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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Hibar, Derrek P; Stein, Jason L; Aribisala, Benjamin S; de Zubicaray, Greig I; +244 Authors

    Contains fulltext : 144426.pdf (Publisher’s version ) (Closed access) Contains fulltext : 144426pre.pdf (Author’s version preprint ) (Open Access) The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement, learning, memory and motivation, and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease. To investigate how common genetic variants affect the structure of these brain regions, here we conduct genome-wide association studies of the volumes of seven subcortical regions and the intracranial volume derived from magnetic resonance images of 30,717 individuals from 50 cohorts. We identify five novel genetic variants influencing the volumes of the putamen and caudate nucleus. We also find stronger evidence for three loci with previously established influences on hippocampal volume and intracranial volume. These variants show specific volumetric effects on brain structures rather than global effects across structures. The strongest effects were found for the putamen, where a novel intergenic locus with replicable influence on volume (rs945270; P = 1.08 x 10(-33); 0.52% variance explained) showed evidence of altering the expression of the KTN1 gene in both brain and blood tissue. Variants influencing putamen volume clustered near developmental genes that regulate apoptosis, axon guidance and vesicle transport. Identification of these genetic variants provides insight into the causes of variability in human brain development, and may help to determine mechanisms of neuropsychiatric dysfunction. 6 p.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Maynooth University ...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Europe PubMed Central
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      Other literature type . 2015
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      Nature
      Article . 2015
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      Nature
      Article . 2015
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Martin O'Donnell; John W. Eikelboom; Salim Yusuf; Hans-Christoph Diener; +10 Authors

    Background Clinical and subclinical (covert) stroke is a cause of cognitive loss and functional impairment. In the AVERROES trial, we performed serial brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans in a subgroup to explore the effect of apixaban, compared with aspirin, on clinical and covert brain infarction and on microbleeds in patients with atrial fibrillation. Methods We performed brain MRI (T1, T2, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, and T2* gradient echo sequences) in 1,180 at baseline and in 931 participants at follow-up. Mean interval from baseline to follow-up MRI scans was 1.0 year. The primary outcome was a composite of clinical ischemic stroke and covert embolic pattern infarction (defined as infarction >1.5 cm, cortical-based infarction, or new multiterritory infarction). Secondary outcomes included new MRI-detected brain infarcts and microbleeds and change in white matter hyperintensities. Results Baseline MRI scans revealed brain infarct(s) in 26.2% and microbleed(s) in 10.5%. The rate of the primary outcomes was 2.0% in the apixaban group and 3.3% in the aspirin group (hazard ratio [HR] 0.55; 0.27-1.14) from baseline to follow-up MRI scan (mean duration of follow-up: 1 year). In those who completed baseline and follow-up MRI scans, the rate of new infarction detected on MRI was 2.5% in the apixaban group and 2.2% in the aspirin group (HR 1.09; 0.47-2.52), but new infarcts were smaller in the apixaban group ( P = .03). There was no difference in proportion with new microbleeds on follow-up MRI (HR 0.92; 0.53-1.60) between treatment groups. Conclusions Apixaban treatment was associated with a nonsignificant trend toward reduction in the composite of clinical ischemic stroke and covert embolic-pattern infarction and did not increase the number of microbleeds in patients with atrial fibrillation compared with aspirin.

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    American Heart Journal
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      American Heart Journal
      Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Heng Zhang; Xueyong Zhu; Gabriel Pascual; Jehangir Wadia; +9 Authors

    Aggregation of the hyperphosphorylated protein tau into neurofibrillary tangles and neuropil threads is a hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD). Identification and characterization of the epitopes recognized by anti-tau antibodies might shed light on the molecular mechanisms of AD pathogenesis. Here we report on the biochemical and structural characterization of a tau-specific monoclonal antibody CBTAU-24.1, which was isolated from the human memory B cell repertoire. Immunohistochemical staining with CBTAU-24.1 specifically detects pathological tau structures in AD brain samples. The crystal structure of CBTAU-24.1 Fab with a phosphorylated tau peptide revealed recognition of a unique epitope (Ser235-Leu243) in the tau proline-rich domain. Interestingly, the antibody can bind tau regardless of phosphorylation state of its epitope region and also recognizes both monomeric and paired helical filament tau irrespective of phosphorylation status. This human anti-tau antibody and its unique epitope may aid in development of diagnostics and/or therapeutic AD strategies.

