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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Filippo Abbondanza; Philip S. Dale; Carol A. Wang; Marianna E. Hayiou‐Thomas; +29 Authors

    Funding: Royal Society - UF150663, RGF\EA\180141; Wellcome Trust - 217065/Z/19/Z; H2020 European Research Council - 694189; NWO - 451-15-017; National Health and Medical Research Council - 1173896; Canadian Institute for Health Research - MOP-133440. Handedness has been studied for association with language-related disorders because of its link with language hemispheric dominance. No clear pattern has emerged, possibly because of small samples, publication bias, and heterogeneous criteria across studies. Non-right-handedness (NRH) frequency was assessed in N = 2503 cases with reading and/or language impairment and N = 4316 sex-matched controls identified from 10 distinct cohorts (age range 6–19 years old; European ethnicity) using a priori set criteria. A meta-analysis (Ncases = 1994) showed elevated NRH % in individuals with language/reading impairment compared with controls (OR = 1.21, CI = 1.06–1.39, p = .01). The association between reading/language impairments and NRH could result from shared pathways underlying brain lateralization, handedness, and cognitive functions. Publisher PDF Peer reviewed

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Vrije Universiteit A...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    MPG.PuRe
    Article . 2023
    License: CC BY
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    St Andrews Research Repository
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Oxford Brookes University: RADAR
    Other literature type . 2023
    License: CC BY
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Vrije Universiteit A...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      MPG.PuRe
      Article . 2023
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      St Andrews Research Repository
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Oxford Brookes University: RADAR
      Other literature type . 2023
      License: CC BY
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Podhorna, Jana; Krahnke, Tillmann; Shear, Michael; Harrison, John;

    P values for comparison of signal-to-noise ratios of ADAS-Cog 11 and ADAS-Cog 5 vs. other variants. Supplementary table providing p values for comparison of signal-to-noise ratios of ADAS-Cog 11 and ADAS-Cog 5 vs. other variants. (DOCX 16 kb)

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ figsharearrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    figshare
    Research . 2016
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    figshare
    Research . 2016
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ figsharearrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      figshare
      Research . 2016
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Research . 2016
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Franke, Barbara; Stein, Jason L; McIntosh, Andrew M; Eichhammer, Peter; +289 Authors

    Schizophrenia is a devastating psychiatric illness with high heritability. Brain structure and function differ, on average, between people with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. As common genetic associations are emerging for both schizophrenia and brain imaging phenotypes, we can now use genome-wide data to investigate genetic overlap. Here we integrated results from common variant studies of schizophrenia (33,636 cases, 43,008 controls) and volumes of several (mainly subcortical) brain structures (11,840 subjects). We did not find evidence of genetic overlap between schizophrenia risk and subcortical volume measures either at the level of common variant genetic architecture or for single genetic markers. These results provide a proof of concept (albeit based on a limited set of structural brain measures) and define a roadmap for future studies investigating the genetic covariance between structural or functional brain phenotypes and risk for psychiatric disorders. peerReviewed final draft Article

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Maynooth University ...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    UEF eRepository
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: UEF eRepository
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    MPG.PuRe
    Article . 2016
    Data sources: MPG.PuRe
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    NARCIS
    Article . 2016
    Data sources: NARCIS
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    NARCIS
    Article . 2016
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    NARCIS
    Article . 2016
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Article . 2016
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Article . 2016
    Data sources: NARCIS
    UNC Dataverse
    Article . 2016
    Data sources: Datacite
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Maynooth University ...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      UEF eRepository
      Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: UEF eRepository
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      MPG.PuRe
      Article . 2016
      Data sources: MPG.PuRe
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      NARCIS
      Article . 2016
      Data sources: NARCIS
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      NARCIS
      Article . 2016
      Data sources: NARCIS
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      NARCIS
      Article . 2016
      Data sources: NARCIS
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      NARCIS
      Article . 2016
      Data sources: NARCIS
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      NARCIS
      Article . 2016
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      UNC Dataverse
      Article . 2016
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    Authors: Yuan Ma; Gautam Sajeev; Tyler J. VanderWeele; Anand Viswanathan; +9 Authors

