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  • Neuroinformatics
  • Swiss National Science Foundation
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ni, Ruiqing; Dean-Ben, Xose Luis; Kirschenbaum, Daniel; Rudin, Markus; +9 Authors

    AbstractDeposition of beta-amyloid (Aβ) deposits is one major histopathological hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Here, we introduce volumetric multi-spectral optoacoustic tomography (vMSOT), which covers 10×10×10 mm3 field-of-view, capable of 3D whole mouse brain imaging. We show for the first time the optoacoustic properties of oxazine-derivative AOI987 probe, which binds to Aβ, and the application of vMSOT for the quantification of brain-wide Aβ deposition. Administration of AOI987 to two common transgenic mouse strains of AD amyloidosis led to a retention of the probe in Aβ-laden brain regions. Co-registered of vMSOT data to a brain atlas revealed strain-specific pattern of AOI987 uptake. A comparison with ex vivo light-sheet microscopy in cleared mouse brains showed a good correspondence in Aβ distribution. Lastly, we demonstrate the specificity of the AOI987 probe by immunohistochemistry. vMSOT with AOI987 facilitates preclinical brain region-specific studies of Aβ spread and accumulation, and the monitoring of putative treatments targeting Aβ.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ bioRxivarrow_drop_down
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    bioRxiv
    Preprint . 2020
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    https://www.biorxiv.org/conten...
    Preprint
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ bioRxivarrow_drop_down
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      bioRxiv
      Preprint . 2020
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Chicca, A.; Schafroth, M. A.; Reynoso-Moreno, I.; Erni, R.; +3 Authors

    Phytochemical studies on the liverwort Radula genus have previously identified the bibenzyl (−)-cis-perrottetinene (cis-PET), which structurally resembles (−)-Δ9-trans-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-trans-THC) from Cannabis sativa L. Radula preparations are sold as cannabinoid-like legal high on the internet, even though pharmacological data are lacking. Herein, we describe a versatile total synthesis of (−)-cis-PET and its (−)-trans diastereoisomer and demonstrate that both molecules readily penetrate the brain and induce hypothermia, catalepsy, hypolocomotion, and analgesia in a CB1 receptor–dependent manner in mice. The natural product (−)-cis-PET was profiled on major brain receptors, showing a selective cannabinoid pharmacology. This study also uncovers pharmacological differences between Δ9-THC and PET diastereoisomers. Most notably, (−)-cis-PET and (−)-trans-PET significantly reduced basal brain prostaglandin levels associated with Δ9-trans-THC side effects in a CB1 receptor–dependent manner, thus mimicking the action of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl glycerol. Therefore, the natural product (−)-cis-PET is a psychoactive cannabinoid from bryophytes, illustrating the existence of convergent evolution of bioactive cannabinoids in the plant kingdom. Our findings may have implications for bioprospecting and drug discovery and provide a molecular rationale for the reported effects upon consumption of certain Radula preparations as moderately active legal highs. Science Advances, 4 (10) ISSN:2375-2548

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2018
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Research Collection
    Article . 2018
    License: CC BY NC
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Science Advances
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    Science Advances
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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    ETH Zürich Research Collection
    Article . 2018
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    https://doi.org/10.7892/boris....
    Other literature type . 2018
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2018
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      Article . 2018
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Science Advances
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      Science Advances
      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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      ETH Zürich Research Collection
      Article . 2018
      License: CC BY NC
      Data sources: Datacite
      https://doi.org/10.7892/boris....
      Other literature type . 2018
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: PIZZA, FABIO; M. Biallas; U. Kallweit; M. Wolf; +1 Authors

    Background and Purpose— Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) negatively impacts stroke outcome. Near-infrared spectroscopy showed the acute cerebral hemodynamic effects of SDB. Methods— Eleven patients (7 men, age 61±13 years) with acute/subacute middle cerebral artery stroke (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score 10±7) and SDB (apnea–hypopnea index 32±28/hour) were assessed with nocturnal polysomnography and bilateral near-infrared spectroscopy recording. Cerebral oxygenation and hemoglobin concentration changes during obstructive and central apneas were analyzed. Results— During SDB, near-infrared spectroscopy showed asymmetrical patterns of cerebral oxygenation and hemoglobin concentrations with changes significantly larger on the unaffected compared with the affected hemisphere. Brain tissue hypoxia was more severe during obstructive compared with central apneas. Conclusions— Profound cerebral deoxygenation effects of SDB occurred in acute/subacute stroke. These changes may contribute to poor outcome, arising in the possibility of a potential benefit of SDB treatment in stroke management.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ http://stroke.ahajou...arrow_drop_down
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    Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: SNSF P3 Database
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Stroke
    Article . 2012
    Stroke
    Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Stroke
      Article . 2012
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      Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Chrysa Retsa; Jean-François Knebel; Eveline Geiser; Carina Ferrari; +8 Authors

