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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Colbach, Nathalie; Lucas, Philippe; Meynard, Jean-Marc;

    Wheat was assessed at four crop growth stages for take-all (Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici) in a series of field trials that studied the effects of five wheat management practices: sowing date, plant density, nitrogen fertilizer dose and form, and removal/burial of cereal straw. An equation expressing disease level as a function of degree days was fitted to the observed disease levels. This equation was based on take-all epidemiology and depended on two parameters reflecting the importance of the primary and secondary infection cycles, respectively. Early sowing always increased disease frequency via primary infection cycle; its influence on the secondary cycle was variable. Primary infection and earliness of disease onset were increased by high density; however, at mid-season take-all was positively correlated to the root number per plant, which was itself negatively correlated to plant density. At late stages of development, neither plant density nor root number per plant had any influence on disease. A high nitrogen dose increased both take-all on seminal roots and severity of primary infection cycle but decreased take-all on nodal roots and secondary infection cycle. Ammonium (versus ammonium nitrate) fertilizer always decreased disease levels and infection cycles, whereas straw treatment (burial versus removal of straw from the previous cereal crop) had no influence.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Phytopathologyarrow_drop_down
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    Phytopathology
    Article
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    Phytopathology
    Article . 1997
    Phytopathology
    Article . 1997 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Coulon, Jean Baptiste; Verdier, Isabelle; Pradel, Philippe; Almena, M.;

    Two groups of eight multiparous cows with different calving periods (November or February) were managed in the same way during lactation. During four 4 week experimental periods distributed over 12 months, the cows were fed on a diet composed of hay and concentrate (70[ratio ]30) in a restricted and controlled amount which varied according to their lactation stage, so as to cover the animals' requirements correctly. The animals' average lactation stage varied according to period from 26 to 298 d. Milk from each group was processed on two occasions during each period to make Saint-Nectaire-type cheese; the cheesemaking conditions were the same throughout. Lactation stage had an important effect on milk fat, protein and calcium contents but not on the casein[ratio ]protein ratio or phosphorus content. The milk pH and the urea content were higher in late lactation. The calcium concentration of milk was higher in late lactation but the soluble fraction was higher in early lactation. Despite higher protein contents, the maximal firmness of the coagulum of late-lactation milk was not different from that of early or mid-lactation milks. pH was higher in cheeses from late-lactation milks compared with those from early and mid-lactation milks. Cheeses from early lactation milks were more yellow than the others and had a lower dry matter fat content. In sensory analysis the odour of cheeses from early and late-lactation milks was less pleasant than that of those from mid-lactation milks. Cheeses from late-lactation milks were more melting and less firm than those from early or mid-lactation milks. Their taste was more intense and more persistent. At tasting, they were less appreciated than the others. These differences were linked to increased proteolysis in the cheeses made with late-lactation milks.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Journal of Dairy Res...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Journal of Dairy Research
    Article . 1998 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Journal of Dairy Res...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Journal of Dairy Research
      Article . 1998 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Jault, Jean-Michel; Fieulaine, Sonia; Nessler, Sylvie; Gonzalo, Philippe; +3 Authors