    The apolipoprotein E allele 4 (APOE-ε4) is established as a major genetic risk factor for cognitive decline and late-onset Alzheimer's disease. Accumulating evidence has linked ε4 carriership to abnormal structural brain changes across the adult lifespan. To better understand the underlying causal mechanisms, we investigated the extent to which the effect of the ε4 allele on cognition is mediated by structural brain imaging markers in the population-based Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study (AGES-Reykjavik). This study included 4527 participants (aged 76.3 ± 5.4 at baseline) who underwent the brain magnetic resonance imaging assessment (of brain tissue volumes, white matter lesion volume, subcortical and cortical infarcts, and cerebral microbleeds) and a battery of neuropsychological tests at baseline. Causal mediation analysis was used to quantify the mediation of the ε4 effect on cognition by these MRI markers, both individually and jointly. We observed that about 9% of the total effect of ε4 carriership on cognition was mediated by white matter lesion volume. This proportion increased to 25% when total brain tissue volume was jointly considered with white matter lesion volume. In analyses separating ε4 homozygotes from ε4 heterozygotes, the effect on global cognition of specifically ε4 homozygosity appeared to be partially mediated by cerebral microbleeds, particularly lobar microbleeds. There was no evidence of mediation of the ε4 effect by cortical or subcortical infarcts. This study shows that the ε4 effect on cognition is partly mediated by white matter lesion volume and total brain tissue volume. These findings suggest the joint role of cerebral small vessel disease and neurodegeneration in the ε4-cognition relationship.

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    Europe PubMed Central
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    European Journal of Epidemiology
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      European Journal of Epidemiology
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Elman, Jeremy A; Vogel, Jacob W; Bocancea, Diana I; Ossenkoppele, Rik; +3 Authors

    Abstract Background Cognitive reserve and resilience are terms used to explain interindividual variability in maintenance of cognitive health in response to adverse factors, such as brain pathology in the context of aging or neurodegenerative disorders. There is substantial interest in identifying tractable substrates of resilience to potentially leverage this phenomenon into intervention strategies. One way of operationalizing cognitive resilience that has gained popularity is the residual method: regressing cognition on an adverse factor and using the residual as a measure of resilience. This method is attractive because it provides a statistical approach that is an intuitive match to the reserve/resilience conceptual framework. However, due to statistical properties of the regression equation, the residual approach has qualities that complicate its interpretation as an index of resilience and make it statistically inappropriate in certain circumstances. Methods and results We describe statistical properties of the regression equation to illustrate why the residual is highly correlated with the cognitive score from which it was derived. Using both simulations and real data, we model common applications of the approach by creating a residual score (global cognition residualized for hippocampal volume) in individuals along the AD spectrum. We demonstrate that in most real-life scenarios, the residual measure of cognitive resilience is highly correlated with cognition, and the degree of this correlation depends on the initial relationship between the adverse factor and cognition. Subsequently, any association between this resilience metric and an external variable may actually be driven by cognition, rather than by an operationalized measure of resilience. We then assess several strategies proposed as potential solutions to this problem, such as including both the residual and original cognitive measure in a model. However, we conclude these solutions may be insufficient, and we instead recommend against “pre-regression” strategies altogether in favor of using statistical moderation (e.g., interactions) to quantify resilience. Conclusions Caution should be taken in the use and interpretation of the residual-based method of cognitive resilience. Rather than identifying resilient individuals, we encourage building more complete models of cognition to better identify the specific adverse and protective factors that influence cognitive decline.

