Experiencing feelings of helplessness has repeatedly been reported to contribute to depressive symptoms and negative affect. In turn, depression and negative affective states are associated, among others, with impairments in performance monitoring. Thus, the question arises whether performance monitoring is also affected by feelings of helplessness. To this end, after the induction of feelings of helplessness via an unsolvable reasoning task, 37 participants (20 females) performed a modified version of a Flanker task. Based on a previously validated questionnaire, 17 participants were classified as helpless and 20 as not-helpless. Behavioral measures revealed no differences between helpless and not-helpless individuals. However, we observed enhanced Error-Related Negativity (ERN) amplitude differences between erroneous and correct responses in the helpless compared to the not-helpless group. Furthermore, correlational analysis revealed that higher scores of helplessness were associated with increased ERN difference scores. No influence of feelings of helplessness on later stages of performance monitoring was observed as indicated by Error-Positivity (Pe) amplitude. The present study is the first to demonstrate that feelings of helplessness modulate the neuronal correlates of performance monitoring. Thus, even a short-lasting subjective state manipulation can lead to ERN amplitude variation, probably via modulation of mesencephalic dopamine activity.
There is an on-going debate in the literature as to whether national parliaments can and do play an active role in EU policy-making. The main reason for persistent disagreement is the lack of comparative empirical data on parliamentary behaviour in EU affairs. The article aims to contribute to this debate by presenting the first comparative quantitative data on European affairs activities of national parliaments and by explaining the empirical variation. The development of a unique dataset including all 27 national parliaments allows a series of explanatory variables to be tested for the level of parliamentary activity at both the committee and the plenary levels. The analysis shows that institutional strength in EU affairs plays an important role. Overall, however, EU activities can be better explained with a mix of institutional capacities and motivational incentives. The specific combinations vary for different types of activities.
Lydiane Hirschler; Nico Sollmann; Bárbara Schmitz‐Abecassis; Joana Pinto; Fatemehsadat Arzanforoosh; Frederik Barkhof; Thomas Booth; Marta Calvo‐Imirizaldu; Guilherme Cassia; Marek Chmelik; Patricia Clement; Ece Ercan; Maria A. Fernández‐Seara; Julia Furtner; Elies Fuster‐Garcia; Matthew Grech‐Sollars; Nazmiye Tugay Guven; Gokce Hale Hatay; Golestan Karami; Vera C. Keil; Mina Kim; Johan A. F. Koekkoek; Simran Kukran; Laura Mancini; Ruben Emanuel Nechifor; Alpay Özcan; Esin Ozturk‐Isik; Senol Piskin; Kathleen Schmainda; Siri F. Svensson; Chih‐Hsien Tseng; Saritha Unnikrishnan; Frans Vos; Esther Warnert; Moss Y. Zhao; Radim Jancalek; Teresa Nunes; Kyrre E. Emblem; Marion Smits; Jan Petr; Gilbert Hangel;
Preoperative clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocols for gliomas, brain tumors with dismal outcomes due to their infiltrative properties, still rely on conventional structural MRI, which does not deliver information on tumor genotype and is limited in the delineation of diffuse gliomas. The GliMR COST action wants to raise awareness about the state of the art of advanced MRI techniques in gliomas and their possible clinical translation or lack thereof. This review describes current methods, limits, and applications of advanced MRI for the preoperative assessment of glioma, summarizing the level of clinical validation of different techniques. In this first part, we discuss dynamic susceptibility contrast and dynamic contrast‐enhanced MRI, arterial spin labeling, diffusion‐weighted MRI, vessel imaging, and magnetic resonance fingerprinting. The second part of this review addresses magnetic resonance spectroscopy, chemical exchange saturation transfer, susceptibility‐weighted imaging, MRI‐PET, MR elastography, and MR‐based radiomics applications.Evidence Level: 3Technical Efficacy: Stage 2
Dark littoral submarine caves can act as enclaves of the deep aphotic zone in shallow coastal areas, and their survey has revealed the existence of a very particular fauna of specialized and poorly known organisms among which crustaceans are particularly well represented. In these particular habitats, the use of conventional sampling techniques, such as hand nets, is often not recommended since they disturb bottom sediments causing hazardous situations to scientific divers. The use of baited traps, while technically possible, is not. always practical is such remote habitats. The present work describes a simple and inexpensive manual device that can be operated by divers ill submarine caves and other cryptic habitats to recurrently catch small motile organisms such as mysid crustaceans, caridean shrimps, or even gobiid fishes. This small suction bottle derived and improved from the original "Sket bottle" design considerably reduces the risks of disturbing the cave's bottom sediment and can be easily operated using a single hand. The described sampling device can also be easily used outside caves, in a variety of particular habitats, e.g., rubble filled bottoms, branching coral reefs, cracks, and small holes on rocky surfaces, in which small motile organisms usually escape from traditional sampling gears, e.g., fishnets and traps, or simply go unnoticed by researchers during sampling. info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion
