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  • Neuroinformatics
  • National Institutes of Health
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Nicolas Puillandre; Philippe Bouchet; Thomas F. Duda; S. Kauferstein; +4 Authors

    We present a large-scale molecular phylogeny that includes 320 of the 761 recognized valid species of the cone snails (Conus), one of the most diverse groups of marine molluscs, based on three mitochondrial genes (COI, 16S rDNA and 12S rDNA). This is the first phylogeny of the taxon to employ concatenated sequences of several genes, and it includes more than twice as many species as the last published molecular phylogeny of the entire group nearly a decade ago. Most of the numerous molecular phylogenies published during the last 15 years are limited to rather small fractions of its species diversity. Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses are mostly congruent and confirm the presence of three previously reported highly divergent lineages among cone snails, and one identified here using molecular data. About 85% of the species cluster in the single Large Major Cade; the others are divided between the Small Major Cade (similar to 12%), the Conus califomicus lineage (one species), and a newly defined clade (similar to 3%). We also define several subclades within the Large and Small major clades, but most of their relationships remain poorly supported. To illustrate the usefulness of molecular phylogenies in addressing specific evolutionary questions, we analyse the evolution of the diet, the biogeography and the toxins of cone snails. All cone snails whose feeding biology is known inject venom into large prey animals and swallow them whole. Predation on polychaete worms is inferred as the ancestral state, and diet shifts to molluscs and fishes occurred rarely. The ancestor of cone snails probably originated from the Indo-Pacific; rather few colonisations of other biogeographic provinces have probably occurred. A new classification of the Conidae, based on the molecular phylogeny, is published in an accompanying paper.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Hyper Article en Lig...arrow_drop_down
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    Hyper Article en Ligne; Hal-Diderot
    Other literature type . Article . 2014
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2014
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Hyper Article en Lig...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Hyper Article en Ligne; Hal-Diderot
      Other literature type . Article . 2014
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2014
      Data sources: PubMed Central
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
      Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier TDM
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Thomas Desvignes; Peter Batzel; Jason Sydes; B. Frank Eames; +1 Authors

    AbstractMicroRNAs (miRNAs) can have tissue-specific expression and functions; they can originate from dedicated miRNA genes, from non-canonical miRNA genes, or from mirror-miRNA genes and can also experience post-transcriptional variations. It remains unclear, however, which mechanisms of miRNA production or modification are tissue-specific and the extent of their evolutionary conservation. To address these issues, we developed the software Prost! (PRocessing Of Short Transcripts), which, among other features, allows accurate quantification of mature miRNAs, takes into account post-transcriptional processing, such as nucleotide editing, and helps identify mirror-miRNAs. Here, we applied Prost! to annotate and analyze miRNAs in three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), a model fish for evolutionary biology reported to have a miRNome larger than most teleost fish. Zebrafish (Danio rerio), a distantly related teleost with a well-known miRNome, served as comparator. Despite reports suggesting that stickleback had a large miRNome, results showed that stickleback has 277 evolutionary-conserved mir genes and 366 unique mature miRNAs (excluding mir430 gene replicates and the vaultRNA-derived mir733), similar to zebrafish. In addition, small RNA sequencing data from brain, heart, testis, and ovary in both stickleback and zebrafish identified suites of mature miRNAs that display organ-specific enrichment, which is, for many miRNAs, evolutionarily-conserved. These data also supported the hypothesis that evolutionarily-conserved, organ-specific mechanisms regulate miRNA post-transcriptional variations. In both stickleback and zebrafish, miR2188-5p was edited frequently with similar nucleotide editing patterns in the seed sequence in various tissues, and the editing rate was organ-specific with higher editing in the brain. In summary, Prost! is a critical new tool to identify and understand small RNAs and can help clarify a species’ miRNA biology, as shown here for an important fish model for the evolution of developmental mechanisms, and can provide insight into organ-specific expression and evolutionary-conserved miRNA post-transcriptional mechanisms.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    bioRxiv
    Preprint . 2018
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    Scientific Reports
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Scientific Reports
    Article . Preprint . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2019
      Data sources: PubMed Central
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      bioRxiv
      Preprint . 2018
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Scientific Reports
      Article . 2019
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Scientific Reports
      Article . Preprint . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Bukhari, Syed Abbas; Saul, Michael C.; Seward, Christopher H.; Zhang, Huimin; +6 Authors

