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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Fahrenfort, Johannes Jacobus; Grubert, Anna; Olivers, Christian N. L.; Eimer, Martin;

    Abstract The primary electrophysiological marker of feature-based selection is the N2pc, a lateralized posterior negativity emerging around 180-200 ms. As it relies on hemispheric differences, its ability to discriminate the locus of focal attention is severely limited. Here we demonstrate that multivariate analyses of raw EEG data provide a much more fine-grained spatial profile of feature-based target selection. When training a pattern classifier to determine target position from EEG, we were able to decode target positions on the vertical midline, which cannot be achieved using standard N2pc methodology. Next, we used a forward encoding model to construct a channel tuning function that describes the continuous relationship between target position and multivariate EEG in an eight-position display. This model can spatially discriminate individual target positions in these displays and is fully invertible, enabling us to construct hypothetical topographic activation maps for target positions that were never used. When tested against the real pattern of neural activity obtained from a different group of subjects, the constructed maps from the forward model turned out statistically indistinguishable, thus providing independent validation of our model. Our findings demonstrate the power of multivariate EEG analysis to track feature-based target selection with high spatial and temporal precision. Significance Statement Feature-based attentional selection enables observers to find objects in their visual field. The spatiotemporal profile of this process is difficult to assess with standard electrophysiological methods, which rely on activity differences between cerebral hemispheres. We demonstrate that multivariate analyses of EEG data can track target selection across the visual field with high temporal and spatial resolution. Using a forward model, we were able to capture the continuous relationship between target position and EEG measurements, allowing us to reconstruct the distribution of cortical activity for target locations that were never shown during the experiment. Our findings demonstrate the existence of a temporally and spatially precise EEG signal that can be used to study the neural basis of feature-based attentional selection.

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    bioRxiv
    Preprint . 2016
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    Scientific Reports
    Article . 2017
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2018
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    Article . 2017
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    Scientific Reports
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      Article . 2017
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      Europe PubMed Central
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    Authors: Witte, Annemieke M; Riem, Madelon M E; van der Knaap, N; de Moor, Marleen H M; +2 Authors

    Contains fulltext : 247709.pdf (Publisher’s version ) (Open Access) In a randomized double-blind within-subject control study we investigated the effects of oxytocin and vasopressin administration on neural reactivity to infant cry sounds in 70 first-time fathers in the first year of fatherhood. Additionally, we examined whether effects of oxytocin and vasopressin administration on neural reactivity were moderated by fathers’ early childhood experiences. Neural reactivity to infant cry sounds (versus control sounds) was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Furthermore, participants reported on their childhood experiences of parental harsh discipline and parental love withdrawal. Whole brain analyses revealed no significant effect of vasopressin or oxytocin administration on neural activation in response to infant cry sounds. Region of interest analyses showed decreased amygdala activation in both the oxytocin condition and the vasopressin condition as compared to placebo. We found no moderating effects of fathers’ early childhood experiences. Our findings suggest that oxytocin administration may decrease feelings of anxiety or aversion to a crying infant. Whether decreased amygdala activation after vasopressin administration might be explained by contextual factors (e.g., absence of high levels of threat, unfamiliarity of the infant) or represents an affiliative response to infant distress warrants further investigation. Findings of the present study showed that oxytocin and vasopressin are important hormones implicated in neural models of infant cry perception in fatherhood. 12 p.

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    Radboud Repository
    Article . 2022
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      Radboud Repository
      Article . 2022
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    Authors: Eduarda Gervini Zampieri Centeno; Giulia Moreni; Chris Vriend; Linda Douw; +1 Authors

    AbstractThe brain is an extraordinarily complex system that facilitates the optimal integration of information from different regions to execute its functions. With the recent advances in technology, researchers can now collect enormous amounts of data from the brain using neuroimaging at different scales and from numerous modalities. With that comes the need for sophisticated tools for analysis. The field of network neuroscience has been trying to tackle these challenges, and graph theory has been one of its essential branches through the investigation of brain networks. Recently, topological data analysis has gained more attention as an alternative framework by providing a set of metrics that go beyond pairwise connections and offer improved robustness against noise. In this hands-on tutorial, our goal is to provide the computational tools to explore neuroimaging data using these frameworks and to facilitate their accessibility, data visualisation, and comprehension for newcomers to the field. We will start by giving a concise (and by no means complete) overview of the field to introduce the two frameworks and then explain how to compute both well-established and newer metrics on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. We use an open-source language (Python) and provide an accompanying publicly available Jupyter Notebook that uses the 1000 Functional Connectomes Project dataset. Moreover, we would like to highlight one part of our notebook dedicated to the realistic visualisation of high order interactions in brain networks. This pipeline provides three-dimensional (3-D) plots of pairwise and higher-order interactions projected in a brain atlas, a new feature tailor-made for network neuroscience.