descriptionPublicationkeyboard_double_arrow_right Article , Other literature type 2015 Netherlands, Canada, Ireland, United Kingdom, Netherlands, Netherlands, Netherlands, Ireland, Netherlands, France, Netherlands, Netherlands, Italy, Netherlands, Germany, United Kingdom, Netherlands Springer Science and Business Media LLC
Authors: Hibar, Derrek P; Stein, Jason L; Aribisala, Benjamin S; de Zubicaray, Greig I; +225 Authors
Hibar, Derrek P; Stein, Jason L; Aribisala, Benjamin S; de Zubicaray, Greig I; Dillman, Allissa; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D; Erk, Susanne; Fedko, Iryna O; Ferrucci, Luigi; Foroud, Tatiana M; Fox, Peter T; Fukunaga, Masaki; Armstrong, Nicola J; Gibbs, J Raphael; Göring, Harald H H; Green, Robert C; Guelfi, Sebastian; Hansell, Narelle K; Hartman, Catharina A; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Hernandez, Dena G; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Bernard, Manon; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Holsboer, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Ikeda, Masashi; Jack, Clifford R; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnson, Robert; Kanai, Ryota; Keil, Maria; Bohlken, Marc M; Kent, Jack W; Kochunov, Peter; Kwok, John B; Lawrie, Stephen M; Liu, Xinmin; Longo, Dan L; McMahon, Katie L; Meisenzahl, Eva; Melle, Ingrid; Mohnke, Sebastian; Boks, Marco P; Montgomery, Grant W; Mostert, Jeanette C; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Nalls, Michael A; Nichols, Thomas E; Nilsson, Lars G; Nöthen, Markus M; Ohi, Kazutaka; Olvera, Rene L; Perez-Iglesias, Rocio; Bralten, Janita; Pike, G Bruce; Potkin, Steven G; Reinvang, Ivar; Reppermund, Simone; Rietschel, Marcella; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rosen, Glenn D; Rujescu, Dan; Schnell, Knut; Schofield, Peter R; Brown, Andrew A; Smith, Colin; Steen, Vidar M; Sussmann, Jessika E; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Toga, Arthur W; Traynor, Bryan J; Troncoso, Juan; Turner, Jessica A; Valdés Hernández, Maria C; van 't Ent, Dennis; Chakravarty, M Mallar; van der Brug, Marcel; van der Wee, Nic J A; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Veltman, Dick J; Wassink, Thomas H; Westman, Eric; Zielke, Ronald H; Zonderman, Alan B; Ashbrook, David G; Hager, Reinmar; Chen, Qiang; Lu, Lu; McMahon, Francis J; Morris, Derek W; Williams, Robert W; Brunner, Han G; Buckner, Randy L; Buitelaar, Jan K; Cahn, Wiepke; Calhoun, Vince D; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L; Ching, Christopher R K; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Dale, Anders M; Davies, Gareth E; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; Djurovic, Srdjan; Drevets, Wayne C; Espeseth, Thomas; Gollub, Randy L; Ho, Beng-Choon; Renteria, Miguel E; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hosten, Norbert; Kahn, René S; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nauck, Matthias; Nyberg, Lars; Pandolfo, Massimo; Penninx, Brenda W J H; den Braber, Anouk; Roffman, Joshua L; Sisodiya, Sanjay M; Smoller, Jordan W; van Bokhoven, Hans; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Völzke, Henry; Walter, Henrik; Weiner, Michael W; Wen, Wei; White, Tonya; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A; Blangero, John; Boomsma, Dorret I; Brouwer, Rachel M; Cannon, Dara M; Cookson, Mark R; de Geus, Eco J C; Deary, Ian J; Donohoe, Gary; Goldman, Aaron L; Fernández, Guillén; Fisher, Simon E; Francks, Clyde; Glahn, David C; Grabe, Hans J; Gruber, Oliver; Hardy, John; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Jönsson, Erik G; Grimm, Oliver; Kloszewska, Iwona; Lovestone, Simon; Mattay, Venkata S; Mecocci, Patrizia; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M; Ophoff, Roel A; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Ryten, Mina; Guadalupe, Tulio; Sachdev, Perminder S; Saykin, Andrew J; Simmons, Andy; Singleton, Andrew; Soininen, Hilkka; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Weale, Michael E; Weinberger, Daniel R; Adams, Hieab H H; Launer, Lenore J; Hass, Johanna; Seiler, Stephan; Schmidt, Reinhold; Chauhan, Ganesh; Satizabal, Claudia L; Becker, James T; Yanek, Lisa; van der Lee, Sven