    Animals exhibit dramatic immediate behavioral plasticity in response to social interactions, and brief social interactions can shape the future social landscape. However, the molecular mechanisms contributing to behavioral plasticity are unclear. Here, we show that the genome dynamically responds to social interactions with multiple waves of transcription associated with distinct molecular functions in the brain of male threespined sticklebacks, a species famous for its behavioral repertoire and evolution. Some biological functions (e.g., hormone activity) peaked soon after a brief territorial challenge and then declined, while others (e.g., immune response) peaked hours afterwards. We identify transcription factors that are predicted to coordinate waves of transcription associated with different components of behavioral plasticity. Next, using H3K27Ac as a marker of chromatin accessibility, we show that a brief territorial intrusion was sufficient to cause rapid and dramatic changes in the epigenome. Finally, we integrate the time course brain gene expression data with a transcriptional regulatory network, and link gene expression to changes in chromatin accessibility. This study reveals rapid and dramatic epigenomic plasticity in response to a brief, highly consequential social interaction. Author summary Social interactions provoke changes in the brain and behavior but their underlying molecular mechanisms remain obscure. Male sticklebacks are small fish whose fitness depends on their ability to defend a territory. Here, by measuring the time course of gene expression in response to a territorial challenge in two brain regions, we show that a single brief territorial intrusion provoked waves of gene expression that persisted for hours afterwards, with waves of transcription associated with distinct biological processes. Moreover, a single territorial challenge caused dramatic changes to the epigenome. Changes in chromatin accessibility corresponded to changes in gene expression, and to the activity of transcription factors operating within gene regulatory networks. This study reveals rapid and dramatic epigenomic plasticity in response to a brief, highly consequential social interaction. These results suggest that meaningful social interactions (even brief ones) can provoke waves of transcription and changes to the epigenome which lead to changes in neural functioning, and those changes are a mechanism by which animals update their assessment of their social world.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2017
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    PLoS Genetics
    Article . 2017
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    PLoS Genetics
    Article
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: UnpayWall
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    PLoS Genetics
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2017
      Data sources: PubMed Central
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      PLoS Genetics
      Article . 2017
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      PLoS Genetics
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      PLoS Genetics
      Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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    Authors: Katya L. Mack; James B. Jaggard; Jenna L. Persons; Emma Y. Roback; +10 Authors

    Circadian rhythms are nearly ubiquitous throughout nature, suggesting they are critical for survival in diverse environments. Organisms inhabiting largely arrhythmic environments, such as caves, offer a unique opportunity to study the evolution of circadian rhythms in response to changing ecological pressures. Populations of the Mexican tetra, Astyanax mexicanus, have repeatedly invaded caves from surface rivers, where individuals must contend with perpetual darkness, reduced food availability, and limited fluctuations in daily environmental cues. To investigate the molecular basis for evolved changes in circadian rhythms, we investigated rhythmic transcription across multiple independently-evolved cavefish populations. Our findings reveal that evolution in a cave environment has led to the repeated disruption of the endogenous biological clock, and its entrainment by light. The circadian transcriptome shows widespread reductions and losses of rhythmic transcription and changes to the timing of the activation/repression of core-transcriptional clock. In addition to dysregulation of the core clock, we find that rhythmic transcription of the melatonin regulator aanat2 and melatonin rhythms are disrupted in cavefish under darkness. Mutants of aanat2 and core clock gene rorca disrupt diurnal regulation of sleep in A. mexicanus, phenocopying circadian modulation of sleep and activity phenotypes of cave populations. Together, these findings reveal multiple independent mechanisms for loss of circadian rhythms in cavefish populations and provide a platform for studying how evolved changes in the biological clock can contribute to variation in sleep and circadian behavior. Author summary Biological rhythms are molecular, physiological, and behavioral changes that follow a daily cycle and allow for animals to coordinate critical biological processes with their external environment. While these clocks are ubiquitous from unicellular life through humans, little is known about how they evolve in the absence of daily cycling within an environment. In this study, we sought to understand the evolutionary response of the biological clock when organisms become established in an environment that lacks daily fluctuations in light, temperature, and other environmental factors. Astyanax mexicanus have repeatedly moved from surface rivers into caves where they live in complete darkness. We find that multiple populations of cavefish have disrupted biological clocks compared to their surface relatives, but that these clocks are disrupted via different molecular mechanisms in different populations. Our results suggest that changes to the biological clock in these populations may also affect aspects of cavefish behavior, like the sleep-wake cycle. This study demonstrates that moving into an environment without daily cycles has led to predictable disruptions to the biological clock among cavefish populations, but that the clock itself can be broken multiple ways.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    bioRxiv
    Preprint . 2020
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    PLoS Genetics
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    PLoS Genetics
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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    https://www.biorxiv.org/conten...
    Preprint
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    PLoS Genetics
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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      PLoS Genetics
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      PLoS Genetics
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    Authors: Syed Abbas Bukhari; Michael C. Saul; Noelle James; Miles K. Bensky; +3 Authors