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    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 2018
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    Article . 2018
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      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2018
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    AbstractIt is well known that attention can facilitate performance by top-down biasing processing of task-relevant information in advance. Recent findings from behavioral studies suggest that distractor inhibition is not under similar direct control, but strongly dependent on expectations derived from previous experience. Yet, how expectations about distracting information influence distractor inhibition at the neural level remains unclear. The current study addressed this outstanding question in three experiments in which search displays with repeating distractor or target locations across trials allowed observers to learn which location to selectively suppress or boost. Behavioral findings demonstrated that both distractor and target location learning resulted in more efficient search, as indexed by faster response times. Crucially, benefits of distractor learning were observed without target location foreknowledge, unaffected by the number of possible target locations, and could not be explained by priming alone. To determine how distractor location expectations facilitated performance, we applied a spatial encoding model to EEG data to reconstruct activity in neural populations tuned to the distractor or target location. Target location learning increased neural tuning to the target location in advance, indicative of preparatory biasing. This sensitivity increased after target presentation. By contrast, distractor expectations did not change preparatory spatial tuning. Instead, distractor expectations reduced distractor-specific processing, as reflected in the disappearance of the Pd ERP component, a neural marker of distractor inhibition, and decreased decoding accuracy. These findings suggest that the brain may no longer process expected distractors as distractors, once it has learned they can safely be ignored.Significance statementWe constantly try hard to ignore conspicuous events that distract us from our current goals. Surprisingly, and in contrast to dominant attention theories, ignoring distracting, but irrelevant events does not seem to be as flexible as is focusing our attention on those same aspects. Instead, distractor suppression appears to strongly rely on learned, context-dependent expectations. Here, we investigated how learning about upcoming distractors changes distractor processing and directly contrasted the underlying neural dynamics to target learning. We show that while target learning enhanced anticipatory sensory tuning, distractor learning only modulated reactive suppressive processing. These results suggest that expected distractors may no longer be considered distractors by the brain once it has learned that they can safely be ignored.

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    bioRxiv
    Preprint . 2019
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    Journal of Neuroscience
    Article . 2019
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2019
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    Journal of Neuroscience
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Pontius Jr., R.G.; Boersma, W.T.; Castella, J.C.; Clarke, K.; +16 Authors

    This paper applies methods of multiple resolution map comparison to quantify characteristics for 13 applications of 9 different popular peer-reviewed land change models. Each modeling application simulates change of land categories in raster maps from an initial time to a subsequent time. For each modeling application, the statistical methods compare: (1) a reference map of the initial time, (2) a reference map of the subsequent time, and (3) a prediction map of the subsequent time. The three possible two-map comparisons for each application characterize: (1) the dynamics of the landscape, (2) the behavior of the model, and (3) the accuracy of the prediction. The three-map comparison for each application specifies the amount of the prediction's accuracy that is attributable to land persistence versus land change. Results show that the amount of error is larger than the amount of correctly predicted change for 12 of the 13 applications at the resolution of the raw data. The applications are summarized and compared using two statistics: the null resolution and the figure of merit. According to the figure of merit, the more accurate applications are the ones where the amount of observed net change in the reference maps is larger. This paper facilitates communication among land change modelers, because it illustrates the range of results for a variety of models using scientifically rigorous, generally applicable, and intellectually accessible statistical techniques. © Springer-Verlag 2007.

