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  • Neuroinformatics
  • Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada
  • 14. Life underwater

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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Bureau Du Colombier, Sarah; Jacobs, Louis; Gesset, Charline; Elie, Pierre; +1 Authors

    [Departement_IRSTEA]Eaux [TR1_IRSTEA]QUASARE; International audience; In the context of the severe decrease in temperate eel abundance, understanding and control of eel maturation has strong interest for scientific and commercial purposes. Possible use of ultrasonography for improvement of sex determination and maturation monitoring in silver eel was investigated. Gonads of 96 Anguilla anguilla silver eels were observed using portable equipment associated to a 6-15MHz probe, and sex determination was tried before artificial induction of maturation. To estimate gonad mass and monitor individual gonadosomatic index (GSI) in females, cross-sectional images were captured at different times of maturation and gonad length was measured at scanning. Two methods were tried for ovary mass estimation using ultrasonography: one based on a linear model and another on calculating ovary volume from a representation of gonad shape. Ultrasonography resulted in 100% success in sex determination. Ovary mass estimated by ultrasonography was strongly correlated to true ovary mass (R2=0.97). The use of a linear model for gonad mass and then GSI estimation seemed more appropriate than the use of a representation of gonad shape. Evolution of GSI estimates during maturation supports possible detection of early inter-individual differences in maturation using ultrasonography in female silver eels. This non-invasive tool can then obviously be exploited to improve sex determination in silver eels caught in the wild and to monitor maturation at the individual level. Ultrasonography thus has great potential for use in eel both for conservation and aquaculture. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the use of ultrasonography on eels or any anguillid species.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Fisheries Researcharrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Fisheries Research
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Fisheries Researcharrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Fisheries Research
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Junho, Eom; Chris M, Wood;

    Abstract Ammonia is both a respiratory gas and a toxicant in teleost fish. Hyperventilation is a well-known response to elevations of both external and internal ammonia levels. Branchial neuroepithelial cells (NECs) are thought to serve as internal sensors of plasma ammonia (peripheral chemoreceptors), but little is known about other possible ammonia-sensors. Here, we investigated whether trout possess external sensors and/or internal central chemoreceptors for ammonia. For external sensors, we analyzed the time course of ventilatory changes at the start of exposure to high environmental ammonia (HEA, 1 mM). Hyperventilation developed gradually over 20 min, suggesting that it was a response to internal ammonia elevation. We also directly perfused ammonia solutions (0.01–1 mM) to the external surfaces of the first gill arches. Immediate hypoventilation occurred. For central chemoreceptors, we injected ammonia solutions (0.5–1.0 mM) directly onto the surface of the hindbrain of anesthetized trout. Immediate hyperventilation occurred. This is the first evidence of central chemoreception in teleost fish. We conclude that trout possess both external ammonia sensors, and dual internal ammonia sensors (perhaps for redundancy), but their roles differ. External sensors cause short term hypoventilation, which would help limit toxic waterborne ammonia uptake. When fish cannot avoid HEA, the diffusion of waterborne ammonia into the blood will stimulate both peripheral (NECs) and central (brain) chemoreceptors, resulting in hyperventilation. This hyperventilation will be beneficial in increasing ammonia excretion via the Rh metabolon system in the gills not only after HEA exposure, but also after endogenous ammonia loading from feeding or exercise.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Comparative Biochemi...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A Molecular & Integrative Physiology
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Comparative Biochemi...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A Molecular & Integrative Physiology
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Raimbault, Patrick; Garcia, N.; Cerutti, F.;