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    Brain Structure and Function
    Article . 2022
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    Brain Structure and Function
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Brain Structure and Function
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      Brain Structure and Function
      Article . 2022
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      Brain Structure and Function
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Carraz, Damien;

    Que les ordres militaires aient été capables d’intégrer les femmes par le biais de systèmes d’affiliations, au demeurant mal définis, est un fait déjà relevé par certains travaux anglo-saxons. Mais on n’a jamais évalué globalement la place du second sexe auprès des commanderies « ordinaires » de l’Hôpital et du Temple, en considérant toutes les formes de relations qui pouvaient se développer entre ces communautés religieuses masculines et leurs voisines laïques. La riche documentation rassemblée pour le Bas-Rhône des XIIe-XIIIe siècles montre d’abord des femmes pleinement impliquées dans les échanges fonciers avec les ordres militaires. Si elles vendent plus qu’elles ne donnent, les dames issues de la petite et moyenne aristocratie n’en fréquentent pas moins régulièrement des commanderies qui paraissent plus que jamais ouvertes aux laïcs. De fait, nombreuses sont celles qui prolongent ces liens matériels par une profonde dévotion envers les frères : celle-ci est révélée par la pratique testamentaire, comme par les affiliations, parmi lesquelles il faut distinguer les élections de sépulture, les contrats de consœurs puis de donates et enfin, pour l’Hôpital, les professions complètes. À une époque où l’Église répond encore assez mal aux attentes des pieuses laïques, les ordres militaires furent capables d’intégrer ces dernières dans de nouvelles formes de solidarité et de leur offrir un véritable modèle de vie chrétienne : chasteté dans le veuvage comme dans le mariage, participation aux prières et aux œuvres pieuses prodiguées par les commanderies, voire même adhésion à l’idéal de la chevalerie et de la guerre sainte. Presence and Devotion of Women around Lower-Rhone Commanderies (12th and 13th Centuries). Some English-speaking scholars have already put to the fore the fact that military orders were able to integrate women through a system of affiliation which was, incidentally, rather vague. But the overall implication of women within the commanderies of the Orders of the Temple and Hospitallers has never been assessed, taking into account the variety of relationships that could grow between the male religious communities and their lay female neighbours. The profusion of documents gathered dealing with 12th-13th century Lower-Rhone first shows that women were fully involved in the property trade with military orders. Even if they sold more than they gave away, the ladies who came from the lower and middle aristocracy could still often be seen in commanderies which seemed more than ever open to lay people. As a matter of fact, many of them extended the material links with the brothers to a deep devotion towards them. This can be seen through wills as well as affiliations among which elections to a sepulture should be distinguished from consores and donates contracts and, lastly, as regards the Hospitallers, full professions. At a time when the Church was still unable to fulfil entirely the demands of lay pious women, military orders were able to integrate them into new forms of solidarity and to offer them an actual model of Christian life : chastity in widowhood as in marriage, part taking in the prayers and pious deeds organised by commanderies and even supporting the ideal of the chivalry and of the crusades. Carraz Damien. Présences et dévotions féminines autour des commanderies du Bas-Rhône (XIIe -XIIIe siècle ). In: Les ordres religieux militaires dans le Midi (XIIe-XIVe siècle) Toulouse : Éditions Privat, 2006. pp. 71-99. (Cahiers de Fanjeaux, 41)

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    Reti Medievali Open Archive
    Article . 2006 . Peer-reviewed
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    https://doi.org/10.3406/cafan....
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    Authors: Lucie Gueneau; Richard J. Fish; Hanan E. Shamseldin; Norine Voisin; +35 Authors

