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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Hirono, T.; Barbero, M.; Breugnon, P.; Godiot, S.; +11 Authors

    International audience; Depleted CMOS active sensors (DMAPS) are being developed for high-energy particle physics experiments in high radiation environments, such as in the ATLAS High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC). Since charge collection by drift is mandatory for harsh radiation environment, the application of high bias voltage to high resistive sensor material is needed. In this work, a prototype of a DMAPS was fabricated in a 150nm CMOS process on a substrate with a resistivity of >2 k{\Omega}cm that was thinned to 100 {\mu}m. Full depletion occurs around 20V, which is far below the breakdown voltage of 110 V. A readout chip has been attached for fast triggered readout. Presented prototype also uses a concept of sub-pixel en/decoding three pixels of the prototype chip are readout by one pixel of the readout chip. Since radiation tolerance is one of the largest concerns in DMAPS, the CCPD_LF chip has been irradiated with X-rays and neutrons up to a total ionization dose of 50 Mrad and a fluence of 10E15neq/cm2, respectively.

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    http://arxiv.org/pdf/1612.0315...
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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2016
    License: arXiv Non-Exclusive Distribution
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    https://doi.org/10.1109/nssmic...
    Conference object . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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    Conference object . 2016
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ arXiv.org e-Print Ar...arrow_drop_down
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      http://arxiv.org/pdf/1612.0315...
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      Article . 2016
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      https://doi.org/10.1109/nssmic...
      Conference object . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: Lamy, T.; Curdy, J.C.; Sole, P.; Sortais, P.; +3 Authors

    The development of electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) at LPSC Grenoble (previously ISN) covers a wide range of applications. Micro-PHOENIX is a compact source whose magnetic confinement is fully generated by permanent magnets. The extraction geometry has been specially designed to manage high currents with a double electrode extraction system to improve the beam characteristics at high voltage. The ECRIS can accept a microwave power frequency from 10 to 18 GHz. It has been installed as a universal injector on the new charge breeder test bench in order to perform the widest range of experiments including mono- or multicharged ion injections. To characterize the analyzed extracted beam, a new emittance meter based on electrostatic deflection plates has been set up and permits one to obtain online high resolution measurements. The first objective of the experiments was to fulfill the future SPIRAL II requirements. After a technical description of the Micro-PHOENIX ECRIS and its beam analysis system, the first experimental results obtained with a single puller electrode will be presented. Thus, a D+ intensity of 5 mA at 39 kV is easily delivered within a normalized rms emittance of 0.092 π mm mrad, which is well below the 0.2 π mm mrad limit assuring a 100% RFQ transport efficiency as computed for the LINAG project. A more extensive study of emittance versus plasma parameters is in progress.

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    Authors: Fuller, M.F.; Cadenhead, A.; Mollison, G.; Sève, Bernard;

    1. Eight pigs with a mean weight of 48 kg were given, at a constant daily rate, diets of low (0.15) or high (0.30) protein content, very deficient in lysine, with or without a supplement of L-lysine (3.7 g/kg).2. Measurements of nitrogen and energy metabolism were made in four successive 14 d periods in a Latin-square design.3. The rate of protein accretion was substantially increased by increases in both protein and lysine supply, but the rate of heat production was not significantly changed.4. The rate of fat deposition varied inversely with the rate of protein accretion, being reduced by both protein and lysine supplements.5. The relation between heat production and protein accretion (allowing for a constant energy cost of fat deposition) suggested that heat production increased with additional protein accretion less when protein quality was improved than when more protein was given.

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    British Journal Of Nutrition
    Article . 1987 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Cambridge Core User Agreement
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      British Journal Of Nutrition
      Article . 1987 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Vidal-Madjar, A.; Laurent, C.; Bruston, P.; Audouze, J.;