    Sensory impairments constitute core dysfunctions in schizophrenia. In the auditory modality, impaired mismatch negativity (MMN) has been observed in chronic schizophrenia and may reflect N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) hypo-function, consistent with models of schizophrenia based on oxidative stress. Moreover, a recent study demonstrated deficits in the N100 component of the auditory evoked potential (AEP) in early psychosis patients. Previous work has shown that add-on administration of the glutathione precursor N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) improves the MMN and clinical symptoms in chronic schizophrenia. To date, it remains unknown whether NAC also improves general low-level auditory processing and if its efficacy would extend to early-phase psychosis. We addressed these issues with a randomized, double-blind study of a small sample (N=15) of early psychosis (EP) patients and 18 healthy controls from whom AEPs were recorded during an active, auditory oddball task. Patients were recorded twice: once prior to NAC/placebo administration and once after six months of treatment. The N100 component was significantly smaller in patients before NAC administration versus controls. Critically, NAC administration improved this AEP deficit. Source estimations revealed increased activity in the left temporo-parietal lobe in patients after NAC administration. Overall, the data from this pilot study, which call for replication in a larger sample, indicate that NAC improves low-level auditory processing in early psychosis.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Serveur académique l...arrow_drop_down
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    Schizophrenia Research
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      Schizophrenia Research
      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Matthias Kirschner; Golia Shafiei; Ross D. Markello; Carolina Makowski; +9 Authors

    Abstract Widespread structural brain abnormalities have been consistently reported in schizophrenia, but their relation to the heterogeneous clinical manifestations remains unknown. In particular, it is unclear whether anatomical abnormalities in discrete regions give rise to discrete symptoms or whether distributed abnormalities give rise to the broad clinical profile associated with schizophrenia. Here, we apply a multivariate data-driven approach to investigate covariance patterns between multiple-symptom domains and distributed brain abnormalities in schizophrenia. Structural magnetic resonance imaging and clinical data were derived from one discovery sample (133 patients and 113 controls) and one independent validation sample (108 patients and 69 controls). Disease-related voxel-wise brain abnormalities were estimated using deformation-based morphometry. Partial least-squares analysis was used to comprehensively map clinical, neuropsychological, and demographic data onto distributed deformation in a single multivariate model. The analysis identified 3 latent clinical-anatomical dimensions that collectively accounted for 55% of the covariance between clinical data and brain deformation. The first latent clinical-anatomical dimension was replicated in an independent sample, encompassing cognitive impairments, negative symptom severity, and brain abnormalities within the default mode and visual networks. This cognitive-negative dimension was associated with low socioeconomic status and was represented across multiple races. Altogether, we identified a continuous cognitive-negative dimension of schizophrenia, centered on 2 intrinsic networks. By simultaneously taking into account both clinical manifestations and neuroanatomical abnormalities, the present results open new avenues for multi-omic stratification and biotyping of individuals with schizophrenia.

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    medRxiv
    Preprint . 2020
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Schizophrenia Bulletin
    Article . Preprint
    License: CC BY NC
    Data sources: UnpayWall
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    Schizophrenia Bulletin
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      Preprint . 2020
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2020
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      Schizophrenia Bulletin
      Article . Preprint
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      Schizophrenia Bulletin
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Hertig-Godeschalk, Anneke; Skorucak, Jelena; Malafeev, Alexander; Achermann, Peter; +2 Authors