    International audience; Carbon catabolite repression allows bacteria to rapidly alter the expression of catabolic genes in response to the availability of metabolizable carbon sources. In Bacillus subtilis, this phenomenon is controlled by the HPr kinase (HprK) that catalyzes ATP-dependent phosphorylation of either HPr (histidine containing protein) or Crh (catabolite repression HPr) on residue Ser-46. We report here that B. subtilis HprK forms homo-oligomers constituted most likely of eight subunits. Related to this complex structure, the enzyme displays strong positive cooperativity for the binding of its allosteric activator, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, as evidenced by either kinetics of its phosphorylation activity or the intrinsic fluorescence properties of its unique tryptophan residue, Trp-235. It is further shown that activation of HPr phosphorylation by fructose 1,6-bisphosphate essentially occurs at low ATP and enzyme concentrations. A positive cooperativity was also detected for the binding of natural nucleotides or their 2'(3')-N-methylanthraniloyl derivatives, in either phosphorylation or fluorescence experiments. Most interestingly, quenching of the HprK tryptophan fluorescence by using either iodide or acrylamide revealed a heterogeneity of tryptophan residues within the population of oligomers, suggesting that the enzyme exists in two different conformations. This result suggests a concerted-symmetry model for the catalytic mechanism of positive cooperativity displayed by HprK.Carbon catabolite repression allows bacteria to rapidly alter the expression of catabolic genes in response to the availability of metabolizable carbon sources. In Bacillus subtilis, this phenomenon is controlled by the HPr kinase (HprK) that catalyzes ATP-dependent phosphorylation of either HPr (histidine containing protein) or Crh (catabolite repression HPr) on residue Ser-46. We report here that B. subtilis HprK forms homo-oligomers constituted most likely of eight subunits. Related to this complex structure, the enzyme displays strong positive cooperativity for the binding of its allosteric activator, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, as evidenced by either kinetics of its phosphorylation activity or the intrinsic fluorescence properties of its unique tryptophan residue, Trp-235. It is further shown that activation of HPr phosphorylation by fructose 1,6-bisphosphate essentially occurs at low ATP and enzyme concentrations. A positive cooperativity was also detected for the binding of natural nucleotides or their 2'(3')-N-methylanthraniloyl derivatives, in either phosphorylation or fluorescence experiments. Most interestingly, quenching of the HprK tryptophan fluorescence by using either iodide or acrylamide revealed a heterogeneity of tryptophan residues within the population of oligomers, suggesting that the enzyme exists in two different conformations. This result suggests a concerted-symmetry model for the catalytic mechanism of positive cooperativity displayed by HprK.

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    Article . 2000
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    Journal of Biological Chemistry
    Article . 2000 . Peer-reviewed
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    Other literature type . Article . 2000
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      Article . 2000
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      Journal of Biological Chemistry
      Article . 2000 . Peer-reviewed
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      Other literature type . Article . 2000
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    Authors: Thomas Arbogast; Abdel-Mouttalib Ouagazzal; Claire Chevalier; Maksym V. Kopanitsa; +7 Authors

    The 16p11.2 600 kb BP4-BP5 deletion and duplication syndromes have been associated with developmental delay; autism spectrum disorders; and reciprocal effects on the body mass index, head circumference and brain volumes. Here, we explored these relationships using novel engineered mouse models carrying a deletion (Del/+) or a duplication (Dup/+) of the Sult1a1-Spn region homologous to the human 16p11.2 BP4-BP5 locus. On a C57BL/6N inbred genetic background, Del/+ mice exhibited reduced weight and impaired adipogenesis, hyperactivity, repetitive behaviors, and recognition memory deficits. In contrast, Dup/+ mice showed largely opposite phenotypes. On a F1 C57BL/6N × C3B hybrid genetic background, we also observed alterations in social interaction in the Del/+ and the Dup/+ animals, with other robust phenotypes affecting recognition memory and weight. To explore the dosage effect of the 16p11.2 genes on metabolism, Del/+ and Dup/+ models were challenged with high fat and high sugar diet, which revealed opposite energy imbalance. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that the majority of the genes located in the Sult1a1-Spn region were sensitive to dosage with a major effect on several pathways associated with neurocognitive and metabolic phenotypes. Whereas the behavioral consequence of the 16p11 region genetic dosage was similar in mice and humans with activity and memory alterations, the metabolic defects were opposite: adult Del/+ mice are lean in comparison to the human obese phenotype and the Dup/+ mice are overweight in comparison to the human underweight phenotype. Together, these data indicate that the dosage imbalance at the 16p11.2 locus perturbs the expression of modifiers outside the CNV that can modulate the penetrance, expressivity and direction of effects in both humans and mice. Author Summary The 16p11.2 BP4-BP5 deletion and duplication syndromes are frequent copy number variants in humans, and are associated with developmental delay and autism spectrum disorders, with a reciprocal effect on head circumference and body mass index. Here we explored gene dosage effect in mouse models and found that the deletion and duplication induced opposite behavioral phenotypes. Notably, we observed that some behavioral phenotypes, such as social interaction, were sensitive to the genetic background. For the metabolism, the energy imbalance and adipocyte phenotypes were mirrored in the deletion and duplication carriers but opposite to the human phenotypes, the deletion mouse carriers were lean whereas the individuals with the deletion were obese. The main cause of the phenotypic features is the copy number variation of the 16p11.2 region with many genetic pathways altered in the striatum and the liver. Thus the final consequences of the rearrangement are likely governed by the interplay between many cellular pathways in both human cases and mouse models.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2016
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    PLoS Genetics
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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    PLoS Genetics
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    Authors: Pineau, Bénédicte; Barbe, Jean-Christophe; van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Dubourdieu, Denis;