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    Research@WUR; The Annals of Regional Science
    Other literature type . Article . 2008 . 2007 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Springer TDM
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    Horizon / Pleins textes
    Other literature type . 2008
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    The Annals of Regional Science
    Article . 2008
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      Research@WUR; The Annals of Regional Science
      Other literature type . Article . 2008 . 2007 . Peer-reviewed
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      Horizon / Pleins textes
      Other literature type . 2008
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      The Annals of Regional Science
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    Authors: Doeppner, Thorsten R.; Doehring, Maria; Kaltwasser, Britta; Majid, Arshad; +4 Authors

    WOS: 000409039000026 PubMed ID: 27699598 In view of the failure of pharmacological therapies, alternative strategies promoting post-stroke brain repair are needed. Post-conditioning is a potentially promising therapeutic strategy, which induces acute neuroprotection against ischemic injury. To elucidate longer lasting actions of ischemic post-conditioning, mice were exposed to a 60-min stroke and post-conditioning by an additional 10-min stroke that was induced 10 min after reperfusion onset. Animals were sacrificed 24 h or 28 days post-stroke. Post-conditioning reduced infarct volume and neurological deficits 24 h poststroke, enhancing blood-brain barrier integrity, reducing brain leukocyte infiltration, and reducing oxidative stress. On the molecular level, post-conditioning yielded increased Hsp70 expression, whereas nuclear factor (NF)-kappa B and proteasome activities were decreased. Reduced infarct volume and proteasome inhibition were reversed by Hsp70 knockdown, suggesting a critical role of the Hsp70 proteasome pathway in ischemic post-conditioning. The survival-promoting effects of ischemic post-conditioning, however, were not sustainable as neuroprotection and neurological recovery were lost 28 days post-stroke. Although angioneurogenesis was not increased by post-conditioning, the favorable extracellular milieu facilitated intracerebral transplantation of neural progenitor cells 6 h post-stroke, resulting in persisted neuroprotection and neurological recovery. Thus, post-conditioning might support brain repair processes, but in view of its transient, neuroprotection is unlikely useful as stroke therapy in its current form. TUBITAK [2221] The study was supported by TUBITAK (grant no. 2221 to TRD).

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    Aperta - TÜBİTAK Açık Arşivi
    Other literature type . 2017
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    Molecular Neurobiology
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      Aperta - TÜBİTAK Açık Arşivi
      Other literature type . 2017
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      Molecular Neurobiology
      Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Pingping Shen; Johnny Dang; Zerui Wang; Weiguanliu Zhang; +10 Authors

    AbstractAlteration in cellular prion protein (PrPC) localization on the cell surface through mediation of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor has been reported to dramatically affect the formation and infectivity of its pathological isoform (PrPSc). A patient with Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker (GSS) syndrome was previously found to have a nonsense heterozygous PrP-Q227X mutation resulting in an anchorless PrP. However, the allelic origin of this anchorless PrPSc and cellular trafficking of PrPQ227X remain to be determined. Here, we show that PrPSc in the brain of this GSS patient is mainly composed of the mutant but not wild-type PrP (PrPWt), suggesting pathological PrPQ227X is incapable of recruiting PrPWt in vivo. This mutant anchorless protein, however, is able to recruit PrPWt from humanized transgenic mouse brain but not from autopsied human brain homogenates to produce a protease-resistant PrPSc-like form in vitro by protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA). To further investigate the characteristics of this mutation, constructs expressing human PrPQ227X or PrPWt were transfected into neuroblastoma cells (M17). Fractionation of the M17 cells demonstrated that most PrPWt is recovered in the cell lysate fraction, while most of the mutant PrPQ227X is recovered in the medium fraction, consistent with the results obtained by immunofluorescence microscopy. Two-dimensional gel-electrophoresis and Western blotting showed that cellular PrPQ227X spots clustered at molecular weights of 22–25 kDa with an isoelectric point (pI) of 3.5–5.5, whereas protein spots from the medium are at 18–26 kDa with a pI of 7–10. Our findings suggest that the role of GPI anchor in prion propagation between the anchorless mutant PrP and wild-type PrP relies on the cellular distribution of the protein.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020
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    Molecular Neurobiology
    Article . 2020 . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    Molecular Neurobiology
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      Europe PubMed Central
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      Molecular Neurobiology
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      Molecular Neurobiology
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    Authors: Mohsen Naghavi; Haidong Wang; Rafael Lozano; Adrian Davis; +402 Authors

