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  • Neuroinformatics
  • Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, I.P.
  • 14. Life underwater

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Gerardo I. Zardi; Jonathan Monsinjon; Christopher D. McQuaid; Laurent Seuront; +4 Authors

    Temperature extremes are predicted to intensify with climate change. These extremes are rapidly emerging as a powerful driver of species distributional changes with the capacity to disrupt the functioning and provision of services of entire ecosystems, particularly when they challenge ecosystem engineers. The subsequent search for a robust framework to forecast the consequences of these changes mostly ignores within-species variation in thermal sensitivity. Such variation can be intrinsic, but can also reflect species interactions. Intertidal mussels are important ecosystem engineers that host symbiotic endoliths in their shells. These endoliths unexpectedly act as conditionally beneficial parasites that enhance the host's resistance to intense heat stress. To understand how this relationship may be altered under environmental change, we examined the conditions under which it becomes advantageous by reducing body temperature. We deployed biomimetic sensors (robomussels), built using shells of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) that were or were not infested by endoliths, at nine European locations spanning a temperature gradient across 22 degrees of latitude (Orkney, Scotland to the Algarve, Portugal). Daily wind speed and solar radiation explained the maximum variation in the difference in temperature between infested and non-infested robomussels; the largest difference occurred under low wind speed and high solar radiation. From the robomussel data, we inferred body temperature differences between infested and non-infested mussels during known heatwaves that induced mass mortality of the mussel Mytilus edulis along the coast of the English Channel in summer 2018 to quantify the thermal advantage of endolith infestation during temperature extremes. Under these conditions, endoliths provided thermal buffering of between 1.7 degrees C and 4.8 degrees C. Our results strongly suggest that sustainability of intertidal mussel beds will increasingly depend on the thermal buffering provided by endoliths. More generally, this work shows that biomimetic models indicate that within-species thermal sensitivity to global warming can be modulated by species interactions, using an intertidal host-symbiont relationship as an example. Fundacao para a Ciencia e TecnologiaPortuguese Foundation for Science and TechnologyEuropean Commission [UIDB/04326/2020]; National Research Foundation of South AfricaNational Research Foundation - South Africa [64801]; Department of Science and TechnologyDepartment of Science & Technology (India); National FoundationNational Science Foundation (NSF); South African National Research FoundationNational Research Foundation - South Africa; French Ministere de l'Enseignement Superieur et de la Recherche; Hauts de France RegionRegion Hauts-de-France; European Funds for Regional Economical Development info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion

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    Hyper Article en Ligne; Hal-Diderot
    Other literature type . Article . 2021
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    Authors: Gamito, R.; Pasquaud, Stéphanie; Courrat, A.; Drouineau, Hilaire; +7 Authors

    [Departement_IRSTEA]Eaux [TR1_IRSTEA]QUASARE; International audience; Multimetric fish-based indices have been increasingly gaining importance in Europe, as the Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires fish fauna, and particularly its composition and abundance, to be taken into account in the assessment of the ecological quality of continental surface waters, including transitional waters. These indices are composed of several metrics, mostly related with structural and functional characteristics of fish communities, such as species richness, the role of nursery areas, or trophic web structure. Therefore, ecological quality assessments should ensure that these structural and functional characteristics of fish communities were covered by the sampling methods used. In the present work, the influence of sampling effort on several metrics of the Estuarine Fish Assessment Index (EFAI) was studied. Pseudo-random samples were generated from data of four Portuguese estuaries and bootstrap cycles were performed, in order to obtain metrics’ means and standard deviations per number of hauls analysed. The number of hauls necessary for the means to level off differed with the metrics considered. Generally, for metrics on percentages (percentage of marine migrants, percentage of estuarine residents and percentage of piscivores) the curve levelled off with less than 20 hauls, both for the estuary as a whole and for different estuarine salinity zones. On the other hand, metrics on species richness required much larger samples. In order to decrease to −5% the current estimated bias of metrics, the WFD sampling costs would have to be more than 3 times higher than they currently are. The findings in the present study are of great importance for an effective assessment of estuarine ecological quality and particularly in the context of the WFD, as the metrics studied are common to other Member State indices.