    But : Ce travail a été effectué pour tâcher de comprendre comment un moût issu du cépage Merlot et initialement neutre pouvait donner un vin avec des arômes caractéristiques de fruits rouges et noirs. Méthodes et Résultats : Des analyses sensorielles ont été effectuées sur des macérations de pellicules de Merlot réalisées en fonction d'observations au champ. Nous avons, dans un premier temps, montré que des notes fruitées intenses apparaissaient lors de la macération préfermentaire. Dans les milieux de macération utilisés, le développement des arômes de type fruits rouges et fruits noirs était lié à l'augmentation de la population levurienne. Les rôles des constituants pelliculaires ainsi que des levures ont été étudiés par le biais de la fermentation alcoolique de moûts modèles supplémentés en pellicules de Merlot ou en extrait éthanolique de ces pellicules. Les nuances aromatiques révélées par la fermentation alcoolique du moût seul n'étaient en rien similaires à celles des vins qu'ils soient blancs, rosés ou rouges. Au contraire, les vins obtenus lors des microvinifications en présence de pellicules ou d'extraits pelliculaires présentaient des notes claires et intenses de fruits rouges et noirs. Les microvinifications réalisées avec à la fois pellicules et extraits pelliculaires ont révélé les notes fruitées les plus intenses. Conclusions : Des constituants inodores des pellicules conduisent à des notes spécifiques de fruits rouges et noirs après la fermentation alcoolique. La présence physique de pellicules lors de la fermentation augmente nettement l'intensité des notes fruitées obtenues. Impact de l'étude : Ce travail montre pour la première fois l'existence de constituants pelliculaires inodores et extractibles par l'éthanol qui sont transformés par les levures pour conduire à des arômes spécifiques de fruits rouges et noirs dans le vin obtenu. Aim: The aim of this study was to elucidate how an initially neutral Merlot must resulted in a wine with characteristic aromas of red- and black-berry fruit, focusing on the respective contributions of yeast metabolism together with grape juice, pulp, and skins. Methods and Results: Sensory analyses were performed on Merlot grape skin maceration models, based on observations in the winery. Initial findings revealed that strong fruity nuances appeared during pre-fermentation maceration. In the maceration models used, the development of aroma of red- and black-berry fruit systematically paralleled the growth of the yeast population. The respective roles of grape skins and yeasts were investigated throughout the alcoholic fermentation of model musts with addition of Merlot skins or Merlot skin extract in ethanol. The aromatic nuances revealed by alcoholic fermentation in a must alone had no specific white-, rosé-, or red-wine character. In contrast, wines made by microvinification with grape skins and/or grape skin extract in ethanol had a clear, intense aroma of red- and black-berry. Microvinification with both Merlot skin extract and grape skins revealed the most intense fruity character. Conclusions: Inodorous skin constituents produced a specific aroma of red- and black-berry fruit after alcoholic fermentation by yeast. The physical presence of grape skins during fermentation enhanced the intensity of the fruity nuances obtained. Significance and impact of the study: The study established, for the first time, the existence of inodorous constituents in Merlot grape skins, extractible by ethanol and transformed by yeasts to produce a specific aroma of red- and black-berry fruit in the finished wines.