    During the BIOSOPE cruise the RV Atalante was dedicated to study the biogeochemical properties in the South Pacific between the Marquesas Islands (141° W–8° S) and the Chilean upwelling (73° W–34° S). Over the 8000 km covered by the cruise, several different trophic situations were encountered, in particular strong oligotrophic conditions in the South Pacific Gyre (SPG, between 123° W and 101° W). In this isolated region, nitrate was undetectable between the surface and 160–180 m and only trace quantities (<20 nmoles l−1) of regenerated nitrogen (nitrite and ammonium) were detected, even in the subsurface maximum. Integrated nitrate over the photic layer, which reached 165 m, was close to zero. Despite this severe nitrogen-depletion, phosphate was always present in significant concentrations (≈0.1 μmoles l−1), while silicic acid was maintained at low but classical oceanic levels (≈1 μmoles l−1). In contrast, the Marquesas region (MAR) to the west and Chilean upwelling (UPW) to the east were characterized by high nutrient concentrations, one hundred to one thousand fold higher than in the SPG. The distribution of surface chlorophyll reflected the nitrate gradient, the lowest concentrations (0.023 nmoles l−1) being measured at the centre of the SPG, where integrated value throughout the photic layer was very low (≈ 10 mg m−2). However, due to the relatively high concentrations of chlorophyll-a encountered in the DCM (0.2 μg l−1), chlorophyll-a concentrations throughout the photic layer were less variable than nitrate concentrations (by a factor 2 to 5). In contrast to chlorophyll-a, integrated particulate organic matter (POM) remained more or less constant along the study area (500 mmoles m−2, 60 mmoles m−2 and 3.5 mmoles m−2 for particulate organic carbon, particulate organic nitrogen and particulate organic phosphorus, respectively), with the exception of the upwelling, where values were two fold higher. The residence time of particulate carbon in the surface water was only 4–5 days in the upwelling, but up to 30 days in the SPG, where light isotopic δ15N signal noted in the suspended POM suggests that N2-fixation provides a dominant supply of nitrogen to phytoplankton. The most striking feature was the large accumulation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the SPG compared to the surrounding waters, in particular dissolved organic carbon (DOC) where concentrations were at levels rarely measured in oceanic waters (>100 μmoles l−1). Due to this large pool of DOM in the SPG photic layer, integrated values followed a converse geographical pattern to that of inorganic nutrients with a large accumulation in the centre of the SPG. Whereas suspended particulate matter in the mixed layer had a C/N ratio largely conforming to the Redfield stochiometry (C/N≈6.6), marked deviations were observed in this excess DOM (C/N≈16 to 23). The marked geographical trend suggests that a net in situ source exists, mainly due to biological processes. Thus, in spite of strong nitrate-depletion leading to low chlorophyll biomass, the closed ecosystem of the SPG can accumulate large amounts of C-rich dissolved organic matter. The implications of this finding are examined, the conclusion being that, due to weak lateral advection, the biologically produced dissolved organic carbon can be accumulated and stored in the photic layer for very long periods. In spite of the lack of seasonal vertical mixing, a significant part of new production (up to 34%), which was mainly supported by dinitrogen fixation, can be exported to deep waters by turbulent diffusion in terms of DOC. The diffusive rate estimated in the SPG (134 μmolesC m−2 d−1), was quite equivalent to the particles flux measured by sediments traps.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Hyper Article en Lig...arrow_drop_down
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    Other literature type . 2007
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    Biogeosciences
    Article . 2008 . Peer-reviewed
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    Biogeosciences (BG)
    Other literature type . 2018
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    Biogeosciences
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    Biogeosciences
    Article . 2008
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/bgd-4-...
    Preprint . 2007
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    Article . 2007
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Hyper Article en Lig...arrow_drop_down
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      Biogeosciences
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      Biogeosciences (BG)
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      Biogeosciences
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/bgd-4-...
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      Article . 2007
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Elizabeth A. Nyboer; Lauren J. Chapman;

    Fishes faced with novel thermal conditions often modify physiological functioning to compensate for elevated temperatures. This physiological plasticity (thermal acclimation) has been shown to improve metabolic performance and extend thermal limits in many species. Adjustments in cardiorespiratory function are often invoked as mechanisms underlying thermal plasticity because limitations in oxygen supply have been predicted to define thermal optima in fishes, however few studies have explicitly linked cardiorespiratory plasticity to metabolic compensation. Here we quantify thermal acclimation capacity in the commercially harvested Nile perch (Lates niloticus) of East Africa, and investigate mechanisms underlying observed changes. We reared juvenile Nile perch for 3 months under two temperature regimes, and then measured a series of metabolic traits (e.g., aerobic scope, AS) and critical thermal maximum (CTmax) upon acute exposure to a range of experimental temperatures. We also measured morphological traits of heart ventricles, gills, and brains to identify potential mechanisms for compensation. We found that long-term (3-months) exposure to elevated temperature induced compensation in upper thermal tolerance (CTmax) and metabolic performance (SMR, MMR and AS), and induced cardiac remodeling in Nile perch. Furthermore, variation in heart morphology influenced variations in metabolic function and thermal tolerance. These results indicate that plastic changes enacted over longer exposures lead to differences in metabolic flexibility when acutely exposed to temperature variation. Furthermore, we established functional links between cardiac plasticity, metabolic performance, and thermal tolerance, providing evidence that plasticity in cardiac capacity may be one mechanism for coping with climate change.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Experimen...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Stephanie D, Graves; Karen A, Kidd; Katharina L, Batchelar; Andrew M, Cowie; +2 Authors