    Motherhood is characterized by dramatic changes in brain and behavior, but less is known about fatherhood. Here we report that male sticklebacks—a small fish in which fathers provide care—experience dramatic changes in neurogenomic state as they become fathers. Some genes are unique to different stages of paternal care, some genes are shared across stages, and some genes are added to the previously acquired neurogenomic state. Comparative genomic analysis suggests that some of these neurogenomic dynamics resemble changes associated with pregnancy and reproduction in mammalian mothers. Moreover, gene regulatory analysis identifies transcription factors that are regulated in opposite directions in response to a territorial challenge versus during paternal care. Altogether these results show that some of the molecular mechanisms of parental care might be deeply conserved and might not be sex-specific, and suggest that tradeoffs between opposing social behaviors are managed at the gene regulatory level. Compared to motherhood, the molecular changes associated with fatherhood are less understood. Here, the authors investigate gene expression changes associated with paternal care in male stickleback fish, and compare them with patterns in territorial aggression.

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    Europe PubMed Central
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    Nature Communications
    Article . 2019
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    Nature Communications
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    Authors: Elizabeth A, Corey; Yuriy, Bobkov; Kirill, Ukhanov; Barry W, Ache;

    The nature of the olfactory receptor in crustaceans, a major group of arthropods, has remained elusive. We report that spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, express ionotropic receptors (IRs), the insect chemosensory variants of ionotropic glutamate receptors. Unlike insects IRs, which are expressed in a specific subset of olfactory cells, two lobster IR subunits are expressed in most, if not all, lobster olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), as confirmed by antibody labeling and in situ hybridization. Ligand-specific ORN responses visualized by calcium imaging are consistent with a restricted expression pattern found for other potential subunits, suggesting that cell-specific expression of uncommon IR subunits determines the ligand sensitivity of individual cells. IRs are the only type of olfactory receptor that we have detected in spiny lobster olfactory tissue, suggesting that they likely mediate olfactory signaling. Given long-standing evidence for G protein-mediated signaling in activation of lobster ORNs, this finding raises the interesting specter that IRs act in concert with second messenger-mediated signaling.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2013
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    PLoS ONE
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    PLoS ONE
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      Europe PubMed Central
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    Authors: Jessica M. Kendall-Bar; Alexei L. Vyssotski; Lev M. Mukhametov; Jerome M. Siegel; +1 Authors

    Unihemispheric slow wave sleep (USWS) is a unique form of sleep in which one brain hemisphere maintains low voltage electrical activity indicative of waking while the opposite exhibits slow wave electrical activity indicative of sleep. USWS is present in several marine mammals and in some species of birds. One proposed biological function of USWS is to enable the animal to monitor the environment to detect predators or conspecifics. While asymmetrical eye state was often observed during behavioral sleep in birds and marine mammals, electrophysiological (electroencephalogram, EEG) correlates between the asymmetry of eye state and EEG of two cortical hemispheres have not been reliably established. This study examined the association between eye state and EEG activity during aquatic sleep in two subadult northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus), taking advantage of the simultaneous visibility of both eyes when the seals were in the prone position. We found that during USWS the eye contralateral to the sleeping hemisphere was closed on average 99.4±0.1% of the recording time. The eye contralateral to the waking hemisphere opened briefly for on average 1.9±0.1 sec with a rate of 8.2±1.0 per min. This eye was open on average 24.8±2.5% of the USWS time and it was closed no longer than 3 sec, on average 39.4±5.6% of the time. These data indicate that fur seals sleep in seawater by having intermittent visual monitoring. Our findings document the extent of visual monitoring of both eyes during USWS and support the idea that USWS allows intermittent visual vigilance. Thus, USWS serves two functions in the fur seal, facilitating movement and visual vigilance, which may also be the case in cetaceans. PLoS ONE, 14 (5) ISSN:1932-6203