    A model, based on different observations of the local interstellar medium, indicates the presence of a very close interstellar cloud in front of the Scorpius-Ophiuchus association (almost in the direction of the galactic center) approaching the solar system from a distance of about 0.03 pc at a velocity of about 15--20 km s/sup -1/. These observations are as follows:1. The strong gradient of the hydrogen density in the interstellar medium deduced from current observations of this gas inside the solar system (n/sub H/approx.0.1 cm/sup -3/) and in front of many nearby stars in the anticenter direction (n/sub H/approx.0.01 cm/sup -3/).2. The anisotropy of the UV flux (around 950 A) from the brightest and closest O and B stars.3. The important variation of the deuterium to hydrogen ratio, which ranges from 2 x 10/sup -6/ in the ..cap alpha.. Cen A direction to 4 x 10/sup -5/ in the Aga Aur direction.A mechanism based on a selective radiation pressure effect that acts on deuterium atoms and not on hydrogen atoms explains satisfactorily the large spread in the deuterium abundance in the local interstellar medium. The operation of this mechanism requires that the geometrical configuration remain stable for approximately 10/sup 7/ years.more » This requirement implies the existence of a nearby interstellar cloud.Possible candidates do exist in the proper sky direction. One candidate, extensively discussed, presents a persistent interstellar absorption pattern over an angle of 40/sup 0/ related to a high column density, although covering only a few degrees in the sky, would lead to the same consequence. The presence of such condidates is not all contradicted by the interstellar reddening and absorption line observations.Other implications of the presence of such a close cloud are presented.« less

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    The Astrophysical Journal
    Article . 1978 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 1978
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      The Astrophysical Journal
      Article . 1978 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 1978
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    Authors: Zegadi, L.; Rousseau, Jean-Jacques; ALLARD, Bruno; Tenant, Pierre; +1 Authors

    International audience; This paper describes a model for simulating the behavior of soft MnZn, This model takes into account both hysteresis and dynamic phenomena. The temperature is introduced using behavioral laws. In fact, the following model requires only few parameters. It estimates iron losses and characteristics, such as B(H), phi>(*) over bar * (t), and the induced electromotive force. The obtained results are compared with measured data for three soft MnZn ferrites currently used in power electronics. The comparison found good agreement in a wide range of operating frequencies for temperatures ranging from 40 to 140 degreesC.

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    Other literature type . 2000
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    IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
    Article . 2000 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 2000
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      Other literature type . 2000
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      IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
      Article . 2000 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2000
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Martin, G.A.; Mirodatos, C.;

    Abstract The various aspects of the chemistry involved in the oxidative coupling of methane are considered, with special focus on the surface chemistry, i.e., on the heterogeneous part of this complex hetero-homogeneous process. The elementary steps which control either the primary or the secondary reactions are analysed in the light of recent results obtained with state-of-the-art techniques such as the isotopic transient kinetics and the fast pulse TAP reactor. The two main routes for methane activation via homolytic or heterolytic splitting of the CH bond are discussed together with the modes of oxygen activation and their dependence on the catalyst nature. A tentative list of various active sites corresponding to the specific stages of the reaction is provided. In view of a better understanding of the secondary conversion of ethane into ethylene and further on into COx, recent studies devoted to the oxydehydrogenation of ethane are reviewed with an introduction to the development of low temperature processes. The occurrence of a single mechanism or of several ones adapted to the various families of active catalysts is discussed on the basis of the huge amount of literature available at the present time.

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    Fuel Processing Technology
    Article . 1995 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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    Other literature type . Article . 1995
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      Fuel Processing Technology
      Article . 1995 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Amigues, Jean-Pierre; Moreaux, Michel;