J; Ebling, Maritza; Fischl, Bruce; Longstreth, W. T.; Woldehawariat, Girma; Greve, Douglas; Schmidt, Helena; Nyquist, Paul; Vinke, Louis N; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Xue, Luting; Mazoyer, Bernard; Bis, Joshua C; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Seshadri, Sudha; Martin, Nicholas G; Wright, Margaret J; Franke, Barbara; Medland, Sarah E; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Jia, Tianye; Shen, Li; Desrivières, Sylvane; Mattheisen, Manuel; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Risacher, Shannon L; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Rose, Emma J; Schmaal, Lianne; Strike, Lachlan T; Teumer, Alexander; Westlye, Lars T; Whelan, Christopher D; Toro, Roberto; Winkler, Anderson M; Ehrlich, Stefan; Lopez, Lorna M; Nugent, Allison C; Sprooten, Emma; Walton, Esther; Cichon, Sven; Corvin, Aiden; Curran, Joanne E;
Contains fulltext : 144426.pdf (Publisher’s version ) (Closed access) Contains fulltext : 144426pre.pdf (Author’s version preprint ) (Open Access) The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement, learning, memory and motivation, and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease. To investigate how common genetic variants affect the structure of these brain regions, here we conduct genome-wide association studies of the volumes of seven subcortical regions and the intracranial volume derived from magnetic resonance images of 30,717 individuals from 50 cohorts. We identify five novel genetic variants influencing the volumes of the putamen and caudate nucleus. We also find stronger evidence for three loci with previously established influences on hippocampal volume and intracranial volume. These variants show specific volumetric effects on brain structures rather than global effects across structures. The strongest effects were found for the putamen, where a novel intergenic locus with replicable influence on volume (rs945270; P = 1.08 x 10(-33); 0.52% variance explained) showed evidence of altering the expression of the KTN1 gene in both brain and blood tissue. Variants influencing putamen volume clustered near developmental genes that regulate apoptosis, axon guidance and vesicle transport. Identification of these genetic variants provides insight into the causes of variability in human brain development, and may help to determine mechanisms of neuropsychiatric dysfunction. 6 p.
Structural connectivity models based on Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) are strongly affected by the technique’s inability to resolve crossing fibres, either intra- or inter-hemispherical connections. Several models have been proposed to address this issue, including an algorithm aiming to resolve crossing fibres which is based on Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging (DKI). This technique is clinically feasible, even when multi-band acquisitions are not available, and compatible with multi-shell acquisition schemes. DKI is an extension of DTI enabling the estimation of diffusion tensor and diffusion kurtosis metrics. In this study we compare the performance of DKI and DTI in performing structural brain connectivity. Six healthy subjects were recruited, aged between 25 and 35 (three females). The MRI experiments were performed using a 3T Siemens Trio with a 32-channel head coil. The scans included a T1-weighted sequence (1mm3), and a DWI with b-values 0, 1000 and 2000 s:mm2. For each b-value, 64 equally spaced gradient directions were sampled. For DTI fitting only images with b-value of 0 and 1000 s:mm2 were considered, whereas for the DKI fitting, the whole cohort of images were considered. To fit both DTI and DKI tensors, extract the metrics and perform tract reconstructions, the toolbox DKIu was used, and the structural connectivity analysis was accomplished using the MIBCA toolbox. Tractography results revealed, as expected, that DKI-based tractography models can resolve crossing fibres within the same voxel, which posed a limitation to the DTI-based tractography models. Structural connectivity analysis showed DKI-based networks’ ability to establish both more inter-hemisphere and intra-hemisphere connections, when compared to DTI-based networks. This may be a direct consequence of the inability to resolve crossing fibres when using the DTI model. The DKI model ability to resolve crossing fibres may provide increased sensitivity to both inter- and intra-hemispherical connections. DTI-based modularity connectograms show a distinct intra-hemispherical configuration, whereas DKI-based connectograms show an increased number of inter-hemispherical connections, with several clusters extending over both hemispheres. Global and local connectivity metrics were also studied, but yielded no conclusive results. This may be due to a lack of reproducibility of the metrics or of the small cohort of subjects considered. DKI seems to provide additional insights into structural brain connectivity by resolving crossing fibres, otherwise undetected by DTI.