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2019
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    ETH Zürich Research Collection
    Article . 2019
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    Authors: Lisa N. Bottalico; Julia Korlyakova; Aalim M. Weljie; Hamid R Habibi;

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals mimic or disrupt action of the natural hormones, adversely impacting hormonal function as well as cardiovascular, reproductive, and metabolic health. Goldfish are seasonal breeders with an annual reproductive cycle regulated by neuroendocrine signaling which involves allocation of metabolic energy to sustain growth and reproduction. We hypothesize that seasonal changes in physiology alter overall vulnerability of goldfish to metabolic perturbation induced by environmental contaminants. In this study, we assess effects of endogenous hormones, individual contaminants and their mixture on metabolism of goldfish at different reproductive stages. Exposure effects were assessed using 1H-NMR metabolomics profiling of male goldfish midbrain, gonad and liver harvested during early recrudescence (October), mid-recrudescence (February) and late recrudescence (June). Compounds assessed include bisphenol A, nonylphenol, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, fucosterol and a tertiary mixture (DEHP + NP + FS). Metabolome-level responses induced by contaminant exposure across tissues and seasons were benchmarked against responses induced by 17β-estradiol, testosterone and thyroid hormone (T3). We observe a clear seasonal dependence to metabolome-level alteration induced by hormone or contaminant exposures, with February (mid-recrudescence) the stage at which male goldfish are most vulnerable to metabolic perturbation. Responses induced by contaminant exposures differed from those induced by the natural hormones in a season-specific manner. Exposure to the tertiary mixture induced a functional gain at the level of biochemical pathways modeling over responses induced by individual components in select tissues and seasons. We demonstrate the importance of seasonally driven changes in physiology altering overall vulnerability of goldfish to metabolic perturbation induced by environmental contaminants, the relevance of which likely extends to other seasonally-breeding species.

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    Frontiers in Toxicology
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    Frontiers in Toxicology
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      Frontiers in Toxicology
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      Frontiers in Toxicology
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      Frontiers in Toxicology
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Bilandžija, Helena; Ma, Li; Parkhurst, Amy; Jeffery, William R.;

    Albinism, the loss of melanin pigmentation, has evolved in a diverse variety of cave animals but the responsible evolutionary mechanisms are unknown. In Astyanax mexicanus, which has a pigmented surface dwelling form (surface fish) and several albino cave-dwelling forms (cavefish), albinism is caused by loss of function mutations in the oca2 gene, which operates during the first step of the melanin synthesis pathway. In addition to albinism, cavefish have evolved differences in behavior, including feeding and sleep, which are under the control of the catecholamine system. The catecholamine and melanin synthesis pathways diverge after beginning with the same substrate, L-tyrosine. Here we describe a novel relationship between the catecholamine and melanin synthesis pathways in Astyanax. Our results show significant increases in L- tyrosine, dopamine, and norepinephrine in pre- feeding larvae and adult brains of Pachón cavefish relative to surface fish. In addition, norepinephrine is elevated in cavefish adult kidneys, which contain the teleost homologs of catecholamine synthesizing adrenal cells. We further show that the oca2 gene is expressed during surface fish development but is downregulated in cavefish embryos. A key finding was that knockdown of oca2 expression in surface fish embryos delays the development of pigmented melanophores and simultaneously increases L-tyrosine and dopamine. We conclude that a potential evolutionary benefit of albinism in Astyanax cavefish may be to provide surplus L-tyrosine as a precursor of the elevated catecholamine synthesis pathway, which could be important for adaptation to the challenging cave environment.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Full-text Institutio...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2013
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    PLoS ONE
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    PLoS ONE; Croatian Scientific Bibliography - CROSBI
    Other literature type . Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
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    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2013
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      Europe PubMed Central
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      PLoS ONE; Croatian Scientific Bibliography - CROSBI
      Other literature type . Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
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      PLoS ONE
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Andrew D Strand; Aaron K Aragaki; Zachary C Baquet; Angela Hodges; +6 Authors