    Abstract Methylmercury (MeHg) exposure and adverse health effects in fishes have been documented, but the molecular mechanisms involved in toxicity have not been fully characterized. The objectives of the current study were to (1) determine whether total Hg (THg) in the muscle was predictive of MeHg concentrations in the brain of wild female yellow perch (Perca flavescens) collected from four lakes in Kejimkujik National Park, a known biological mercury (Hg) hotspot in Nova Scotia, Canada and (2) to determine whether transcripts involved in the oxidative stress response were altered in abundance in fish collected across five lakes representing a MeHg gradient. In female yellow perch, MeHg in whole brain (0.38 to 2.00 μg/g wet weight) was positively associated with THg in muscle (0.18 to 2.13 μg/g wet weight) (R2 = 0.61, p

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Comparative Biochemi...arrow_drop_down
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    Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C Toxicology & Pharmacology
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Comparative Biochemi...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C Toxicology & Pharmacology
      Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Hitz, Gregory; Pomerleau, François; Colas, Francis; Siegwart, Roland;

    Although many applications of small Autonomous Surface Vessels rely on two-dimensional state estimation, inspection tasks based on long-range sensors require more accurate attitude estimates. In the context of shoreline monitoring relying on a nodding laser scanner, we evaluate three different extended Kalman filter approaches with respect to an accurate ground truth in the range of millimeters. Our experimental setup allowed us to track the impact of sensors noise, including GPS non-Gaussian error, a phenomenon often underestimated. Extensive field experiments demonstrate that the use of a complementary filter in combination with a model-based extended Kalman filter performed best and reduced velocity errors by 73% compared to GPS. Finally, following our state estimation observations, we present a long-term shore monitoring result highlighting changes in the environment over a period of 6 months. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016. Springer Tracts in Advanced Robotics, 109 ISBN:978-3-319-23777-0 ISBN:978-3-319-23778-7 Experimental Robotics ISSN:1610-7438

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    https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-...
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    Authors: Shantz, N. C.; Leaitch, W. R.; Phinney, L.; Toom-Sauntry, D.; +1 Authors

    Abstract. Organic matter represents an important fraction of the fine particle aerosol, yet our knowledge of the roles of organics in the activation of aerosol particles into cloud droplets is poor. A cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) counter is used to examine the relative growth rates of cloud droplets for case studies from field measurements on the North Pacific Ocean and in a coniferous forest. A model of the condensational growth of water droplets, on particles dissolving according to their solubility in water, is used to simulate the initial scattering of the droplets as they grow in the CCN counter. Simulations of the growth rates of fine particles sampled in the marine boundary layer of the North Pacific Ocean shows no evidence of natural marine organic material contributing to the CCN water uptake but there is an indication of an influence from organics from diesel ship emissions on the size distribution of sulphate and the ability of these particles to act as CCN. Simulations of the observations of water uptake on biogenic organic aerosol particles sampled in a coniferous forest indicate an impact of the organic on the water uptake rates, but one that is still smaller than that of pure sulphate. The existence of organics becomes important in determining the water uptake as the organic mass increases relative to sulphate. The values of the organic component of the hygroscopicity parameter κ that describes the CCN activity were found to be negligible for the marine particles and 0.02–0.05 for the forest particles.