    Le modèle usuel d’utilisation d’une ressource non renouvelable avec accumulation decapital suppose la production d’un seul type de bien qui peut être soit consommé soitinvesti. On étudie dans cet article une économie bisectorielle dans laquelle on produitun bien de consommation et un bien capital à partir d’une ressource non renouvelable,de travail et de capital. L’accumulation du capital est un processus irréversible et lecapital se déprécie au cours du temps. Dans ce cadre on réexamine les résultats classiques de la théorie de la croissance efficace et de la croissance optimale. On montreque les conditions d’efficacité de la production peuvent s’exprimer en termes des propriétés d’une fonction d’investissement dont la définition fait intervenir les caractéristiques des fonctions de production des deux secteurs, confondus dans les modèles nonsectoriels du type Dasgupta et Heal et complètement dilués dans les modèles désaggrégés du type Dixit, Hammond et Heol. On montre aussi que la règle d’Hotelling prendici la forme d’une relation entre le taux de croissance de la consommation et le taux decroissance de la productivité marginale de la ressource dans le secteur du bien deconsommation. Enfin on examine différentes formes de la règle d’Hartwick. Usual resource models with capital accumulation focus upon simple one to one process transforming output either into some consumption good or into some capital good. We consider a bisectoral model where the capital good, labor and a non renewable resource are used to produce the consumption good and the capital good. Capital accumulation is an irreversible process and capital is depreciating over time. In this framework we reconsider the usual results of the efficient and optimal growth theory under an exhaustible resource constraint. We show that the usual efficiency condition relates to the investment good production function and not to the consumption good production function as in the canonical model of Dasgupta and Heal. We show then that the standard Hotelling rule relating the growth rate of the consumption good to the growth rate of the marginal productivity of the resource remains valid independently of the multisectoral specification of the model. Last we explore different forms of the Hartwick rule in the context of efficient paths and optimal paths.

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    Revue d économie politique
    Article . 2008 . Peer-reviewed
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      Revue d économie politique
      Article . 2008 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Diana Rose; Birgit Wehner; Matthias Ketzel; C. Engler; +3 Authors

    International audience; Number fractions of externally mixed particles of four different sizes (30, 50, 80, and 150 nm in diameter) were measured using a Volatility Tandem DMA. The system was operated in a street canyon (Eisenbahnstrasse, EI) and at an urban background site (Institute for Tropospheric Research, IfT), both in the city of Leipzig, Germany as well as at a rural site (Melpitz (ME), a village near Leipzig). Intensive campaigns of 3?5 weeks each took place in summer 2003 as well as in winter 2003/2004. The data set thus obtained provides mean number fractions of externally mixed soot particles of atmospheric aerosols in differently polluted areas and different seasons (e.g. at 80 nm on working days, 60% (EI), 22% (IfT), and 6% (ME) in summer and 26% (IfT), and 13% (ME) in winter). Furthermore, a new method is used to calculate the size distribution of these externally mixed soot particles from parallel number size distribution measurements. A decrease of the externally mixed soot fraction with decreasing urbanity and a diurnal variation linked to the daily traffic changes demonstrate, that the traffic emissions have a significant impact on the soot fraction in urban areas. This influence becomes less in rural areas, due to atmospheric mixing and transformation processes. For estimating the source strength of soot particles emitted by vehicles (veh), soot particle emission factors were calculated using the Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM). The emission factor for an average vehicle was found to be (1.5±0.4)·1014 #/(km·veh). The separation of the emission factor into passenger cars ((5.8±2)·1013 #/(km·veh)) and trucks ((2.5±0.9)·1015 #/(km·veh)) yielded in a 40-times higher emission factor for trucks compared to passenger cars.

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    Other literature type . 2006
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    Other literature type . 2005
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/acpd-5...
    Preprint . 2005
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    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
    Article . 2006 . Peer-reviewed
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    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
    Article . Preprint
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    Article . 2006
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    Article . 2005
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      Other literature type . 2006
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      Other literature type . 2005
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/acpd-5...
      Preprint . 2005
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      Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
      Article . 2006 . Peer-reviewed
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      Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
      Article . Preprint
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      Hal-Diderot
      Article . 2006
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      Article . 2005
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: NOBLET, Jean; SHI, X.S.; Dubois, Serge;

    Digestible energy (DE), metabolizable energy (ME) and net energy for maintenance (NEm) values of a set of fourteen diets were measured in six adult sows fed at and below their maintenance energy level. The efficiency of ME for NEm was estimated from heat production (HP) measurements (indirect calorimetry) at these different feeding levels. HP was partitioned between HP due to physical activity, thermic effect of food (TEF) and fasting heat production (FHP). The amounts of DE digested in the small intestine or in the hindgut were measured. Equations for prediction of NEm from dietary characteristics were calculated. HP at maintenance level averaged 400 kJ/kg body-weight0.75, 16 and 19% of the total being due to physical activity and TEF respectively. The efficiency of ME for NEm averaged 77·4% with higher values for digestible diethyl ether extract (100%) and starch + sugar (82 %). The efficiencies of digestible crude protein (N × 6·25) and digestible residue averaged 69 and 56 % respectively. The energy absorbed from the small intestine was used more efficiently than the energy fermented in the hindgut (82 v. 59%). These values are comparable with those obtained in growing pigs. The NEm content of diets can be predicted accurately from equations including DE (or ME) values and some dietary chemical characteristics.