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    OENO One
    Article . 2011
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    OENO One
    Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
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      OENO One
      Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Escobar Gutierrez, Abraham, A.; Combe, Laurette;

    International audience; The objective of this work was to describe the dynamics of senescence of field-grown maize from silking to harvest, at both leaf and plant level. At the leaf level, the dynamics of symptoms of senescence were considered on each leaf taken individually and described according to zones from the tip to the base of the leaf lamina. At the whole plant level, foliar ranks were each considered as an entity to describe the time course of senescence. To this end, we use a database built-up from field trials conducted during three consecutive years (1994-1996) and thus undergoing variable meteorological and soil water conditions. Leaf chlorophyll content was estimated using two different methods based on the optical properties of the leaves. In Trial I, chlorophyll estimates were based on leaf optical density measured with a MacBeth TR-924 densitometer. In Trial II and Trial III, chlorophyll estimations were based on measurement using a hand-held Minolta SPAD-502 device. In Trial II and Trial III, chlorophyll fluorescence analyses under filed conditions were performed. These analyses focused on the photosystem II (PSI!) maximum efficiency (Fv'/Fm') parameter in the light-adapted state. Measurements were done with a Waltz PAM-2000 portable fluorometer. We report detailed descriptions of the spatio-temporal dynamics of these indicators of senescence. We found that, after silking, a strong relationship exists between available water and leaf chlorophyll content. Further, the maximum efficiency of PSII decreased faster in maize plants undergoing low available soil water than in irrigated plants. The rank of a leaf is determinant of the time for the beginning of the decline in both chlorophyll content and maximum efficiency of PSII. At plant and leaf level, the onset of senescence was marked by a decrease in chlorophyll content that was not concomitant with a dramatic decrease in the maximum efficiency of PSII. Our analyses suggest that a non-linear functional relationship could exist between these two parameters during monocarpic senescence. In the mean time, the results presented in this paper could be used to refine the senescence related modules in plant and crop models.

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    Field Crops Research
    Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
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      Field Crops Research
      Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Fuller, M.F.; Cadenhead, A.; Mollison, G.; Sève, Bernard;

    1. Eight pigs with a mean weight of 48 kg were given, at a constant daily rate, diets of low (0.15) or high (0.30) protein content, very deficient in lysine, with or without a supplement of L-lysine (3.7 g/kg).2. Measurements of nitrogen and energy metabolism were made in four successive 14 d periods in a Latin-square design.3. The rate of protein accretion was substantially increased by increases in both protein and lysine supply, but the rate of heat production was not significantly changed.4. The rate of fat deposition varied inversely with the rate of protein accretion, being reduced by both protein and lysine supplements.5. The relation between heat production and protein accretion (allowing for a constant energy cost of fat deposition) suggested that heat production increased with additional protein accretion less when protein quality was improved than when more protein was given.

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    British Journal Of Nutrition
    Article . 1987 . Peer-reviewed
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      British Journal Of Nutrition
      Article . 1987 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: Mohanna, C.; Nys, Yves,;

    1. In areas of intensive animal production heavy metals such as zinc (Zn), which is present at high concentrations in poultry excreta in relation to plant requirements, may be at the origin of soil phytotoxicity This study was conducted in order to determine the effect of decreasing dietary Zn content on growth, plasma, tibia and whole body Zn concentrations, immune function, enzyme activity, Zn body retention and Zn concentration in excreta in broilers. 2. Two experiments were carried out using 160 and 80 1-day-old chicks. Broilers received diets with increased Zn contents of 20 to 190 mg/kg. In experiment 1, two sources of zinc methionine were compared to zinc sulphate. 3. A dietary Zn concentration of 45 mg/kg was sufficient to obtain normal broiler performance at 21 d of age. 4. Tibia and plasma Zn concentrations increased linearly with Zn dietary content and reached a plateau at 75 mg/kg, whereas the whole body Zn was saturated when the dietary Zn content was 90 mg/kg. 5. Antibody titres in response to SRBC injection and plasma alkaline phosphatase activity were not affected by dietary zinc concentration. 6. When the dietary Zn content was decreased from 190 to 65 mg/kg, body Zn retention was increased from 8% to 20% and Zn concentration in broiler manure was reduced by 75%. 7. Zn sources had no effect on the parameters measured in this study. 8. A nutritional approach, that is by lowering dietary Zn supplementation may reduce the risks of phytotoxicity in the soil resulting from excessive Zn concentration in manure.