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    https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3....
    Preprint . 2022
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    Alzheimer’s Research & Therapy
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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      https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3....
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      Alzheimer’s Research & Therapy
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Katrina L. Grasby*† and Neda Jahanshad*† et al.;

    The cerebral cortex underlies our complex cognitive capabilities, yet little is known about the specific genetic loci that influence human cortical structure. To identify genetic variants that affect cortical structure, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of brain magnetic resonance imaging data from 51,665 individuals. We analyzed the surface area and average thickness of the whole cortex and 34 regions with known functional specializations. We identified 199 significant loci and found significant enrichment for loci influencing total surface area within regulatory elements that are active during prenatal cortical development, supporting the radial unit hypothesis. Loci that affect regional surface area cluster near genes in Wnt signaling pathways, which influence progenitor expansion and areal identity. Variation in cortical structure is genetically correlated with cognitive function, Parkinson’s disease, insomnia, depression, neuroticism, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

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    ZENODO
    Article . 2020
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    Authors: Lett, Tristram A.; Mohnke, Sebastian; Amelung, Till; Brandl, Eva J.; +14 Authors

    Pedophilia is a heterogeneous disorder for which the neurobiological correlates are not well established. In particular, there are no biological markers identifying individuals with high risk to commit child sexual offense (CSO). Pedophiles with CSO (P+CSO; N = 73), pedophiles without CSO (P-CSO; N = 77), and non-pedophilic controls (NPC; N = 133) were assessed using multimodal structural neuroimaging measures including: cortical thickness (CT), surface area (SA), and white matter fractional anisotropy (FA), as well as full scale IQ (FSIQ) performance. Cortex-wise mediation analyses were used to assess the relationships among brain structure, FSIQ and CSO behavior. Lower FSIQ performance was strongly predict with P+CSO (Wald Chi2 = 13.0, p = 3.1 × 10-5). P+CSO had lower CT in the right motor cortex and pronounced reductions in SA spanning the bilateral frontal, temporal, cingulate, and insular regions (PFWE-corrected < 0.05). P+CSO also had lower FA particularly in the corpus callosum (PFWE-corrected < 0.05). The relationship between SA and P+CSO was significantly mediated by FSIQ, particularly in the prefrontal and anterior insular cortices (PFWE-corrected < 0.05). Within P+CSO, left prefrontal and right anterior cingulate SA negatively correlated with number of CSOs (PFWE-corrected < 0.05). This study demonstrates converging neurobiological findings in which P+CSO had lower FSIQ performance, reduced CT, reduced SA, and reduced FA, compared to P-CSO as well as NPC. Further, FSIQ potentially mediates abuse by pedophiles via aberrant SA, whereas the CT and FA associations were independent of FSIQ differences. These findings suggest aberrant neuroanatomy and lower intelligence as a potential core feature underlying child sexual abuse behavior by pedophiles.

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    European Neuropsychopharmacology
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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      European Neuropsychopharmacology
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    Authors: Sonja M C de Zwarte; Rachel M. Brouwer; Ingrid Agartz; Martin Alda; +87 Authors