    AbstractStudy objectivesThe wake-sleep transition zone represents a poorly defined borderland, containing, for example, microsleep episodes (MSEs), which are of potential relevance for diagnosis and may have consequences while driving. Yet, the scoring guidelines of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) completely neglect it. We aimed to explore the borderland between wakefulness and sleep by developing the Bern continuous and high-resolution wake-sleep (BERN) criteria for visual scoring, focusing on MSEs visible in the electroencephalography (EEG), as opposed to purely behavior- or performance-defined MSEs.MethodsMaintenance of Wakefulness Test (MWT) trials of 76 randomly selected patients were retrospectively scored according to both the AASM and the newly developed BERN scoring criteria. The visual scoring was compared with spectral analysis of the EEG. The quantitative EEG analysis enabled a reliable objectification of the visually scored MSEs. For less distinct episodes within the borderland, either ambiguous or no quantitative patterns were found.ResultsAs expected, the latency to the first MSE was significantly shorter in comparison to the sleep latency, defined according to the AASM criteria. In certain cases, a large difference between the two latencies was observed and a substantial number of MSEs occurred between the first MSE and sleep. Series of MSEs were more frequent in patients with shorter sleep latencies, while isolated MSEs were more frequent in patients who did not reach sleep.ConclusionThe BERN criteria extend the AASM criteria and represent a valuable tool for in-depth analysis of the wake-sleep transition zone, particularly important in the MWT.

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    SLEEP
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 2018
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      SLEEP
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      https://doi.org/10.7892/boris....
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ueli Kramer; Loris Grandjean; Hélène Beuchat; Stéphane Kolly; +4 Authors

    Abstract Background Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is one of the most frequent, most debilitating and lethal mental conditions and is associated with a serious burden of disease. Treatment for patients with BPD involves structured psychotherapy, and may involve brief psychiatric treatment as first-line intervention. No controlled study has assessed the effectiveness of such brief intervention. Whereas most psychotherapy studies in patients with BPD focus on the effectiveness of the intervention, we still lack an understanding of how and why these effects are produced from a patient process perspective. It is therefore of utmost importance to study the treatment-underlying mechanisms of change. The present study plans to apply novel measurement methods for assessing change in two central psychobiological processes in BPD: emotion and socio-cognitive processing. The study uses theory-driven and ecologically valid experimental tasks, which take the patient’s individual experience as the anchor, by integrating methodology from psychotherapy process and neurofunctional imagery research. Methods The aim of this two-arm, randomized controlled study is to test the effects (i.e., symptom reduction) and the underlying mechanisms of change associated with a brief psychiatric treatment (10 sessions over 4 months), compared with treatment as usual. Participants (N = 80 patients with BPD) undergo assessments at four points (intake, 2 months, discharge, and 12-month follow up). In addition to symptom measures, individuals undergo a 2-step assessment for the potential mechanisms of change (i.e., emotion and socio-cognitive processing): (1) behavioral and (2) (for a sub-sample) neurofunctional. We hypothesize that change in the mechanisms explains the treatment effects. Discussion This study uses an easy-to-implement treatment of BPD, and a sophisticated assessment procedure to demonstrate the critical role of psychobiological change in emotion and socio-cognitive processing in brief treatments. It will help increase the effectiveness of brief treatment for BPD and help diminish the societal burden of disease related to BPD, in these early stages of treatment. Trial registration {2} ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03717818. Registered on 24 October 2018). Protocol version {3} number 2 from 9 February 2018.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020
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    Serveur académique lausannois
    Article . 2020
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    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2020
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    Authors: Trepp, Roman; Muri, Raphaela; Abgottspon, Stephanie; Bosanska, Lenka; +5 Authors