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    Ecological Indicators
    Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
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      Ecological Indicators
      Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Pereira, Patrícia; Raimundo, Joana; Araújo, Olinda; Canário, João; +2 Authors

    Fish eyes and brain are highly susceptible to environmental Hg exposure but this issue is still scarcely investigated, mainly regarding methylmercury (MeHg) accumulation. Yet, Hg levels in fish lens have not been previously examined under field conditions. Total Hg (tHg), MeHg and inorganic Hg (iHg) levels were assessed in the brain, eye wall and lens of the golden grey mullet (Liza aurata) from an Hg contaminated area, both in winter and summer, together with water and sediment levels. Sampling was performed at Aveiro lagoon (Portugal) where a confined area (LAR) is severely contaminated by Hg. Fish brain, eye wall and lens accumulated higher levels of tHg, MeHg and iHg at LAR than the reference site, reflecting faithfully environmental spatial differences. The brain and eye wall responded also to the winter-summer changes found in water and sediment, accumulating higher levels of MeHg (and tHg) in winter. Contrarily, lens was unable to reflect seasonal changes, probably due to its composition and structural stability over time. The three neurosensory structures accumulated preferentially MeHg than iHg (MeHg was higher than 77% of tHg). Lens exhibited a higher retention capacity of MeHg (mean around 1 µg g(-1) at LAR), accumulating higher levels than the other two tissues. Interestingly, MeHg and iHg levels were significantly correlated for the brain and eye wall but poorly associated within the two analysed eye components. The high levels of MeHg found in the brain, eye wall and lens could compromise their functions and this needs further research. Patricia Pereira (SFRH/BPD/69563/2010) and Joana Raimundo (SFRH/BPD/91498/2012) benefit from Post-doctoral grants supported by "Fundacao para a Ciencia e a Tecnologia" (FCT). This work as been supported by the Research project financed by FCT PTDC/AAG-REC/2488/2012 (NEUTOXMER - Neurotoxicity of mercury in fish and association with morphofunctional brain alterations and behavior shifts), as well as by the Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM). Authors are also grateful to Sofia Guilherme for the support in sampling campaigns.

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    The Science of The Total Environment
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Marco Cerqueira; Sandie Millot; Maria Filipa Castanheira; Ana S. Félix; +5 Authors

    This deposit is composed by the main article plus the supplementary materials of the publication. The occurrence of emotions in non-human animals has been the focus of debate over the years. Recently, an interest in expanding this debate to non-tetrapod vertebrates and to invertebrates has emerged. Within vertebrates, the study of emotion in teleosts is particularly interesting since they represent a divergent evolutionary radiation from that of tetrapods, and thus they provide an insight into the evolution of the biological mechanisms of emotion. We report that Sea Bream exposed to stimuli that vary according to valence (positive, negative) and salience (predictable, unpredictable) exhibit different behavioural, physiological and neuromolecular states. Since according to the dimensional theory of emotion valence and salience define a two-dimensional affective space, our data can be interpreted as evidence for the occurrence of distinctive affective states in fish corresponding to each the four quadrants of the core affective space. Moreover, the fact that the same stimuli presented in a predictable vs. unpredictable way elicited different behavioural, physiological and neuromolecular states, suggests that stimulus appraisal by the individual, rather than an intrinsic characteristic of the stimulus, has triggered the observed responses. Therefore, our data supports the occurrence of emotion-like states in fish that are regulated by the individual's perception of environmental stimuli. European Commission grant: (FP7–KBBE-2010-4 Contract n°: 265957 Copewell); Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia grants: (SFRH/BD/80029/2011, SFRH/BPD/72952/2010). info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2017
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    Scientific Reports
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    Scientific Reports
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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    Scientific Reports
    Article . 2017
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    Authors: Olívia Cardoso; Sónia Puga; Fátima Brandão; João Canário; +4 Authors

    This study examines, for the first time, the neurotoxicity of Hg(II) and MeHg in fish (Diplodus sargus) in a time-course comparative perspective and considering realistic exposure levels and routes. Both forms followed an identical time-variation pattern of accumulation in the brain, but dietary MeHg was more efficiently transported to the brain. MeHg was substantially eliminated from the brain in 28days of depuration, which did not occur for Hg(II). Moreover, Hg(II) displayed a high neurotoxicity potential, as unveiled by the poor activation of brain antioxidant defenses and recurrent oxidative damage (as protein oxidation), while the opposite was recorded upon MeHg exposure. These results highlight the need to include Hg(II) in future environmental health assessment plans, preventing an underestimation of the risk for wild fish populations, which has probably been occurring due to the long-standing idea of the higher toxicity of MeHg in comparison with inorganic Hg forms. Patrícia Pereira benefited from post-doctoral grant (SFRH/BPD/ 107718/2015) supported by “Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia” (FCT). This work has been supported by the Research project financed by FCT PTDC/AAG-REC/2488/2012 (NEUTOXMER - Neurotoxicity of mercury in fish and association with morphofunctional brain alterations and behavior shifts), as well as by the Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM).