Abstract There is increasing evidence showing that the accumulation of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide into extracellular plaques is a central event in Alzheimer's disease (AD). These abnormalities can be detected as lowered levels of Aβ42 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and are followed by increased amyloid burden on positron emission tomography (PET) several years before the onset of dementia. The aim of this study was to assess amyloid network topology in nondemented individuals with early stage Aβ accumulation, defined as abnormal CSF Aβ42 levels and normal Florbetapir PET (CSF+/PET−), and more advanced Aβ accumulation, defined as both abnormal CSF Aβ42 and Florbetapir PET (CSF+/PET+). The amyloid networks were built using correlations in the mean 18F-florbetapir PET values between 72 brain regions and analyzed using graph theory analyses. Our findings showed an association between early amyloid stages and increased covariance as well as shorter paths between several brain areas that overlapped with the default-mode network (DMN). Moreover, we found that individuals with more advanced amyloid accumulation showed more widespread changes in brain regions both within and outside the DMN. These findings suggest that amyloid network topology could potentially be used to assess disease progression in the predementia stages of AD.
Background Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) and Williams-Beuren Syndrome (WS) are two conditions which seem to be at opposite ends in the continuum of social fear but show compromised abilities in some overlapping areas, including some social interactions, gaze contact and processing of facial emotional cues. The increase in the number of neuroimaging studies has greatly expanded our knowledge of the neural bases of facial emotion processing in both conditions. However, to date, SAD and WS have not been compared. Methods We conducted a systematic review of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies comparing SAD and WS cases to healthy control participants (HC) using facial emotion processing paradigms. Two researchers conducted comprehensive PubMed/Medline searches to identify all fMRI studies of facial emotion processing in SAD and WS. The following search key-words were used: "emotion processing"; "facial emotion"; "social anxiety"; "social phobia"; "Williams syndrome"; "neuroimaging"; "functional magnetic resonance"; "fMRI" and their combinations, as well as terms specifying individual facial emotions. We extracted spatial coordinates from each study and conducted two separate voxel-wise activation likelihood estimation meta-analyses, one for SAD and one for WS. Results Twenty-two studies met the inclusion criteria: 17 studies of SAD and five of WS. We found evidence for both common and distinct patterns of neural activation. Limbic engagement was common to SAD and WS during facial emotion processing, although we observed opposite patterns of activation for each disorder. Compared to HC, SAD cases showed hyperactivation of the amygdala, the parahippocampal gyrus and the globus pallidus. Compared to controls, participants with WS showed hypoactivation of these regions. Differential activation in a number of regions specific to either condition was also identified: SAD cases exhibited greater activation of the insula, putamen, the superior temporal gyrus, medial frontal regions and the cuneus, while WS subjects showed decreased activation in the inferior region of the parietal lobule. Conclusions The identification of limbic structures as a shared correlate and the patterns of activation observed for each condition may reflect the aberrant patterns of facial emotion processing that the two conditions share, and may contribute to explaining part of the underlying neural substrate of exaggerated/diminished fear responses to social cues that characterize SAD and WS respectively. We believe that insights from WS and the inclusion of this syndrome as a control group in future experimental studies may improve our understanding of the neural correlates of social fear in general, and of SAD in particular.
AbstractHuman brain imaging can help improve our understanding of mechanisms underlying brain function and how they drive behavior in health and disease. Such knowledge may eventually help us to devise better treatments for psychiatric disorders. However, the brain imaging literature in psychiatry and especially eating disorders has been inconsistent, and studies are often difficult to replicate. The extent or severity of extremes of eating and state of illness, which are often associated with differences in, for instance hormonal status, comorbidity, and medication use, commonly differ between studies and likely add to variation across study results. Those effects are in addition to the well‐described problems arising from differences in task designs, data quality control procedures, image data preprocessing and analysis or statistical thresholds applied across studies. Which of those factors are most relevant to improve reproducibility is still a question for debate and further research. Here we propose guidelines for brain imaging research in eating disorders to acquire valid results that are more reliable and clinically useful.
AbstractBacterial neonatal meningitis results in high mortality and morbidity rates for those affected. Although improvements in diagnosis and treatment have led to a decline in mortality rates, morbidity rates have remained relatively unchanged. Bacterial resistance to antibiotics in this clinical setting further underlines the need for developing other technologies, such as phage therapy. We exploited an in vitro phage therapy model for studying bacterial neonatal meningitis based on Escherichia coli (E. coli) EV36, bacteriophage (phage) K1F and human cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (hCMECs). We show that phage K1F is phagocytosed and degraded by constitutive- and PAMP-dependent LC3-assisted phagocytosis and does not induce expression of inflammatory cytokines TNFα, IL-6, IL-8 or IFNβ. Additionally, we observed that phage K1F temporarily decreases the barrier resistance of hCMEC cultures, a property that influences the barrier permeability, which could facilitate the transition of immune cells across the endothelial vessel in vivo. Collectively, we demonstrate that phage K1F can infect intracellular E. coli EV36 within hCMECs without themselves eliciting an inflammatory or defensive response. This study illustrates the potential of phage therapy targeting infections such as bacterial neonatal meningitis and is an important step for the continued development of phage therapy targeting antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections generally.