    AbstractBackgroundThe population of adult patients with early-treated phenylketonuria (PKU) following newborn screening is growing substantially. The ideal target range of blood phenylalanine (Phe) levels in adults outside pregnancy is a matter of debate. Therefore, prospective intervention studies are needed to evaluate the effects of an elevated Phe concentration on cognition and structural, functional, and neurometabolic parameters of the brain.MethodsThe PICO (Phenylalanine and Its Impact on Cognition) Study evaluates the effect of a 4-week Phe load on cognition and cerebral parameters in adults with early-treated PKU in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover, noninferiority trial.ParticipantsThirty adult patients with early-treated PKU and 30 healthy controls comparable to patients with regard to age, sex, and educational level will be recruited from the University Hospitals Bern and Zurich, Switzerland. Patients are eligible for the study if they are 18 years of age or older and had PKU diagnosed after a positive newborn screening and were treated with a Phe-restricted diet starting within the first 30 days of life.Intervention: The cross-over intervention consists of 4-week oral Phe or placebo administration in patients with PKU. The study design mimics a Phe-restricted and a Phe-unrestricted diet using a double-blinded, placebo-controlled approach.ObjectivesThe primary objective of the PICO Study is to prospectively assess whether a temporarily elevated Phe level influences cognitive performance (working memory assessed with a n-back task) in adults with early-treated PKU. As a secondary objective, the PICO Study will elucidate the cerebral (fMRI, neural activation during a n-back task; rsfMRI, functional connectivity at rest; DTI, white matter integrity; and ASL, cerebral blood flow) and neurometabolic mechanisms (cerebral Phe level) that accompany changes in Phe concentration. Cognition, and structural and functional parameters of the brain of adult patients with early-treated PKU will be cross-sectionally compared to healthy controls. All assessments will take place at the University Hospital Bern, Switzerland.RandomizationCentral randomization will be used to assign participants to the different treatment arms with age, sex, and center serving as the stratification factors. Randomization lists will be generated by an independent statistician.Blinding: All trial personnel other than the statistician generating the randomization list and the personnel at the facility preparing the interventional product are blinded to the assigned treatment.DiscussionUsing a combination of neuropsychological and neuroimaging data, the PICO Study will considerably contribute to improve the currently insufficient level of evidence on how adult patients with early-treated PKU should be managed.Trial registrationThe study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT03788343) on the 27th of December 2018, at kofam.ch (SNCTP000003117) on the 17th of December 2018, and on the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform of the WHO.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Mohsen Naghavi; Haidong Wang; Rafael Lozano; Adrian Davis; +402 Authors