    Many neurodegenerative diseases have a hallmark regional and cellular pathology. Gene expression analysis of healthy tissues may provide clues to the differences that distinguish resistant and sensitive tissues and cell types. Comparative analysis of gene expression in healthy mouse and human brain provides a framework to explore the ability of mice to model diseases of the human brain. It may also aid in understanding brain evolution and the basis for higher order cognitive abilities. Here we compare gene expression profiles of human motor cortex, caudate nucleus, and cerebellum to one another and identify genes that are more highly expressed in one region relative to another. We separately perform identical analysis on corresponding brain regions from mice. Within each species, we find that the different brain regions have distinctly different expression profiles. Contrasting between the two species shows that regionally enriched genes in one species are generally regionally enriched genes in the other species. Thus, even when considering thousands of genes, the expression ratios in two regions from one species are significantly correlated with expression ratios in the other species. Finally, genes whose expression is higher in one area of the brain relative to the other areas, in other words genes with patterned expression, tend to have greater conservation of nucleotide sequence than more widely expressed genes. Together these observations suggest that region-specific genes have been conserved in the mammalian brain at both the sequence and gene expression levels. Given the general similarity between patterns of gene expression in healthy human and mouse brains, we believe it is reasonable to expect a high degree of concordance between microarray phenotypes of human neurodegenerative diseases and their mouse models. Finally, these data on very divergent species provide context for studies in more closely related species that address questions such as the origins of cognitive differences. Author Summary Animal models of human neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders, particularly mouse models, have assumed a central role in biomedical research aimed at discovering the causes of disease and generating novel, mechanism-based treatments. But to what degree can a mouse brain serve as a model for a human brain? Here we begin to address this question by looking at patterns of gene expression across three corresponding regions of mouse and human brains. We find that within each species, the different regions (motor cortex, striatum, and cerebellum) have very distinct gene expression profiles. It is likely that these differences reflect distinctions in regional neurochemistry and function. We then show that genes that are enriched in one of the three areas relative to the other two in mice have the same pattern of expression in humans. Looking at the relationship between conservation of expression and amino acid sequence, we find that genes showing patterned expression generally have been more conserved than more uniformly expressed genes. This suggests that in the brain, constraints on the evolution of DNA sequence and gene expression can also be particularly high for genes with regional or tissue-specific expression.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2007
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    PLoS Genetics
    Article . 2007 . Peer-reviewed
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    PLoS Genetics
    Article . 2007
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    PLoS Genetics
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2007
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      PLoS Genetics
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      PLoS Genetics
      Article . 2007
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      PLoS Genetics
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Nicolas Puillandre; Philippe Bouchet; Thomas F. Duda; S. Kauferstein; +4 Authors

    We present a large-scale molecular phylogeny that includes 320 of the 761 recognized valid species of the cone snails (Conus), one of the most diverse groups of marine molluscs, based on three mitochondrial genes (COI, 16S rDNA and 12S rDNA). This is the first phylogeny of the taxon to employ concatenated sequences of several genes, and it includes more than twice as many species as the last published molecular phylogeny of the entire group nearly a decade ago. Most of the numerous molecular phylogenies published during the last 15 years are limited to rather small fractions of its species diversity. Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses are mostly congruent and confirm the presence of three previously reported highly divergent lineages among cone snails, and one identified here using molecular data. About 85% of the species cluster in the single Large Major Cade; the others are divided between the Small Major Cade (similar to 12%), the Conus califomicus lineage (one species), and a newly defined clade (similar to 3%). We also define several subclades within the Large and Small major clades, but most of their relationships remain poorly supported. To illustrate the usefulness of molecular phylogenies in addressing specific evolutionary questions, we analyse the evolution of the diet, the biogeography and the toxins of cone snails. All cone snails whose feeding biology is known inject venom into large prey animals and swallow them whole. Predation on polychaete worms is inferred as the ancestral state, and diet shifts to molluscs and fishes occurred rarely. The ancestor of cone snails probably originated from the Indo-Pacific; rather few colonisations of other biogeographic provinces have probably occurred. A new classification of the Conidae, based on the molecular phylogeny, is published in an accompanying paper.

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    Other literature type . Article . 2014
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2014
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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