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    British Journal Of Nutrition
    Article . 1993 . Peer-reviewed
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      British Journal Of Nutrition
      Article . 1993 . Peer-reviewed
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  • Authors: Haghighatpanah, S.; Mohsenzadeh, A.; Amara, H.; Bichara, C.; +1 Authors

    Semiempirical tight binding (TB) and density functional theory (DFT) methods have been used to study the mechanism of single walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) growth. The results are compared with similar calculations on graphene. Both TB and DFT geometry optimized structures of relevance to SWNT growth show that the minimum energy growth mechanism is via the formation of hexagons at the SWNT end. This is similar to the result for graphene where growth occurs via the formation of hexagons at the edge of the graphene flake. However, due to the SWNT curvature, defects such as pentagons are more stable in SWNTs than in graphene. Monte Carlo simulations based on the TB energies show that SWNTs close under conditions that are proper for growth of large defect-free graphene flakes, and that a particle such as a Ni cluster is required to maintain an open SWNT end under these conditions. The calculations also show that the proper combination of growth parameters such as temperature and chemical potential are required to prevent detachment of the SWNTs from the Ni cluster or encapsulation of the cluster by the feedstock carbon atoms.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Hirono, T.; Barbero, M.; Breugnon, P.; Godiot, S.; +11 Authors

    International audience; Depleted CMOS active sensors (DMAPS) are being developed for high-energy particle physics experiments in high radiation environments, such as in the ATLAS High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC). Since charge collection by drift is mandatory for harsh radiation environment, the application of high bias voltage to high resistive sensor material is needed. In this work, a prototype of a DMAPS was fabricated in a 150nm CMOS process on a substrate with a resistivity of >2 k{\Omega}cm that was thinned to 100 {\mu}m. Full depletion occurs around 20V, which is far below the breakdown voltage of 110 V. A readout chip has been attached for fast triggered readout. Presented prototype also uses a concept of sub-pixel en/decoding three pixels of the prototype chip are readout by one pixel of the readout chip. Since radiation tolerance is one of the largest concerns in DMAPS, the CCPD_LF chip has been irradiated with X-rays and neutrons up to a total ionization dose of 50 Mrad and a fluence of 10E15neq/cm2, respectively.

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    http://arxiv.org/pdf/1612.0315...
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    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2016
    License: arXiv Non-Exclusive Distribution
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    https://doi.org/10.1109/nssmic...
    Conference object . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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    Conference object . 2016
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      http://arxiv.org/pdf/1612.0315...
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      Article . 2016
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  • Authors: Lamy, T.; Curdy, J.C.; Sole, P.; Sortais, P.; +3 Authors

    The development of electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) at LPSC Grenoble (previously ISN) covers a wide range of applications. Micro-PHOENIX is a compact source whose magnetic confinement is fully generated by permanent magnets. The extraction geometry has been specially designed to manage high currents with a double electrode extraction system to improve the beam characteristics at high voltage. The ECRIS can accept a microwave power frequency from 10 to 18 GHz. It has been installed as a universal injector on the new charge breeder test bench in order to perform the widest range of experiments including mono- or multicharged ion injections. To characterize the analyzed extracted beam, a new emittance meter based on electrostatic deflection plates has been set up and permits one to obtain online high resolution measurements. The first objective of the experiments was to fulfill the future SPIRAL II requirements. After a technical description of the Micro-PHOENIX ECRIS and its beam analysis system, the first experimental results obtained with a single puller electrode will be presented. Thus, a D+ intensity of 5 mA at 39 kV is easily delivered within a normalized rms emittance of 0.092 π mm mrad, which is well below the 0.2 π mm mrad limit assuring a 100% RFQ transport efficiency as computed for the LINAG project. A more extensive study of emittance versus plasma parameters is in progress.

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