    The researchers and studies included in this Article were supported by the Research Council of Norway (Grant No. 223273), National Institutes of Health (NIH) (Grant No. R01 MH117601 [to NJ], Grant Nos. R01 MH116147, R01 MH111671, and P41 EB015922 [to PMT], Grant Nos. 5T32MH073526 and U54EB020403 [to CRKC], and Grant No. R03 MH105808 [to CEB and SCF]) and National Institute on Aging (NIA) (Grant No. T32AG058507 [to CRKC]).; C-SFS: This work was supported by Canadian Institutes of Health Research.; Cardiff: This work was supported by the National Centre for Mental Health, Bipolar Disorder Research Network, 2010 National Alliance for Research on Schizophrenia and Depression (NARSAD) Young Investigator Award (Grant No. 17319).; DEU: This work was supported by Dokuz Eylul University Department of Scientific Research Projects Funding (Grant No. 2012. KB. SAG. 062). This report represents independent research funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre at South London and Maudsley National Health Service Foundation Trust and King's College London. The views expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the National Health Service, NIHR, or Department of Health.; EGEU: This work was supported by the Ege University School of Medicine Research Foundation (Grant No. 2009-D-00017).; EHRS: The Edinburgh High Risk Study was supported by the Medical Research Council.; GROUP: The infrastructure for the GROUP study was supported by the Geestkracht program of the Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development (Grant No. 10-000-1002).; ENBD_UT/BPO_FLB: This work was supported by the National Institute of Mental Health (Grant No. R01 MH 085667).; HHR/PHHR: This work was supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (Grant Nos. 103703, 106469, and 341717), Nova Scotia Health Research Foundation, Dalhousie Clinical Research Scholarship (to TH), 2007 Brain and Behavior Research Foundation Young Investigator Award (to TH), and Ministry of Health of the Czech Republic (Grant Nos. NR8786 and NT13891).; HUBIN: This work was supported by the Swedish Research Council (Grant Nos. K2007-62X-15077-04-1, K2008-62P-20597-01-3, K2010-62X-15078-07-2, K2012-61X-15078-09-3), regional agreement on medical training and clinical research between Stockholm County Council and the Karolinska Institutet, Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, and HUBIN project.; IDIBAPS: This work was supported by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness/Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Grant Nos. PI070066, PI1100683, and PI1500467) and Fundacio Marato TV3 (Grant No. 091630), co-financed by ERDF Funds from the European Commission A Way of Making Europe"), Brain and Behaviour Research Foundation (NARSAD Young Investigator Award), and Alicia Koplowitz Foundation.; IoP-BD: The Maudsley Bipolar Twin Study was supported by the Stanley Medical Research Institute and NARSAD.; IoP-SZ: This work was supported by a Wellcome Trust Research Training Fellowship (Grant No. 064971 to MMP), NARSAD Young Investigator Award (to TT), and European Community's Sixth Framework Programme through a Marie Curie Training Network called the European Twin Study Network on Schizophrenia.; Lieber Institute for Brain Development (LIBD): This work was supported by the NIMH Intramural Research Program (to DRW's laboratory). LIBD is a nonprofit research institute located in Baltimore, MD. The work performed at LIBD was performed in accordance with an NIMH material transfer agreement with LIBD.; MFS: The Maudsley Family Study cohort collection was supported by the Wellcome Trust (Grant Nos. 085475/B/08/Z and 085475/Z/08/Z), NIHR Biomedical Research Centre at University College London Hospital, Medical Research Council (Grant No. G0901310), and British Medical Association Margaret Temple Fellowship 2016.; MooDS: This work was supported by the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research grants NGFNplus MooDS (Systematic Investigation of the Molecular Causes of Major Mood Disorders and Schizophrenia) and Integrated Network IntegraMent (Integrated Understanding of Causes and Mechanisms in Mental Disorders) under the auspices of the e: Med program (Grant Nos. O1ZX1314B and O1ZX1314G) and Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (Grant No. 1617 [to AH]).; MSSM: This work was supported by NIMH (Grant Nos. R01 MH116147 and R01 MH113619).; NU: This work was supported by NIH (Grant Nos. U01 MH097435, R01 MH084803, and R01 EB020062) and National Science Foundation (Grant Nos. 1636893 and 1734853).; OLIN: This work was supported by NIH (Grant No. R01 MH080912).; STAR: This work was supported by NIH (Grant No. R01 MH052857).; SydneyBipolarGroup: The Australian cohort collection was supported by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council Program Grants (Grant No. 510135 [to PBM] and Grant No. 1037196 [to PBM and PRS]) and Project Grants (Grant No. 1063960 [to JMF and PRS] and Grant No. 1066177 [to JMF]).; UMCU: This work was supported by NARSAD (Grant No. 20244 [to MHJH]), ZonMw (Grant No. 908-02-123 [to HEHP]), VIDI (Grant No. 452-11-014 [to NEMvH] and Grant No. 917-46-370 [to HEHP]), and Stanley Medical Research Institute.; CliNG: We thank Anna Fanelli, Kathrin Jakob, and Maria Keil for help with data acquisition.; All authors have contributed to and approved the contents of this manuscript.; GS has received research and travel support from Janssen Pharmaceutica and Otsuka Pharmaceutical and honoraria from Adamed Pharma. NY has been an investigator in clinical studies conducted together with Janssen-Cilag, Corcept Therapeutics, and COMPASS Pathways in the last 3 years. AM-L has received consultant fees from Boehringer Ingelheim, BrainsWay, Elsevier, Lundbeck International Neuroscience Foundation, and Science Advances. CRKC has received partial research support from Biogen, Inc. (Boston, MA) for work unrelated to the topic of this manuscript. The remaining authors report no biomedical financial interests or