    Background Up-to-date evidence on levels and trends for age-sex-specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality is essential for the formation of global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) we estimated yearly deaths for 188 countries between 1990, and 2013. We used the results to assess whether there is epidemiological convergence across countries. Methods We estimated age-sex-specific all-cause mortality using the GBD 2010 methods with some refinements to improve accuracy applied to an updated database of vital registration, survey, and census data. We generally estimated cause of death as in the GBD 2010. Key improvements included the addition of more recent vital registration data for 72 countries, an updated verbal autopsy literature review, two new and detailed data systems for China, and more detail for Mexico, UK, Turkey, and Russia. We improved statistical models for garbage code redistribution. We used six different modelling strategies across the 240 causes; cause of death ensemble modelling (CODEm) was the dominant strategy for causes with sufficient information. Trends for Alzheimer's disease and other dementias were informed by meta-regression of prevalence studies. For pathogen-specific causes of diarrhoea and lower respiratory infections we used a counterfactual approach. We computed two measures of convergence (inequality) across countries: the average relative difference across all pairs of countries (Gini coefficient) and the average absolute difference across countries. To summarise broad findings, we used multiple decrement life-tables to decompose probabilities of death from birth to exact age 15 years, from exact age 15 years to exact age 50 years, and from exact age 50 years to exact age 75 years, and life expectancy at birth into major causes. For all quantities reported, we computed 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). We constrained cause-specific fractions within each age-sex-country-year group to sum to all-cause mortality based on draws from the uncertainty distributions. Findings Global life expectancy for both sexes increased from 65·3 years (UI 65·0–65·6) in 1990, to 71·5 years (UI 71·0–71·9) in 2013, while the number of deaths increased from 47·5 million (UI 46·8–48·2) to 54·9 million (UI 53·6–56·3) over the same interval. Global progress masked variation by age and sex: for children, average absolute differences between countries decreased but relative differences increased. For women aged 25–39 years and older than 75 years and for men aged 20–49 years and 65 years and older, both absolute and relative differences increased. Decomposition of global and regional life expectancy showed the prominent role of reductions in age-standardised death rates for cardiovascular diseases and cancers in high-income regions, and reductions in child deaths from diarrhoea, lower respiratory infections, and neonatal causes in low-income regions. HIV/AIDS reduced life expectancy in southern sub-Saharan Africa. For most communicable causes of death both numbers of deaths and age-standardised death rates fell whereas for most non-communicable causes, demographic shifts have increased numbers of deaths but decreased age-standardised death rates. Global deaths from injury increased by 10·7%, from 4·3 million deaths in 1990 to 4·8 million in 2013; but age-standardised rates declined over the same period by 21%. For some causes of more than 100 000 deaths per year in 2013, age-standardised death rates increased between 1990 and 2013, including HIV/AIDS, pancreatic cancer, atrial fibrillation and flutter, drug use disorders, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and sickle-cell anaemias. Diarrhoeal diseases, lower respiratory infections, neonatal causes, and malaria are still in the top five causes of death in children younger than 5 years. The most important pathogens are rotavirus for diarrhoea and pneumococcus for lower respiratory infections. Country-specific probabilities of death over three phases of life were substantially varied between and within regions. Interpretation For most countries, the general pattern of reductions in age-sex specific mortality has been associated with a progressive shift towards a larger share of the remaining deaths caused by non-communicable disease and injuries. Assessing epidemiological convergence across countries depends on whether an absolute or relative measure of inequality is used. Nevertheless, age-standardised death rates for seven substantial causes are increasing, suggesting the potential for reversals in some countries. Important gaps exist in the empirical data for cause of death estimates for some countries; for example, no national data for India are available for the past decade. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Background Up-to-date evidence on levels and trends for age-sex-specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality is essential for the formation of global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) we estimated yearly deaths for 188 countries between 1990, and 2013. We used the results to assess whether there is epidemiological convergence across countries. Methods We estimated age-sex-specific all-cause mortality using the GBD 2010 methods with some refinements to improve accuracy applied to an updated database of vital registration, survey, and census data. We generally estimated cause of death as in the GBD 2010. Key improvements included the addition of more recent vital registration data for 72 countries, an updated verbal autopsy literature review, two new and detailed data systems for China, and more detail for Mexico, UK, Turkey, and Russia. We improved statistical models for garbage code redistribution. We used six different modelling strategies across the 240 causes; cause of death ensemble modelling (CODEm) was the dominant strategy for causes with sufficient information. Trends for Alzheimer's disease and other dementias were informed by meta-regression of prevalence studies. For pathogen-specific causes of diarrhoea and lower respiratory infections we used a counterfactual approach. We computed two measures of convergence (inequality) across countries: the average relative difference across all pairs of countries (Gini coefficient) and the average absolute difference across countries. To summarise broad findings, we used multiple decrement life-tables to decompose probabilities of death from birth to exact age 15 years, from exact age 15 years to exact age 50 years, and from exact age 50 years to exact age 75 years, and life expectancy at birth into major causes. For all quantities reported, we computed 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). We constrained cause-specific fractions within each age-sex-country-year group to sum to all-cause mortality based on draws from the uncertainty distributions. Findings Global life expectancy for both sexes increased from 65·3 years (UI 65·0–65·6) in 1990, to 71·5 years (UI 71·0–71·9) in 2013, while the number of deaths increased from 47·5 million (UI 46·8–48·2) to 54·9 million (UI 53·6–56·3) over the same interval. Global progress masked variation by age and sex: for children, average absolute differences between countries decreased but relative differences increased. For women aged 25–39 years and older than 75 years and for men aged 20–49 years and 65 years and older, both absolute and relative differences increased. Decomposition of global and regional life expectancy showed the prominent role of reductions in age-standardised death rates for cardiovascular diseases and cancers in high-income regions, and reductions in child deaths from diarrhoea, lower respiratory infections, and neonatal causes in low-income regions. HIV/AIDS reduced life expectancy in southern sub-Saharan Africa. For most communicable causes of death both numbers of deaths and age-standardised death rates fell whereas for most non-communicable causes, demographic shifts have increased numbers of deaths but decreased age-standardised death rates. Global deaths from injury increased by 10·7%, from 4·3 million deaths in 1990 to 4·8 million in 2013; but age-standardised rates declined over the same period by 21%. For some causes of more than 100 000 deaths per year in 2013, age-standardised death rates increased between 1990 and 2013, including HIV/AIDS, pancreatic cancer, atrial fibrillation and flutter, drug use disorders, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and sickle-cell anaemias. Diarrhoeal diseases, lower respiratory infections, neonatal causes, and malaria are still in the top five causes of death in children younger than 5 years. The most important pathogens are rotavirus for diarrhoea and pneumococcus for lower respiratory infections. Country-specific probabilities of death over three phases of life were substantially varied between and within regions. Interpretation For most countries, the general pattern of reductions in age-sex specific mortality has been associated with a progressive shift towards a larger share of the remaining deaths caused by non-communicable disease and injuries. Assessing epidemiological convergence across countries depends on whether an absolute or relative measure of inequality is used. Nevertheless, age-standardised death rates for seven substantial causes are increasing, suggesting the potential for reversals in some countries. Important gaps exist in the empirical data for cause of death estimates for some countries; for example, no national data for India are available for the past decade. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2015
      Data sources: PubMed Central
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      The Lancet
      Article . 2015
      Data sources: NARCIS
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao