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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Liang Wang; Yanfang Li; Paul D. Metzak; Yong He; +1 Authors

    In this study we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate age-related changes in large-scale brain functional networks during memory encoding and recognition in 12 younger and 16 older adults. For each participant, functional brain networks were constructed by computing temporal correlation matrices of 90 brain regions and analyzed using graph theoretical approaches. We found the age-related changes mainly in the long-range connections with widespread reductions associated with aging in the fronto-temporal and temporo-parietal regions, and a few age-related increases in the posterior parietal regions. Graph theoretical analysis revealed that the older adults had longer path lengths linking different regions in the functional brain networks as compared to the younger adults. Further analysis indicated that the increases in shortest path length in the networks were combined with the loss of long-range connections. Finally, we showed that for older adults, frontal areas played reduced roles in the network (reduced regional centrality), whereas several default-mode regions played increased roles relative to younger subjects (increased regional centrality). Together, our results suggest that normal aging is associated with disruption of large-scale brain systems during the performance of memory tasks, which provides novel insights into the understanding of age-related decline in multiple cognitive functions.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NeuroImagearrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    NeuroImage
    Article . 2010 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
    Data sources: Crossref
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    NeuroImage
    Article . 2009
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NeuroImagearrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      NeuroImage
      Article . 2010 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier TDM
      Data sources: Crossref
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      NeuroImage
      Article . 2009
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    Authors: Chenguang Zhao; Jialiang Guo; Dongwei Li; Ye Tao; +3 Authors

    AbstractIn covert visual attention, one fundamental question is how advance knowledge facilitates subsequent neural processing and behavioral performance. In this study, with a rapid event‐related simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) and functional near infrared spectroscopy recording in humans, we explored the potential contribution of anticipatory electrophysiological activation and hemodynamic activation by examining how anticipatory low‐frequency oscillations and changes in oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO) concentration influence the subsequent event‐related potential (ERP) marker of attentional selection. We found that expecting a target led to both a posterior lateralization of alpha‐band (8–12 Hz) oscillation power and a lateralization of HbO response over the visual cortex. Importantly, the magnitude of cue‐induced alpha lateralization was positively correlated with the nearby HbO lateralization in the visual cortex, and such a cue‐induced alpha lateralization predicted the subsequent target‐evoked N2pc amplitudes assumed to reflect attentional selection. Our results suggest that each individual's attentional selection biomarker as reflected by N2pc is predictable in advance via the anticipation‐induced alpha lateralization, and such cue‐induced alpha lateralization seems to play an important role in the functional coupling effects between the low‐frequency EEG and the nearby hemodynamic activation.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Human Brain Mappingarrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2019
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Human Brain Mapping
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Wiley Online Library User Agreement
    Data sources: Crossref
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2019
      Data sources: PubMed Central
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      Human Brain Mapping
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Wiley Online Library User Agreement
      Data sources: Crossref
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    Authors: Jun Fu; Ming-Ming Ma; Mi Pang; Liang Yang; +4 Authors
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Chinese Medical Journal
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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    Chinese Medical Journal
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Chinese Medical Journal
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Chinese Medical Journal
      Article . 2019
      Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Chinese Medical Journal
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
      Data sources: Crossref
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Chinese Medical Journal
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Yue Li; Shaomin Zhang; Yile Jin; Bangyu Cai; +4 Authors

    Electrocorticography (ECoG) has been demonstrated as a promising neural signal source for developing brain-machine interfaces (BMIs). However, many concerns about the disadvantages brought by large craniotomy for implanting the ECoG grid limit the clinical translation of ECoG-based BMIs. In this study, we collected clinical ECoG signals from the sensorimotor cortex of three epileptic participants when they performed hand gestures. The ECoG power spectrum in hybrid frequency bands was extracted to build a synchronous real-time BMI system. High decoding accuracy of the three gestures was achieved in both offline analysis (85.7%, 84.5%, and 69.7%) and online tests (80% and 82%, tested on two participants only). We found that the decoding performance was maintained even with a subset of channels selected by a greedy algorithm. More importantly, these selected channels were mostly distributed along the central sulcus and clustered in the area of 3 interelectrode squares. Our findings of the reduced and clustered distribution of ECoG channels further supported the feasibility of clinically implementing the ECoG-based BMI system for the control of hand gestures.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Behavioural Neurology
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Behavioural Neurology
    Article . 2017
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Behavioural Neurology
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Behavioural Neurology
      Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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      Behavioural Neurology
      Article . 2017
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      Behavioural Neurology
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    Authors: Guo, Wenbin; Liu, Feng; Liu, Jianrong; Yu, Liuyu; +5 Authors