potential conflicts of interest. Research Council of NorwayResearch Council of Norway [223273]; National Institutes of Health (NIH)United States Department of Health ; Human ServicesNational Institutes of Health (NIH) - USA [R01 MH117601, R01 MH116147, R01 MH111671, P41 EB015922, 5T32MH073526, U54EB020403, R03 MH105808]; National Institute on Aging (NIA)United States Department of Health ; Human ServicesNational Institutes of Health (NIH) - USANIH National Institute on Aging (NIA) [T32AG058507]; Canadian Institutes of Health ResearchCanadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) [103703, 106469, 341717]; National Centre for Mental Health; 2010 National Alliance for Research on Schizophrenia and Depression (NARSAD) Young Investigator Award [17319]; Dokuz Eylul University Department of Scientific Research Projects FundingDokuz Eylul University [2012.KB.SAG.062]; National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre at South London and Maudsley National Health Service Foundation Trust and King's College London; Ege University School of Medicine Research Foundation [2009-D-00017]; Medical Research CouncilMedical Research Council UK (MRC) [G0901310]; Geestkracht program of the Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development [10-000-1002]; National Institute of Mental HealthUnited States Department of Health ; Human ServicesNational Institutes of Health (NIH) - USANIH National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) [R01 MH 085667]; Nova Scotia Health Research Foundation; Dalhousie Clinical Research Scholarship; 2007 Brain and Behavior Research Foundation Young Investigator Award; Ministry of Health of the Czech RepublicMinistry of Health, Czech Republic [NR8786, NT13891]; Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Research Council [K2007-62X-15077-04-1, K2008-62P-20597-01-3, K2010-62X-15078-07-2, K2012-61X-15078-09-3]; Stockholm County CouncilStockholm County Council; Karolinska InstitutetKarolinska Institutet; Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationKnut ; Alice Wallenberg Foundation; HUBIN project; Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness/Instituto de Salud Carlos III [PI070066, PI1100683, PI1500467]; Fundacio Marato TV3 [091630]; ERDF Funds from the European Commission A Way of Making Europe"); Brain and Behaviour Research Foundation (NARSAD Young Investigator Award); Alicia Koplowitz Foundation; Stanley Medical Research Institute; NARSADNARSAD [20244]; Wellcome TrustWellcome Trust [064971, 085475/B/08/Z, 085475/Z/08/Z]; NARSAD Young Investigator AwardNARSAD; European CommunityEuropean Community (EC); NIMH Intramural Research ProgramUnited States Department of Health ; Human ServicesNational Institutes of Health (NIH) - USANIH National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH); NIHR Biomedical Research Centre at University College London Hospital; British Medical Association Margaret Temple Fellowship 2016; German Federal Ministry for Education and ResearchFederal Ministry of Education ; Research (BMBF) [O1ZX1314B, O1ZX1314G]; Deutsche ForschungsgemeinschaftGerman Research Foundation (DFG) [1617]; NIMHUnited States Department of Health ; Human ServicesNational Institutes of Health (NIH) - USANIH National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) [R01 MH116147, R01 MH113619]; NIHUnited States Department of Health ; Human ServicesNational Institutes of Health (NIH) - USA [U01 MH097435, R01 MH084803, R01 EB020062, R01 MH080912, R01 MH052857]; National Science FoundationNational Science Foundation (NSF) [1636893, 1734853]; Australian National Health and Medical Research CouncilNational Health and Medical Research Council of Australia [510135, 1037196, 1063960, 1066177]; ZonMwNetherlands Organization for Health Research and Development [908-02-123]; VIDINetherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) [452-11-014, 917-46-370]; Janssen PharmaceuticaJohnson ; Johnson USAJanssen Biotech Inc; Otsuka PharmaceuticalOtsuka Pharmaceutical; Bipolar Disorder Research Network BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder share genetic liability, and some structural brain abnormalities are common to both conditions. First-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia (FDRs-SZ) show similar brain abnormalities to patients, albeit with smaller effect sizes. Imaging findings in first-degree relatives of patients with bipolar disorder (FDRs-BD) have been inconsistent in the past, but recent studies report regionally greater volumes compared with control subjects. METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis of global and subcortical brain measures of 6008 individuals (1228 FDRs-SZ, 852 FDRs-BD, 2246 control subjects, 1016 patients with schizophrenia, 666 patients with bipolar disorder) from 34 schizophrenia and/or bipolar disorder family cohorts with standardized methods. Analyses were repeated with a correction for intracranial volume (ICV) and for the presence of any psychopathology in the relatives and control subjects. RESULTS: FDRs-BD had significantly larger ICV (d = +10.16, q .05 corrected), whereas FDRs-SZ showed smaller thalamic volumes than control subjects (d = -0.12, q .05 corrected). ICV explained the enlargements in the brain measures in FDRs-BD. In FDRs-SZ, after correction for ICV, total brain, cortical gray matter, cerebral white matter, cerebellar gray and white matter, and thalamus volumes were significantly smaller; the cortex was thinner (d -0.09, q .05 corrected); and third ventricle was larger (d = +0.15, q .05 corrected). The findings were not explained by psychopathology in the relatives or control subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Despite shared genetic liability, FDRs-SZ and FDRs-BD show a differential pattern of structural brain abnormalities, specifically a divergent effect in ICV. This may imply that the neurodevelopmental trajectories leading to brain anomalies in schizophrenia or bipolar disorder are distinct. WOS: 000485217300010 PubMed ID: 31443932