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    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
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    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
    Article . 2008 . Peer-reviewed
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    https://doi.org/10.5194/acpd-8...
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/acpd-8...
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    Authors: A. H. Manson; A. H. Manson; A. H. Manson; C. Meek; +10 Authors

    In an earlier paper (Manson et al., 1999a) tidal data (1990–1997) from six Medium Frequency Radars (MFR) were compared with the Global Scale Wave Model (GSWM, original 1995 version). The radars are located between the equator and high northern latitudes: Christmas Island (2° N), Hawaii (22° N), Urbana (40° N), London (43° N), Saskatoon (52° N) and Tromsø (70° N). Common harmonic analysis was applied, to ensure consistency of amplitudes and phases in the 75–95 km height range. For the diurnal tide, seasonal agreements between observations and model were excellent while for the semi-diurnal tide the seasonal transitions between clear solstitial states were less well captured by the model.</p> <p style="line-height: 20px;">Here the data set is increased by the addition of two locations in the Pacific-North American sector: Yamagawa 31° N, and Wakkanai 45° N. The GSWM model has undergone two additional developments (1998, 2000) to include an improved gravity wave (GW) stress parameterization, background winds from UARS systems and monthly tidal forcing for better characterization of seasonal change. The other model, the Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model (CMAM) which is a General Circulation Model, provides internally generated forcing (due to ozone and water vapour) for the tides.</p> <p style="line-height: 20px;">The two GSWM versions show distinct differences, with the 2000 version being either closer to, or further away from, the observations than the original 1995 version. CMAM provides results dependent upon the GW parameterization scheme inserted, but one of the schemes provides very useful tides, especially for the semi-diurnal component.<br><br><b>Key words. </b>Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; waves and tides)

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    Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO)
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    Authors: Dominique Derjean; Aimen Moussaddy; Elias Atallah; Melissa St-Pierre; +5 Authors

    It is widely recognized that animals respond to odors by generating or modulating specific motor behaviors. These reactions are important for daily activities, reproduction, and survival. In the sea lamprey, mating occurs after ovulated females are attracted to spawning sites by male sex pheromones. The ubiquity and reliability of olfactory-motor behavioral responses in vertebrates suggest tight coupling between the olfactory system and brain areas controlling movements. However, the circuitry and the underlying cellular neural mechanisms remain largely unknown. Using lamprey brain preparations, and electrophysiology, calcium imaging, and tract tracing experiments, we describe the neural substrate responsible for transforming an olfactory input into a locomotor output. We found that olfactory stimulation with naturally occurring odors and pheromones induced large excitatory responses in reticulospinal cells, the command neurons for locomotion. We have also identified the anatomy and physiology of this circuit. The olfactory input was relayed in the medial part of the olfactory bulb, in the posterior tuberculum, in the mesencephalic locomotor region, to finally reach reticulospinal cells in the hindbrain. Activation of this olfactory-motor pathway generated rhythmic ventral root discharges and swimming movements. Our study bridges the gap between behavior and cellular neural mechanisms in vertebrates, identifying a specific subsystem within the CNS, dedicated to producing motor responses to olfactory inputs. Author Summary Animal behaviors, including locomotion, can be driven by olfactory cues, such as pheromones or food sources. The neural substrate (neuroanatomical connections and physiological signals) that permits the transformation of olfactory inputs into locomotor responses is still unknown in vertebrates. In the present study, we identify such a neural substrate in the lamprey. Here, olfactory signals from the outside world are transmitted to the reticulospinal neurons in the lower brainstem, which provide the descending locomotor command to the spinal cord. We found that this circuit originates in the medial portion of the olfactory bulb and that connections are made in the posterior tuberculum, a ventral diencephalic structure. These inputs are then conveyed to the mesencephalic locomotor region, known to project extensively to brainstem reticulospinal neurons and thereby activate locomotion. Our results illuminate a specific dedicated neural substrate in the brain of lampreys that underlies olfactory-motor responses, which is activated by both food-related or pheromonal olfactory cues. It will be of interest to determine whether such a pathway is preserved in all vertebrates. Anatomical and physiological experiments in the lamprey reveal the neural circuit involved in transforming olfactory inputs into motor outputs, which was previously unknown in a vertebrate.

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    Other literature type . 2010
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    PLoS Biology
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      Europe PubMed Central
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      PLoS Biology
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      Scholarship at UWindsor
      Other literature type . 2010
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      PLoS Biology
      Article . 2010 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Pinel-Alloul, Bernadette; Guay, C.; Angeli, Nicolas; Legendre, Pierre; +4 Authors