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    Authors: Barthod, Sandrine; Epron, Daniel;

    Variations du coût de construction associées au renouvellement de la surface foliaire chez de jeunes plants de deux espèces sympatriques de forêt tempérée (Acer platanoides L. et Fraxinus excelsior L.) le long d'un gradient de lumière. Le renouvellement des feuilles et des structures nécessaires à leur maintien (l'ensemble correspondant à la tige feuillée) représente chaque année un coût pour les plants. La contribution de la composition biochimique (coût de construction des tissus, CC) et des caractéristiques morphologiques (répartition de la biomasse, masse des feuilles par unité de surface, LMA) aux changements du coût associé à l'étalement des feuilles (coût de construction de la tige feuillée, par unité de surface foliaire, CCA) a été étudiée chez de jeunes plants de Acer platanoides L. et Fraxinus excelsior L. croissant dans un gradient naturel de lumière sous un couvert forestier. Une diminution de LMA avec l'ombrage et des modifications de répartition de biomasse au profit des feuilles et des pétioles et au détriment de la tige expliquent la forte diminution de la masse de la tige feuillée de l'année par unité de surface foliaire (SMA), et l'essentiel de la plasticité observée pour CCA de la tige feuillée chez les deux espèces. En plus, une diminution du coût de construction des feuilles chez A. platanoides contribue également à la diminution de CCA de la tige feuillée avec l'ombrage chez cette espèce. Le coût de construction des feuilles est positivement corrélé à LMA chez F. excelsior, positivement corrélé à LMA et à l'absorbance de l'épiderme dans l'UV (AUV) chez A. platanoides. CC des feuilles est négativement corrélé au contenu en cendre chez les deux espèces. La forte corrélation négative entre AUV et le contenu en azote pourrait tamponner les variations de CC des feuilles chez F. excelsior. The yearly renewal of leaves and their holding organs (the leafy shoot) represent an energetic cost for saplings. The contribution of both biochemical (tissue construction cost, CC) and morphological traits (biomass partitioning and leaf mass per unit area, LMA) to the cost associated with leaf area renewal (construction cost of the leafy shoot per unit leaf area, shoot CCA) was studied in saplings of Acer platanoides L. and Fraxinus excelsior L. growing in a natural light gradient below forest canopy. Decrease in LMA with shade and change in biomass partitioning from stems towards leaves and petioles accounted for the strong decrease in mass per unit area of the leafy shoot (SMA) with shade and for most of the plasticity of shoot CCA in both species. In addition, a decrease in leaf CC in A. platanoides also contributed to the overall decrease of shoot CCA with shade in this species. Leaf CC was positively correlated with LMA in F. excelsior, positively correlated with both LMA and epidermal absorbance of UV (AUV) in A. platanoides. Leaf CC was negatively correlated with ash content in both species. The strong negative correlation between AUV and nitrogen content might have damped variations in leaf CC in F. excelsior.

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    Annals of Forest Science
    Article . 2005 . Peer-reviewed
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    Other literature type . 2005
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    Other literature type . 2005
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    ProdInra
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    Article . 2005
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      Annals of Forest Science
      Article . 2005 . Peer-reviewed
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      Other literature type . 2005
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      ProdInra
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      Article . 2005
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Daviau, C.; Pierre, A.; Famelart, Marie-Hélène; GOUDEDRANCHE, H.; +3 Authors

    International audience; The kinetics of whey drainage of Camembert soft cheese was studied using an instrumented drainage device to record the pH and the weight of the whey with a variation coefficient amounting to 1.8% during the first 100 min and 0.34% at the end of drainage. Drainage data were fit with a two step equation to obtain a descriptive model of the drainage kinetics. The effect of the pH at renneting, the casein concentration and the ionic strength on the drainage kinetics was investigated with a 2 level experimental design. Milk was modified by a combination of ultrafiltration and dilution with a lactose solution. The pH at renneting had a negative effect on the amount of whey expelled in the early drainage (up to 100 min) and a positive one after 400 min. The effect of the casein concentration was negative on the amount of whey expelled and on the rate of drainage. The ionic strength had a slight positive effect on drainage. An equation was obtained allowing the prevision of whey drainage kinetics according to the milk composition. Calculated values fit experimental data with a correlation coefficient of $r = 0.994$.; Caractérisation des cinétiques d'égouttage au cours de la fabrication d'un fromage type pâte molle en relation avec les facteurs physico-chimiques et technologiques : effet du pH d'emprésurage, de la teneur en caséine et de la force ionique des laits. L'égouttage du fromage à pâte molle de type Camembert a été étudié à l'aide d'un prototype d'égouttage instrumenté qui permettait d'enregistrer le poids de sérum et son pH. Le coefficient de variation était de 1,8 % pendant les 100 premières minutes et de 0,34 % à la fin de l'égouttage. Les cinétiques d'égouttage obtenues ont été ajustées à l'aide d'un modèle mathématique descriptif à deux phases. L'effet sur l'égouttage du pH à l'emprésurage et de modifications de la composition du lait, telle la concentration en caséine et la force ionique, ont été testés à l'aide d'un plan d'expérience à deux niveaux. La composition des laits était modifiée en combinant une concentration par ultrafiltration et une dilution par une solution de lactose. L'effet du pH sur le poids de sérum expulsé était négatif au début de l'égouttage puis devenait positif. L'effet de la concentration en caséine était négatif sur la quantité de sérum obtenue et sur la vitesse d'égouttage. La force ionique avait un léger effet positif sur l'égouttage. Une équation a été obtenue permettant de prévoir la cinétique d'égouttage en fonction de la valeur des trois facteurs étudiés. Les valeurs calculées s'ajustaient aux valeurs expérimentales avec un coefficient de corrélation $r=0,994$.