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    Authors: Hellen Weinschutz Mendes; Mariam Taktek; Thomas Duret; Marc Ekker;

    AbstractDysfunctions in the GABAergic system lead to various pathological conditions and impaired inhibitory function is one of the causes behind neuropathies characterized by neuronal hyper excitability. TheDlxhomeobox genes are involved in the development of nervous system, neural crest, brachial arches and developing appendages.Dlxgenes also take part in neuronal migration and differentiation during development, more precisely, in the migration and differentiation of GABAergic neurons. Functional analysis ofdlxgenes has mainly been carried out in developing zebrafish embryos and larvae; however information regarding the expression and roles of these genes in the adult zebrafish brain is still lacking. The extensive neurogenesis that takes place in the brain of adult zebrafish makes them a good model for the visualization of mechanisms involvingdlxgenes during adulthood in physiological conditions and during regeneration of the nervous system. We have identified the adult brain regions where transcripts ofdlx1a, dlx2a, dlx5aanddlx6agenes are normally found and have confirmed that within telencephalic domains, there is high overlapping expression of the fourdlxparalogs with a marker for GABAergic neurons. Co-localization analyses carried with the Tg(dlx6a-1.4kbdlx5a/dlx6a:GFP) reporter line have also shown that in some areas of the diencephalon, cells expressing thedlx5a/6abigene may have a neural stem cell identity by co-localizing with a Sox2 antibody. Furthermore, investigations in a response to stab wound lesions, have demonstrated a possible participation of thedlx5a/6abigene, most likely, ofdlx5aduring the regeneration of the adult zebrafish brain. These data suggest a possible participation ofdlx-expressing cells during brain regeneration in adult zebrafish and also provide information on the role ofdlxgenes under normal physiological conditions in adults.