    Background Up-to-date evidence on levels and trends for age-sex-specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality is essential for the formation of global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) we estimated yearly deaths for 188 countries between 1990, and 2013. We used the results to assess whether there is epidemiological convergence across countries. Methods We estimated age-sex-specific all-cause mortality using the GBD 2010 methods with some refinements to improve accuracy applied to an updated database of vital registration, survey, and census data. We generally estimated cause of death as in the GBD 2010. Key improvements included the addition of more recent vital registration data for 72 countries, an updated verbal autopsy literature review, two new and detailed data systems for China, and more detail for Mexico, UK, Turkey, and Russia. We improved statistical models for garbage code redistribution. We used six different modelling strategies across the 240 causes; cause of death ensemble modelling (CODEm) was the dominant strategy for causes with sufficient information. Trends for Alzheimer's disease and other dementias were informed by meta-regression of prevalence studies. For pathogen-specific causes of diarrhoea and lower respiratory infections we used a counterfactual approach. We computed two measures of convergence (inequality) across countries: the average relative difference across all pairs of countries (Gini coefficient) and the average absolute difference across countries. To summarise broad findings, we used multiple decrement life-tables to decompose probabilities of death from birth to exact age 15 years, from exact age 15 years to exact age 50 years, and from exact age 50 years to exact age 75 years, and life expectancy at birth into major causes. For all quantities reported, we computed 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). We constrained cause-specific fractions within each age-sex-country-year group to sum to all-cause mortality based on draws from the uncertainty distributions. Findings Global life expectancy for both sexes increased from 65·3 years (UI 65·0–65·6) in 1990, to 71·5 years (UI 71·0–71·9) in 2013, while the number of deaths increased from 47·5 million (UI 46·8–48·2) to 54·9 million (UI 53·6–56·3) over the same interval. Global progress masked variation by age and sex: for children, average absolute differences between countries decreased but relative differences increased. For women aged 25–39 years and older than 75 years and for men aged 20–49 years and 65 years and older, both absolute and relative differences increased. Decomposition of global and regional life expectancy showed the prominent role of reductions in age-standardised death rates for cardiovascular diseases and cancers in high-income regions, and reductions in child deaths from diarrhoea, lower respiratory infections, and neonatal causes in low-income regions. HIV/AIDS reduced life expectancy in southern sub-Saharan Africa. For most communicable causes of death both numbers of deaths and age-standardised death rates fell whereas for most non-communicable causes, demographic shifts have increased numbers of deaths but decreased age-standardised death rates. Global deaths from injury increased by 10·7%, from 4·3 million deaths in 1990 to 4·8 million in 2013; but age-standardised rates declined over the same period by 21%. For some causes of more than 100 000 deaths per year in 2013, age-standardised death rates increased between 1990 and 2013, including HIV/AIDS, pancreatic cancer, atrial fibrillation and flutter, drug use disorders, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and sickle-cell anaemias. Diarrhoeal diseases, lower respiratory infections, neonatal causes, and malaria are still in the top five causes of death in children younger than 5 years. The most important pathogens are rotavirus for diarrhoea and pneumococcus for lower respiratory infections. Country-specific probabilities of death over three phases of life were substantially varied between and within regions. Interpretation For most countries, the general pattern of reductions in age-sex specific mortality has been associated with a progressive shift towards a larger share of the remaining deaths caused by non-communicable disease and injuries. Assessing epidemiological convergence across countries depends on whether an absolute or relative measure of inequality is used. Nevertheless, age-standardised death rates for seven substantial causes are increasing, suggesting the potential for reversals in some countries. Important gaps exist in the empirical data for cause of death estimates for some countries; for example, no national data for India are available for the past decade. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Background Up-to-date evidence on levels and trends for age-sex-specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality is essential for the formation of global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) we estimated yearly deaths for 188 countries between 1990, and 2013. We used the results to assess whether there is epidemiological convergence across countries. Methods We estimated age-sex-specific all-cause mortality using the GBD 2010 methods with some refinements to improve accuracy applied to an updated database of vital registration, survey, and census data. We generally estimated cause of death as in the GBD 2010. Key improvements included the addition of more recent vital registration data for 72 countries, an updated verbal autopsy literature review, two new and detailed data systems for China, and more detail for Mexico, UK, Turkey, and Russia. We improved statistical models for garbage code redistribution. We used six different modelling strategies across the 240 causes; cause of death ensemble modelling (CODEm) was the dominant strategy for causes with sufficient information. Trends for Alzheimer's disease and other dementias were informed by meta-regression of prevalence studies. For pathogen-specific causes of diarrhoea and lower respiratory infections we used a counterfactual approach. We computed two measures of convergence (inequality) across countries: the average relative difference across all pairs of countries (Gini coefficient) and the average absolute difference across countries. To summarise broad findings, we used multiple decrement life-tables to decompose probabilities of death from birth to exact age 15 years, from exact age 15 years to exact age 50 years, and from exact age 50 years to exact age 75 years, and life expectancy at birth into major causes. For all quantities reported, we computed 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). We constrained cause-specific fractions within each age-sex-country-year group to sum to all-cause mortality based on draws from the uncertainty distributions. Findings Global life expectancy for both sexes increased from 65·3 years (UI 65·0–65·6) in 1990, to 71·5 years (UI 71·0–71·9) in 2013, while the number of deaths increased from 47·5 million (UI 46·8–48·2) to 54·9 million (UI 53·6–56·3) over the same interval. Global progress masked variation by age and sex: for children, average absolute differences between countries decreased but relative differences increased. For women aged 25–39 years and older than 75 years and for men aged 20–49 years and 65 years and older, both absolute and relative differences increased. Decomposition of global and regional life expectancy showed the prominent role of reductions in age-standardised death rates for cardiovascular diseases and cancers in high-income regions, and reductions in child deaths from diarrhoea, lower respiratory infections, and neonatal causes in low-income regions. HIV/AIDS reduced life expectancy in southern sub-Saharan Africa. For most communicable causes of death both numbers of deaths and age-standardised death rates fell whereas for most non-communicable causes, demographic shifts have increased numbers of deaths but decreased age-standardised death rates. Global deaths from injury increased by 10·7%, from 4·3 million deaths in 1990 to 4·8 million in 2013; but age-standardised rates declined over the same period by 21%. For some causes of more than 100 000 deaths per year in 2013, age-standardised death rates increased between 1990 and 2013, including HIV/AIDS, pancreatic cancer, atrial fibrillation and flutter, drug use disorders, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and sickle-cell anaemias. Diarrhoeal diseases, lower respiratory infections, neonatal causes, and malaria are still in the top five causes of death in children younger than 5 years. The most important pathogens are rotavirus for diarrhoea and pneumococcus for lower respiratory infections. Country-specific probabilities of death over three phases of life were substantially varied between and within regions. Interpretation For most countries, the general pattern of reductions in age-sex specific mortality has been associated with a progressive shift towards a larger share of the remaining deaths caused by non-communicable disease and injuries. Assessing epidemiological convergence across countries depends on whether an absolute or relative measure of inequality is used. Nevertheless, age-standardised death rates for seven substantial causes are increasing, suggesting the potential for reversals in some countries. Important gaps exist in the empirical data for cause of death estimates for some countries; for example, no national data for India are available for the past decade. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2014
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    The Lancet
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    Spiral - Imperial College Digital Repository
    Article . 2014
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    Nature Reviews Nephrology
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2015
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    The Lancet
    Article . 2015
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    The Lancet
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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    NARCIS; Research@WUR
    Other literature type . Article . 2015
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    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-...
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    Nature Reviews Nephrology
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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    Other literature type . Article . 2015