    Whole-exome and targeted sequencing of 13 individuals from 10 unrelated families with overlapping clinical manifestations identified loss-of-function and missense variants in KIAA1109 allowing delineation of an autosomal-recessive multi-system syndrome, which we suggest to name Alkuraya-Kučinskas syndrome (MIM 617822). Shared phenotypic features representing the cardinal characteristics of this syndrome combine brain atrophy with clubfoot and arthrogryposis. Affected individuals present with cerebral parenchymal underdevelopment, ranging from major cerebral parenchymal thinning with lissencephalic aspect to moderate parenchymal rarefaction, severe to mild ventriculomegaly, cerebellar hypoplasia with brainstem dysgenesis, and cardiac and ophthalmologic anomalies, such as microphthalmia and cataract. Severe loss-of-function cases were incompatible with life, whereas those individuals with milder missense variants presented with severe global developmental delay, syndactyly of 2 <sup>nd</sup> and 3 <sup>rd</sup> toes, and severe muscle hypotonia resulting in incapacity to stand without support. Consistent with a causative role for KIAA1109 loss-of-function/hypomorphic variants in this syndrome, knockdowns of the zebrafish orthologous gene resulted in embryos with hydrocephaly and abnormally curved notochords and overall body shape, whereas published knockouts of the fruit fly and mouse orthologous genes resulted in lethality or severe neurological defects reminiscent of the probands' features.

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    The American Journal of Human Genetics
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    The American Journal of Human Genetics
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      The American Journal of Human Genetics
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      The American Journal of Human Genetics
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    Authors: le Feber, J.; van Pelt, J.; Rutten, W.L.C.;

    To study plasticity, we cultured cortical networks on multielectrode arrays, enabling simultaneous recording from multiple neurons. We used conditional firing probabilities to describe functional network connections by their strength and latency. These are abstract representations of neuronal pathways and may arise from direct pathways between two neurons or from a common input. Functional connections based on direct pathways should reflect synaptic properties. Therefore, we searched for long-term potentiation (this mechanism occurs in vivo when presynaptic action potentials precede postsynaptic ones with interspike intervals up to ∼20 ms) in vitro. To investigate if the strength of functional connections showed a similar latency-related development, we selected periods of monotonously increasing or decreasing strength. We observed increased incidence of short latencies (5-30 ms) during strengthening, whereas these rarely occurred during weakening. Furthermore, we saw an increased incidence of 40-65 ms latencies during weakening. Conversely, functional connections tended to strengthen in periods with short latency, whereas strengthening was significantly less than average during long latency. Our data suggest that functional connections contain information about synaptic connections, that conditional firing probability analysis is sensitive enough to detect it and that a substantial fraction of all functional connections is based on direct pathways. © 2009 by the Biophysical Society.

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    Biophysical Journal
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    Authors: Ann I, Scher; G Webster, Ross; Sigurdur, Sigurdsson; Melissa, Garcia; +5 Authors

    Objective: In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that having migraine in middle age is related to late-life parkinsonism and a related disorder, restless legs syndrome (RLS), also known as Willis-Ekbom disease (WED). Methods: The AGES-Reykjavik cohort (born 1907–1935) has been followed since 1967. Headaches were classified based on symptoms assessed in middle age. From 2002 to 2006, 5,764 participants were reexamined to assess symptoms of parkinsonism, diagnosis of Parkinson disease (PD), family history of PD, and RLS/WED. Results: Subjects with midlife migraine, particularly migraine with aura (MA), were in later life more likely than others to report parkinsonian symptoms (odds ratio [OR] MA = 3.6 [95% CI 2.7–4.8]) and diagnosed PD (OR MA = 2.5 [95% CI 1.2–5.2]). Women with MA were more likely than others to have a parent (OR MA = 2.26 [95% CI 1.3–4.0]) or sibling (OR MA = 1.78 [95% CI 1.1–2.9]) with PD. Late-life RLS/WED was increased for headache generally. Associations were independent of cardiovascular disease and MRI-evident presumed ischemic lesions. Conclusions: These findings suggest there may be a common vulnerability to, or consequences of, migraine and multiple indicators of parkinsonism. Additional genetic and longitudinal observational studies are needed to identify candidate pathways that may account for the comorbid constellation of symptoms.

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    Neurology
    Article
    Data sources: UnpayWall
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Nature Reviews Neurology
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Springer TDM
    Data sources: Crossref
    Neurology
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Crossref
    Neurology
    Article . 2014
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2014
      Data sources: PubMed Central
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Neurology
      Article
      Data sources: UnpayWall
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Nature Reviews Neurology
      Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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      Neurology
      Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Crossref
      Neurology
      Article . 2014
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Patti F; De Stefano M; Lavorgna L; Messina S; +20 Authors