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    Article . 2000
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    Dairy Science & Technology
    Article . 2000 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Colbach, Nathalie; Lucas, Philippe; Meynard, Jean-Marc;

    Wheat was assessed at four crop growth stages for take-all (Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici) in a series of field trials that studied the effects of five wheat management practices: sowing date, plant density, nitrogen fertilizer dose and form, and removal/burial of cereal straw. An equation expressing disease level as a function of degree days was fitted to the observed disease levels. This equation was based on take-all epidemiology and depended on two parameters reflecting the importance of the primary and secondary infection cycles, respectively. Early sowing always increased disease frequency via primary infection cycle; its influence on the secondary cycle was variable. Primary infection and earliness of disease onset were increased by high density; however, at mid-season take-all was positively correlated to the root number per plant, which was itself negatively correlated to plant density. At late stages of development, neither plant density nor root number per plant had any influence on disease. A high nitrogen dose increased both take-all on seminal roots and severity of primary infection cycle but decreased take-all on nodal roots and secondary infection cycle. Ammonium (versus ammonium nitrate) fertilizer always decreased disease levels and infection cycles, whereas straw treatment (burial versus removal of straw from the previous cereal crop) had no influence.

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    Phytopathology
    Article . 1997
    Phytopathology
    Article . 1997 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Crossref
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Coulon, Jean Baptiste; Verdier, Isabelle; Pradel, Philippe; Almena, M.;

    Two groups of eight multiparous cows with different calving periods (November or February) were managed in the same way during lactation. During four 4 week experimental periods distributed over 12 months, the cows were fed on a diet composed of hay and concentrate (70[ratio ]30) in a restricted and controlled amount which varied according to their lactation stage, so as to cover the animals' requirements correctly. The animals' average lactation stage varied according to period from 26 to 298 d. Milk from each group was processed on two occasions during each period to make Saint-Nectaire-type cheese; the cheesemaking conditions were the same throughout. Lactation stage had an important effect on milk fat, protein and calcium contents but not on the casein[ratio ]protein ratio or phosphorus content. The milk pH and the urea content were higher in late lactation. The calcium concentration of milk was higher in late lactation but the soluble fraction was higher in early lactation. Despite higher protein contents, the maximal firmness of the coagulum of late-lactation milk was not different from that of early or mid-lactation milks. pH was higher in cheeses from late-lactation milks compared with those from early and mid-lactation milks. Cheeses from early lactation milks were more yellow than the others and had a lower dry matter fat content. In sensory analysis the odour of cheeses from early and late-lactation milks was less pleasant than that of those from mid-lactation milks. Cheeses from late-lactation milks were more melting and less firm than those from early or mid-lactation milks. Their taste was more intense and more persistent. At tasting, they were less appreciated than the others. These differences were linked to increased proteolysis in the cheeses made with late-lactation milks.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Journal of Dairy Res...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Journal of Dairy Research
    Article . 1998 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Cambridge Core User Agreement
    Data sources: Crossref
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    This Research product is the result of merged Research products in OpenAIRE.

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