    Spatial distribution of macrozooplankton was studied during spring in Lake of Geneva to evaluate the influence of abiotic (water temperature and stability, nutrients) and biotic (bacteria, chlorophyll a, fish biomass) factors on macrozooplankton distribution. Mapping and spatial analyses revealed that abiotic factors, as well as crustacean abundances, were structured along a gradient in the great lake basin. Chlorophyll a biomass, bacteria density, cyclopoid abundance, and fish biomass showed more patchy or inshore-offshore distribution patterns. Using canonical analyses, we determined the relative contribution of the spatial and environmental factors to the distribution of macrozooplankton species and of trophic groups based on herbivory and omnivory/carnivory. The distribution of macrozooplankton can be explained by small-scale variations and lake gradients in abiotic and biotic factors, with a dominant contribution of the abiotic factors. Water temperature and stability, as well as ammonium, are the main factors related to macrozooplankton distribution in Lake of Geneva during spring. Chlorophyll a biomass was also related to the distribution of cyclopoids. The canonical models explained 35-72% of the variance in the distribution of total crustaceans, species, and trophic groups. However, 28-65% of the macrozooplankton variance remained unexplained, which may be due to fine-scale variations in other environmental factors. Résumé : La distribution spatiale du macrozooplancton dans le Lac Léman (ou Lac de Genève) a été étudiée au printemps pour déterminer l'influence des facteurs abiotiques (température et stabilité de la colonne d'eau, nutriments) et biotiques (bactéries, chlorophylle a, biomasse des poissons) sur la distribution du macrozooplancton. La cartographie et l'analyse spatiale ont révélé que les facteurs abiotiques, ainsi que l'abondance des crustacés, étaient structurés selon un gradient dans le grand lac. La biomasse en chlorophylle a, la densité des bactéries, l'abondance des cyclopoïdes et les biomasses de poissons présentaient des patrons de distribution plus agrégés ou des gradients rive-large. À l'aide d'analyses canoniques, nous avons évalué l'influence relative des facteurs environnementaux et des structures spatiales dans la distribution des espèces de macrozooplancton et des groupes trophiques basés sur les catégories d'herbivores et d'omnivores/carnivores. La distribution du macrozooplancton s'explique à la fois par les variations locales à petite échelle et les gradients à grande échelle des facteurs abiotiques et biotiques, avec une contribution plus importante des facteurs abiotiques. La température et la stabilité de la masse d'eau ainsi que les concentrations en ammoniaque sont les principaux facteurs reliés à la distribution spatiale du macrozooplancton dans le grand basin du Lac de Genève. La biomasse en chlorophylle a est aussi reliée à la répartition des cyclopoïdes. Les modèles canoniques expliquent 35 à 72% de la variabilité dans la distribution des crustacés totaux, des espèces et des groupes trophiques. Toutefois, de 28 à 65% de la variance du macrozooplancton reste inexpliqué, ce qui pourrait être imputable aux variations à petite échelle d'autres facteurs environnementaux.

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    Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
    Article . 1999 . Peer-reviewed
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      Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
      Article . 1999 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Bureau Du Colombier, Sarah; Jacobs, Louis; Gesset, Charline; Elie, Pierre; +1 Authors

    [Departement_IRSTEA]Eaux [TR1_IRSTEA]QUASARE; International audience; In the context of the severe decrease in temperate eel abundance, understanding and control of eel maturation has strong interest for scientific and commercial purposes. Possible use of ultrasonography for improvement of sex determination and maturation monitoring in silver eel was investigated. Gonads of 96 Anguilla anguilla silver eels were observed using portable equipment associated to a 6-15MHz probe, and sex determination was tried before artificial induction of maturation. To estimate gonad mass and monitor individual gonadosomatic index (GSI) in females, cross-sectional images were captured at different times of maturation and gonad length was measured at scanning. Two methods were tried for ovary mass estimation using ultrasonography: one based on a linear model and another on calculating ovary volume from a representation of gonad shape. Ultrasonography resulted in 100% success in sex determination. Ovary mass estimated by ultrasonography was strongly correlated to true ovary mass (R2=0.97). The use of a linear model for gonad mass and then GSI estimation seemed more appropriate than the use of a representation of gonad shape. Evolution of GSI estimates during maturation supports possible detection of early inter-individual differences in maturation using ultrasonography in female silver eels. This non-invasive tool can then obviously be exploited to improve sex determination in silver eels caught in the wild and to monitor maturation at the individual level. Ultrasonography thus has great potential for use in eel both for conservation and aquaculture. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the use of ultrasonography on eels or any anguillid species.

    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Fisheries Researcharrow_drop_down
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    Fisheries Research
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Fisheries Research
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Authors: Junho, Eom; Chris M, Wood;