    Background: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) techniques provided evidences into the understanding of cognitive impairment (CIm) in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Objectives: To investigate the role of white matter (WM) and gray matter (GM) in predicting long-term CIm in a cohort of MS patients. Methods: 303 out of 597 patients participating in a previous multicenter clinical-MRI study were enrolled (49.4% were lost at follow-up). The following MRI parameters, expressed as fraction (f) of intracranial volume, were evaluated: cerebrospinal fluid (CSF-f), WM-f, GM-f and abnormal WM (AWM-f), a measure of lesion load. Nine years later, cognitive status was assessed in 241 patients using the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), the Semantically Related Word List Test (SRWL), the Modified Card Sorting Test (MCST), and the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT). In particular, being SRWL a memory test, both immediate recall and delayed recall were evaluated. MCST scoring was calculated based on the number of categories, number of perseverative and non-perseverative errors. Results: AWM-f was predictive of an impaired performance 9 years ahead in SDMT (OR 1.49, CI 1.12-1.97 p = 0.006), PASAT (OR 1.43, CI 1.14-1.80 p = 0.002), SRWL-immediate recall (OR 1.72 CI 1.35-2.20 p<0.001), SRWL-delayed recall (OR 1.61 CI 1.28-2.03 p<0.001), MCST-category (OR 1.52, CI 1.2-1.9 p<0.001), MCST-perseverative error(OR 1.51 CI 1.2-1.9 p = 0.001), MCST-non perseverative error (OR 1.26 CI 1.02-1.55 p = 0.032). Conclusion: In our large MS cohort, focal WM damage appeared to be the most relevant predictor of the long-term cognitive outcome. © 2015 Patti et al.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2015
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2015
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2015
      Data sources: PubMed Central
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      PLoS ONE
      Article . 2015
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      PLoS ONE
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Authors: Francx, W.C.L.; Francx, W.C.L.; Zwiers, M.P.; Zwiers, M.P.; +11 Authors

    BackgroundA developmental improvement of symptoms in attention‐deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequently reported, but the underlying neurobiological substrate has not been identified. The aim of this study was to determine whether white matter microstructure is related to developmental improvement of ADHD symptoms.MethodsA cross‐sectional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis was embedded in a prospective follow‐up of an adolescent cohort of ADHD and control subjects (NeuroIMAGE). Mean age at baseline was 11.9 years, mean interval of follow‐up was 5.9 years. About 75.3% of the original cohort was retained successfully. Data of 101 participants with ADHD combined type at baseline and 40 healthy controls were analysed. ADHD symptoms were measured with semistructured, investigator‐based interviews and Conners' questionnaires, on the basis of DSM‐IV criteria. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) indices of white matter microstructure were measured using whole brain diffusion tensor imaging at follow‐up only. In a dimensional analysis FA and MD were related to change in ADHD symptoms. To link this analysis to DSM‐IV diagnoses, a post hoc categorical group analysis was conducted comparing participants with persistent (n = 59) versus remittent (n = 42) ADHD and controls.ResultsOver time, participants with ADHD showed improvement mainly in hyperactive/impulsive symptoms. This improvement was associated with lower FA and higher MD values in the left corticospinal tract at follow‐up. Findings of the dimensional and the categorical analysis strongly converged. Changes in inattentive symptoms over time were minimal and not related to white matter microstructure.ConclusionsThe corticospinal tract is important in the control of voluntary movements, suggesting the importance of the motor system in the persistence of hyperactive/impulsive symptoms.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Child Psy...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2015
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    NARCIS
    Article . 2015
    Data sources: NARCIS
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Article . 2015
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Article . 2015
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2015
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      Article . 2015
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      Article . 2015
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      Article . 2015
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: L.B. Ekstrom; Pieter R. Roelfsema; John T. Arsenault; Giorgio Bonmassar; +1 Authors

    The frontal eye field (FEF) is one of several cortical regions thought to modulate sensory inputs. Moreover, several hypotheses suggest that the FEF can only modulate early visual areas in the presence of a visual stimulus. To test for bottom-up gating of frontal signals, we microstimulated subregions in the FEF of two monkeys and measured the effects throughout the brain with functional magnetic resonance imaging. The activity of higher-order visual areas was strongly modulated by FEF stimulation, independent of visual stimulation. In contrast, FEF stimulation induced a topographically specific pattern of enhancement and suppression in early visual areas, but only in the presence of a visual stimulus. Modulation strength depended on stimulus contrast and on the presence of distractors. We conclude that bottom-up activation is needed to enable top-down modulation of early visual cortex and that stimulus saliency determines the strength of this modulation. ispartof: Science vol:321 issue:5887 pages:414-417 ispartof: location:United States status: published

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Liriasarrow_drop_down
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    Lirias
    Article . 2008
    Data sources: Lirias
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2008
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    NARCIS
    Article . 2008
    Data sources: NARCIS
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    NARCIS
    Article . 2008
    Data sources: NARCIS
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