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    Authors: Magali Zbinden; Alison Gallet; Kamil M. Szafranski; Julia Machon; +4 Authors

    International audience; In crustaceans, as in other animals, perception of environmental cues is of key importance for a wide range of interactions with the environment and congeners. Chemoreception involves mainly the antennae and antennules, which carry sensilla that detect water-borne chemicals. The functional importance of these as exchange surfaces in the shrimp's sensory perception requires them to remain free of any microorganism and deposit that could impair the fixation of odorant molecules on sensory neurons. We report here the occurrence of an unexpected dense bacterial colonization on surface of the antennae and antennules of four hydrothermal vent shrimp species. Microscopic observation, qPCR and 16S rRNA barcoding reveal the abundance, diversity and taxonomic composition of these bacterial communities, that are compared with those found on a related coastal shrimp. Bacterial abundances vary among species. Bacteria are almost absent in coastal shrimp, meanwhile they fully cover the antennal flagella in some hydrothermal vent species. Epsilon-and Gammaproteobacteria dominate the hydrothermal shrimp-associated communities, whereas Alphaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes are dominant in the coastal ones. Bacteria associated with vent shrimp species are most similar to known chemoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizers. Potential roles of these bacteria on the hydrothermal shrimp antennae and antennules and on sensory functions are discussed.

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    Frontiers in Marine Science
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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      Frontiers in Marine Science
      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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      Frontiers in Marine Science
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    Authors: Churcher, Allison; Pujolar, Jose M.; Milan, Massimo; Hubbard, Peter; +8 Authors

    Background The vertebrate brain plays a critical role in the regulation of sexual maturation and reproduction by integrating environmental information with developmental and endocrine status. The European eel Anguilla anguilla is an important species in which to better understand the neuroendocrine factors that control reproduction because it is an endangered species, has a complex life cycle that includes two extreme long distance migrations with both freshwater and seawater stages and because it occupies a key position within the teleost phylogeny. At present, mature eels have never been caught in the wild and little is known about most aspects of reproduction in A. anguilla. The goal of this study was to identify genes that may be involved in sexual maturation in experimentally matured eels. For this, we used microarrays to compare the gene expression profiles of sexually mature to immature males. Results Using a false discovery rate of 0.05, a total of 1,497 differentially expressed genes were identified. Of this set, 991 were expressed at higher levels in brains (forebrain and midbrain) of mature males while 506 were expressed at lower levels relative to brains of immature males. The set of up-regulated genes includes genes involved in neuroendocrine processes, cell-cell signaling, neurogenesis and development. Interestingly, while genes involved in immune system function were down-regulated in the brains of mature males, changes in the expression levels of several receptors and channels were observed suggesting that some rewiring is occurring in the brain at sexual maturity. Conclusions This study shows that the brains of eels undergo major changes at the molecular level at sexual maturity that may include re-organization at the cellular level. Here, we have defined a set of genes that help to understand the molecular mechanisms controlling reproduction in eels. Some of these genes have previously described functions while many others have roles that have yet to be characterized in a reproductive context. Since most of the genes examined here have orthologs in other vertebrates, the results of this study will contribute to the body of knowledge concerning reproduction in vertebrates as well as to an improved understanding of eel biology. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1471-2164-15-799) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2014
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    BMC Genomics
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    Authors: Ridgwell, A.; Hargreaves, J. C.; Edwards, N. R.; Annan, J. D.; +4 Authors

    International audience; We have extended the 3-D ocean based "Grid ENabled Integrated Earth system model" (GENIE-1) to help understand the role of ocean biogeochemistry and marine sediments in the long-term (~100 to 100 000 year) regulation of atmospheric CO2, and the importance of feedbacks between CO2 and climate. Here we describe the ocean carbon cycle, which in its first incarnation is based around a simple single nutrient (phosphate) control on biological productivity. The addition of calcium carbonate preservation in deep-sea sediments and its role in regulating atmospheric CO2 is presented elsewhere (Ridgwell and Hargreaves, 2007). We have calibrated the model parameters controlling ocean carbon cycling in GENIE-1 by assimilating 3-D observational datasets of phosphate and alkalinity using an ensemble Kalman filter method. The calibrated (mean) model predicts a global export production of particulate organic carbon (POC) of 8.9 PgC yr?1, and reproduces the main features of dissolved oxygen distributions in the ocean. For estimating biogenic calcium carbonate (CaCO3) production, we have devised a parameterization in which the CaCO3:POC export ratio is related directly to ambient saturation state. Calibrated global CaCO3 export production (1.2 PgC yr-1) is close to recent marine carbonate budget estimates. The GENIE-1 Earth system model is capable of simulating a wide variety of dissolved and isotopic species of relevance to the study of modern global biogeochemical cycles as well as past global environmental changes recorded in paleoceanographic proxies. Importantly, even with 12 active biogeochemical tracers in the ocean and including the calculation of feedbacks between atmospheric CO2 and climate, we achieve better than 1000 years per (2.4 GHz) CPU hour on a desktop PC. The GENIE-1 model thus provides a viable alternative to box and zonally-averaged models for studying global biogeochemical cycling over all but the very longest (>1 000 000 year) time-scales.

