changed in the past and forecast how they may alter in the future in response to local and global change. Here we developed a sediment proxy for the concentration of summer surface dissolved CO2 concentration and used it to reconstruct changes over the past 150 years for three large lakes that have been affected by climate warming, changes in nutrient load, and detrital terrigenous supplies. Initially CO2 neutral to the atmosphere, all three lakes subsequently fluctuated between near equilibrium and supersaturation. Although catchment inputs have supplied CO2 to the lakes, internal processes and reallocation have ultimately regulated decadal changes in lake surface CO2 concentration. Nutrient concentration has been the dominant driver of CO2 variability for a century although the reproducible, nonmonotonic relationship of CO2 to nutrient concentration suggests an interplay between metabolic and chemical processes. Yet for two of these lakes, climatic control of CO2 concentrations has been important over the last 30 years, promoting higher surface CO2 concentrations, likely by decreasing hypolimnetic carbon storage. This new approach offers the unique opportunity to scale, a posteriori, the long‐term impact of human activities on lake CO2.

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    NERC Open Research Archive
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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    ZENODO
    Other literature type . 2016
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Global Biogeochemical Cycles
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Mobasher, B.; Capak, P.; Scoville, N. Z.; Dahlen, T.; +25 Authors

    We measure photometric redshifts and spectral types for galaxies in the COSMOS survey. We use template fitting technique combined with luminosity function priors and with the option to simultaneously estimate dust extinction (i.e. E(B-V)) for each galaxy.Our estimated redshifts are accurate to i<25 and z~1.2. Using simulations with sampling and noise characteristics similar to those in COSMOS, the accuracy and reliability is estimated for the photometric redshifts as a function of the magnitude limits of the sample, S/N ratios and the number of bands used. From the simulations we find that the ratio of derived 95% confidence interval in the redshift probability distribution to the estimated photometric redshift (D95) can be used to identify and exclude the catastrophic failures in the photometric redshift estimates. We compare the derived redshifts with high-reliability spectroscopic redshifts for a sample of 868 normal galaxies with z < 1.2 from zCOSMOS. Considering different scenarios, depending on using prior, no prior and/or extinction, we compare the photometric and spectroscopic redshifts for this sample. This corresponds to an rms scatter of 0.031, with a small number of outliers (<2.5%). We also find good agreement (rms=0.10) between photometric and spectroscopic redshifts for Type II AGNs. We compare results from our photometric redshift procedure with three other independent codes and find them in excellent agreement. We show preliminary results, based on photometric redshifts for the entire COSMOS sample (to i < 25 mag.). 38 pages; 14 Figures; 7 Tables. Accepted for Publication in ApJS. COSMOS Special Issue

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    Caltech Authors
    Article . 2007 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Caltech Authors
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    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series
    Article . 2007 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Crossref
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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2006
    License: arXiv Non-Exclusive Distribution
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    Hyper Article en Ligne; Hal-Diderot
    Other literature type . Preprint . 2006
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      Article . 2007 . Peer-reviewed
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      The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series
      Article . 2007 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Crossref
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
      Article . 2006
      License: arXiv Non-Exclusive Distribution
      Data sources: Datacite
      Hyper Article en Ligne; Hal-Diderot
      Other literature type . Preprint . 2006
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