    Anatomical deficits and resting-state functional connectivity (FC) alterations in prefrontal-thalamic-cerebellar circuit have been implicated in the neurobiology of schizophrenia. However, the effect of structural deficits in schizophrenia on causal connectivity of this circuit remains unclear. This study was conducted to examine the causal connectivity biased by structural deficits in first-episode, drug-naive schizophrenia patients. Structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were obtained from 49 first-episode, drug-naive schizophrenia patients and 50 healthy controls. Data were analyzed by voxel-based morphometry and Granger causality analysis. The causal connectivity of the integrated prefrontal-thalamic (limbic)-cerebellar (sensorimotor) circuit was partly affected by structural deficits in first-episode, drug-naive schizophrenia as follows: (1) unilateral prefrontal-sensorimotor connectivity abnormalities (increased driving effect from the left medial prefrontal cortex [MPFC] to the sensorimotor regions); (2) bilateral limbic-sensorimotor connectivity abnormalities (increased driving effect from the right anterior cingulate cortex [ACC] to the sensorimotor regions and decreased feedback from the sensorimotor regions to the right ACC); and (3) bilateral increased and decreased causal connectivities among the sensorimotor regions. Some correlations between the gray matter volume of the seeds, along with their causal effects and clinical variables (duration of untreated psychosis and symptom severity), were also observed in the patients. The findings indicated the partial effects of structural deficits in first-episode, drug-naive schizophrenia on the prefrontal-thalamic (limbic)-cerebellar (sensorimotor) circuit. Schizophrenia may reinforce the driving connectivities from the left MPFC or right ACC to the sensorimotor regions and may disrupt bilateral causal connectivities among the sensorimotor regions.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2014
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Schizophrenia Bulletin
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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      Other literature type . 2014
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      Schizophrenia Bulletin
      Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Lee, Tzu-Cheng; Ellin, Justin R.; Huang, Qiu; Shrestha, Uttam; +2 Authors

    Purpose:Several new technologies for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) instrumentation with parallel‐hole collimation have been proposed to improve detector sensitivity and signal collection efficiency. Benefits from improved signal efficiency include shorter acquisition times and lower dose requirements. In this paper, the authors show a possibility of over an order of magnitude enhancement in photon detection efficiency (from 7.6 × 10−5 to 1.6 × 10−3) for dopamine transporter (DaT) imaging of the striatum over the conventional SPECT parallel‐hole collimators by use of custom‐designed 20 multipinhole (20‐MPH) collimators with apertures of 0.75 cm diameter.Methods:Quantifying specific binding ratio (SBR) of 123I‐ioflupane or 123I‐iometopane's signal at the striatal region is a common brain imaging method to confirm the diagnosis of the Parkinson's disease. The authors performed imaging of a striatal phantom filled with aqueous solution of I‐123 and compared camera recovery ratios of SBR acquired between low‐energy high‐resolution (LEHR) parallel‐hole collimators and 20‐MPH collimators.Results:With only two‐thirds of total acquisition time (20 min against 30 min), a comparable camera recovery ratio of SBR was achieved using 20‐MPH collimators in comparison to that from the LEHR collimator study.Conclusions:Their systematic analyses showed that the 20‐MPH collimator could be a promising alternative for the DaT SPECT imaging for brain over the traditional LEHR collimator, which could give both shorter scan time and improved diagnostic accuracy.

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    Medical Physics
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2014
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    Medical Physics
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2014
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      Medical Physics
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    Authors: Liying Peng; Liying Peng; Lanfen Lin; Yusen Lin; +26 Authors

    The infant brain undergoes a remarkable period of neural development that is crucial for the development of cognitive and behavioral capacities (Hasegawa et al., 2018). Longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is able to characterize the developmental trajectories and is critical in neuroimaging studies of early brain development. However, missing data at different time points is an unavoidable occurrence in longitudinal studies owing to participant attrition and scan failure. Compared to dropping incomplete data, data imputation is considered a better solution to address such missing data in order to preserve all available samples. In this paper, we adapt generative adversarial networks (GAN) to a new application: longitudinal image prediction of structural MRI in the first year of life. In contrast to existing medical image-to-image translation applications of GANs, where inputs and outputs share a very close anatomical structure, our task is more challenging as brain size, shape and tissue contrast vary significantly between the input data and the predicted data. Several improvements over existing GAN approaches are proposed to address these challenges in our task. To enhance the realism, crispness, and accuracy of the predicted images, we incorporate both a traditional voxel-wise reconstruction loss as well as a perceptual loss term into the adversarial learning scheme. As the differing contrast changes in T1w and T2w MR images in the first year of life, we incorporate multi-contrast images leading to our proposed 3D multi-contrast perceptual adversarial network (MPGAN). Extensive evaluations are performed to assess the qualityand fidelity of the predicted images, including qualitative and quantitative assessments of the image appearance, as well as quantitative assessment on two segmentation tasks. Our experimental results show that our MPGAN is an effective solution for longitudinal MR image data imputation in the infant brain. We further apply our predicted/imputed images to two practical tasks, a regression task and a classification task, in order to highlight the enhanced task-related performance following image imputation. The results show that the model performance in both tasks is improved by including the additional imputed data, demonstrating the usability of the predicted images generated from our approach.

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    Frontiers in Neuroscience
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    Frontiers in Neuroscience
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      Frontiers in Neuroscience
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    Authors: Lou, M.; Chen, Z.; Wan, J.; Hu, H.; +3 Authors

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Asymmetric hypointensity of cerebral veins on susceptibility-weighted imaging has been shown to indirectly reflect tissue hypoxia after cerebral ischemia. We therefore investigated whether patients with prominent asymmetry of the cerebral veins on SWI and a relatively small diffusion-weighted imaging lesion (SWI-DWI mismatch), representing the presence of salvageable tissue, were more likely to benefit from thrombolytic therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of the anterior circulation of patients with ischemic stroke with SWI/DWI acquired before thrombolysis. The asymmetry index was defined as the ratio of cerebral vein voxel count between the ischemic and normal hemisphere on the SWI phase map. We defined SWI-DWI mismatch as an asymmetry index score of ≥1.75 with a DWI lesion volume of ≤25 mL. Favorable outcome was defined as modified Rankin Scale 0–2 at 3 months. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between the mismatch profile and favorable outcome. RESULTS: Fifty-four patients undergoing thrombolytic treatment were enrolled in this study. The rate of favorable outcome was significantly higher among patients with baseline SWI-DWI mismatch compared with those without (78% versus 44%; adjusted odds ratio, 6.317; 95% CI, 1.12–35.80; P = .037). Patients with SWI-DWI mismatch were also more likely to have a favorable outcome from reperfusion (91% versus 43%, P = .033) or recanalization (100% versus 40%, P = .013). The accuracy of SWI-DWI mismatch for predicting favorable outcome was higher than that of perfusion-diffusion mismatch (63% versus 48.1%). CONCLUSIONS: The presence of SWI-DWI mismatch may identify patients with ischemia who would benefit from early reperfusion therapy.

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    American Journal of Neuroradiology
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    American Journal of Neuroradiology
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    Authors: Liu, Yehan; An, S.; Deng, Z.; Fan, N.; +5 Authors

    Abstract. The relationships between different vegetation types and water yields were investigated in the Heishui Valley of the upper Yangtze River in western China. Contributions of groundwater and the water from surface and subsurface in different tributaries were, respectively, computed based on the stable isotope data, while the percentages of different vegetation covers were achieved by remote sensing in landscape scale. Based on the relationships between different vegetation types and water yields in seven watersheds, we found that reduction in the total vegetation, forest and subalpine coniferous forest covers could cause increasing in surface and subsurface water yields, while the water yield increased with the alpine shrub and meadow cover increasing, respectively. All the relationships were displayed as the low altitude and high altitude patterns, which were caused by the different vegetation characteristics and topography. We also found effects of the total vegetation cover played the most important role on water yield at large scale while the coniferous forest cover would affect the water yield at relatively small scale.

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    https://doi.org/10.5194/hessd-...
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      https://doi.org/10.5194/hessd-...
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    Authors: Pan, Xinlei; Qian, Tianyi; Fernandez-Seara, Maria A; Smith, Robert X; +4 Authors