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    CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggregator)
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/bgd-3-...
    Preprint . 2006
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    Biogeosciences
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    Biogeosciences
    Article . 2007
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    Biogeosciences (BG)
    Other literature type . 2018
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    Biogeosciences
    Article . 2007 . Peer-reviewed
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/bgd-3-...
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      Biogeosciences
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      Biogeosciences
      Article . 2007
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      Biogeosciences
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    Authors: N. Archer; N. Archer; T. Hess; J. Quinton;

    The inland, mountainous marginal areas (land abandoned by farming and colonised by shrubs) of the Iberian Peninsular, Spain, generally receive a higher rainfall than the coastal areas (Lazaro and Rey, 1991) and may store water after cold season (autumn and winter) rainfall. By measuring runoff, change of soil water content and rainfall, this study tests the hypothesis that two shrubs on two sites on abandoned land do not use all the water available after cold season rainfall. One site was on an upper alluvial slope dominated by Anthyllis cytisoides and the other on a lower alluvial slope dominated by Retama sphaerocarpa. The root systems of A. cytisoides and R. sphaerocarpa penetrate to 3 m and 20 m, respectively. A. cytisoides senesces during the dry season and R. sphaerocarpa is evergreen. The water balance is dominated by high actual evapotranspiration (ET), which is limited by rainfall. Reference evapotranspiration was high; runoff was low and soil water storage occurred above 2 m depth. ET and water storage were highest under A. cytisoides shrubs. Runoff was lower on the ‘Anthyllis’ site. The spatial variability of soil water is high and the problems of its measurement are discussed. The quantity of rainfall infiltrated was greater under shrubs than grass-areas, suggesting that shrub roots facilitated preferential flow. The growing season of A. cytisoides began when water was available in the upper soil layers and senescence occurred when the upper soil layers dried to less than 4% water content. A. cytisoides, therefore, relies on water from these layers. The main growth of R. sphaerocarpa occurred when the upper soil layers were relatively dry, so that R. sphaerocarpa must extract water from deeper layers. Results suggest that A. cytisoides accumulates rainfall and runoff and directs water to lower layers for later use, while R. sphaerocarpa extracts water from deeper soil layers. By mid-summer both shrubs had extracted all the available water accumulated in the upper soil layers from cold season rainfall. Keywords: water balance, neutron probe, patchy vegetation, mosaic vegetation, Spain, semi arid, Anthyllis cytisoides, Retama sphaerocarpa

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    Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS)
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    Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS)
    Article . 2002 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC SA
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    Article . 2002
    Data sources: Hal-Diderot
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Hydrology and Earth ...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Other literature type . 2002
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      Other literature type . 2002
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      Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS)
      Article
      License: CC BY ND SA
      Data sources: UnpayWall
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      Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS)
      Article . 2002 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY NC SA
      Data sources: Crossref
      Hal-Diderot
      Article . 2002
      Data sources: Hal-Diderot
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    Authors: Ricardo Pereira; Eduarda Leite; Joana Raimundo; Sofia Guilherme; +7 Authors

    This study examined the susceptibility of fish (Liza aurata) eyes and brain to metals(loids) contamination under realistic exposure conditions. A multidimensional approach was applied to fish caught at a chronically contaminated site (BAR) and at a reference site of the Tagus estuary (Portugal), which comprised metals(loids) accumulation in eyes and brain together with a battery of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, as well as brain morphometry (i.e. cell density). Trace element levels in the blood, gills, liver and kidney allowed interpretations on their preferential pathway(s) to the eyes and brain. Metals(loids) accumulation pointed out the elevated vulnerability of the fish eyes at BAR, probably related with the direct waterborne uptake. Pb uptake in L. aurata eyes could be associated both with water and indirect pathways. At the most contaminated site, metals(loids) were on the basis of pro-oxidant conditions in the ocular tissues, while no indication of toxicity was recorded in the brain. Overall, the results disclosed a differential bioaccumulation among fish organs, suggesting that, in the L. aurata population studied, metal organotropism underlie the lower susceptibility of the brain comparing to the eyes. However, mechanisms remain little understood and further work is needed. CESAM (UID/AMB/50017 - POCI-01-0145-FEDER-007638), to FCT/MCTES through national funds (PIDDAC), and the co-funding by the FEDER, within the PT2020 Partnership Agreement and Compete 2020, and due for the Research Project NEUTOXMER project (FCT-PTDC/AAGREC/2488/2012) (which provided a research grant to Sónia Puga) info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion

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    Marine Environmental Research
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      Marine Environmental Research
      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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