    ORIGINAL RESEARCH Quantification of Liver Perfusion Using Multidelay Pseudocontinuous Arterial Spin Labeling Xinlei Pan, BS, 1 Tianyi Qian, PhD, 2 Maria A. Fernandez-Seara, PhD, 3 Robert X. Smith, PhD, 4 Kuncheng Li, MD, PhD, 5 Kui Ying, PhD, 6 Kyunghyun Sung, PhD, 7 and Danny J.J. Wang, PhD, MSCE 4,7 * Purpose: To develop a free-breathing multidelay pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL) technique for quanti- tative measurement of liver perfusion of the hepatic artery and portal vein, respectively. Materials and Methods: A navigator-gated pCASL sequence with balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) read- out was developed and applied on five healthy young volunteers at 3T. Two labeling schemes were performed with the labeling plane applied on the descending aorta above the liver, and perpendicular to the portal vein before its entry to liver to label the hepatic artery and portal vein, respectively. For each labeling scheme, pCASL scans were performed at five or six postlabeling delays between 200 and 2000 msec or 2500 msec with an interval of 400 or 500 msec. Multide- lay pCASL images were processed offline with nonrigid motion correction, outlier removal, and fitted for estimation of liver perfusion and transit time. Results: Estimated liver perfusion of the hepatic artery and hepatic portal vein were 21.8 6 1.9 and 95.1 6 8.9 mL/100g/ min, with the corresponding transit time of 1227.3 6 355.5 and 667.2 6 85.0 msec, respectively. The estimated liver per- fusion and transit time without motion correction were less reliable with greater residual variance compared to those processed with motion correction (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The liver perfusion measurement using multidelay pCASL showed good correspondence with values noted in the literature. The capability to noninvasively and selectively label the hepatic artery and portal vein is a unique strength of pCASL as compared to other liver perfusion imaging techniques, such as computed tomography perfusion and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2015;00:000–000. L iver diseases afflict more than 30 million people in the US, or 1 in 10 Americans. 1 The number of people diag- nosed with liver diseases such as hepatitis C, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and liver cancer are on the rise both in the US and worldwide. 2 Liver ultrasonography and magnetic res- onance imaging (MRI) are the two main imaging modalities for detecting, characterizing, and monitoring treatment responses of focal and diffuse liver diseases. 3–5 Ultrasonogra- phy remains the first-line imaging modality for examining liver morphology and blood flow; these are accentuated through the recent development of elastography. MRI offers multiparametric examinations of the morphology, perfusion, and diffusion of the liver. Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI and MR elastography (MRE) are two emerging tech- nologies capable of quantitative assessments of liver perfu- sion/permeability and viscoelasticity, respectively. Liver perfusion imaging is useful in detecting regional and global alterations in liver blood flow caused by a range View this article online at wileyonlinelibrary.com. DOI: 10.1002/jmri.25070 Received Jul 4, 2015, Accepted for publication Sep 24, 2015. *Address reprint requests to: D.J.J.W., Laboratory of Functional MRI Technology (LOFT), Department of Neurology, UCLA, 660 Charles E Young Dr. South, Los Angeles, CA 90095. E-mail: jwang71@gmail.com From the 1 Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China; 2 Siemens Healthcare, MR Collaboration NE Asia, Beijing, China; Neuroimaging Laboratory, Division of Neuroscience, Center for Applied Medical Research, University of Navarra, Spain; 4 Laboratory of Functional MRI Technology (LOFT), Department of Neurology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA; 5 Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, Beijing, China; 6 Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China; and 7 Department of Radiology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA. Additional Supporting Information may be found in the online version of this article. C 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. V

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    Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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      Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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    Authors: Liang Wang; Yanfang Li; Paul D. Metzak; Yong He; +1 Authors

    In this study we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate age-related changes in large-scale brain functional networks during memory encoding and recognition in 12 younger and 16 older adults. For each participant, functional brain networks were constructed by computing temporal correlation matrices of 90 brain regions and analyzed using graph theoretical approaches. We found the age-related changes mainly in the long-range connections with widespread reductions associated with aging in the fronto-temporal and temporo-parietal regions, and a few age-related increases in the posterior parietal regions. Graph theoretical analysis revealed that the older adults had longer path lengths linking different regions in the functional brain networks as compared to the younger adults. Further analysis indicated that the increases in shortest path length in the networks were combined with the loss of long-range connections. Finally, we showed that for older adults, frontal areas played reduced roles in the network (reduced regional centrality), whereas several default-mode regions played increased roles relative to younger subjects (increased regional centrality). Together, our results suggest that normal aging is associated with disruption of large-scale brain systems during the performance of memory tasks, which provides novel insights into the understanding of age-related decline in multiple cognitive functions.

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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2010 . Peer-reviewed
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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2009
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      NeuroImage
      Article . 2010 . Peer-reviewed
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      NeuroImage
      Article . 2009
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    Authors: Chenguang Zhao; Jialiang Guo; Dongwei Li; Ye Tao; +3 Authors

    AbstractIn covert visual attention, one fundamental question is how advance knowledge facilitates subsequent neural processing and behavioral performance. In this study, with a rapid event‐related simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) and functional near infrared spectroscopy recording in humans, we explored the potential contribution of anticipatory electrophysiological activation and hemodynamic activation by examining how anticipatory low‐frequency oscillations and changes in oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO) concentration influence the subsequent event‐related potential (ERP) marker of attentional selection. We found that expecting a target led to both a posterior lateralization of alpha‐band (8–12 Hz) oscillation power and a lateralization of HbO response over the visual cortex. Importantly, the magnitude of cue‐induced alpha lateralization was positively correlated with the nearby HbO lateralization in the visual cortex, and such a cue‐induced alpha lateralization predicted the subsequent target‐evoked N2pc amplitudes assumed to reflect attentional selection. Our results suggest that each individual's attentional selection biomarker as reflected by N2pc is predictable in advance via the anticipation‐induced alpha lateralization, and such cue‐induced alpha lateralization seems to play an important role in the functional coupling effects between the low‐frequency EEG and the nearby hemodynamic activation.

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    Human Brain Mapping
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      Human Brain Mapping
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