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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Liang Wang; Yanfang Li; Paul D. Metzak; Yong He; +1 Authors

    In this study we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate age-related changes in large-scale brain functional networks during memory encoding and recognition in 12 younger and 16 older adults. For each participant, functional brain networks were constructed by computing temporal correlation matrices of 90 brain regions and analyzed using graph theoretical approaches. We found the age-related changes mainly in the long-range connections with widespread reductions associated with aging in the fronto-temporal and temporo-parietal regions, and a few age-related increases in the posterior parietal regions. Graph theoretical analysis revealed that the older adults had longer path lengths linking different regions in the functional brain networks as compared to the younger adults. Further analysis indicated that the increases in shortest path length in the networks were combined with the loss of long-range connections. Finally, we showed that for older adults, frontal areas played reduced roles in the network (reduced regional centrality), whereas several default-mode regions played increased roles relative to younger subjects (increased regional centrality). Together, our results suggest that normal aging is associated with disruption of large-scale brain systems during the performance of memory tasks, which provides novel insights into the understanding of age-related decline in multiple cognitive functions.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NeuroImagearrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    NeuroImage
    Article . 2010 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
    Data sources: Crossref
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    NeuroImage
    Article . 2009
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NeuroImagearrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      NeuroImage
      Article . 2010 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier TDM
      Data sources: Crossref
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      NeuroImage
      Article . 2009
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Jin Liu; Mingrui Xia; Xindi Wang; Xuhong Liao; +1 Authors

    The chronnectome of the human brain represents dynamic connectivity patterns of brain networks among interacting regions, but its organization principle and related transcriptional signatures remain unclear. Using task-free fMRI data from the Human Connectome Project (681 participants) and microarray-based gene expression data from the Allen Institute for Brain Science (1791 brain tissue samples from six donors), we conduct a transcriptome-chronnectome association study to investigate the spatial configurations of dynamic brain networks and their linkages with transcriptional profiles. We first classify the dynamic brain networks into four categories of nodes according to their time-varying characteristics in global connectivity and modular switching: the primary sensorimotor regions with large global variations, the paralimbic/limbic regions with frequent modular switching, the frontoparietal cortex with both high global and modular dynamics, and the sensorimotor association cortex with limited dynamics. Such a spatial layout reflects the cortical functional hierarchy, microarchitecture, and primary connectivity gradient spanning from primary to transmodal areas, and the cognitive spectrum from perception to abstract processing. Importantly, the partial least squares regression analysis reveals that the transcriptional profiles could explain 28% of the variation in this spatial layout of network dynamics. The top-related genes in the transcriptional profiles are enriched for potassium ion channel complex and activity and mitochondrial part of the cellular component. These findings highlight the hierarchically spatial arrangement of dynamic brain networks and their coupling with the variation in transcriptional signatures, which provides indispensable implications for the organizational principle and cellular and molecular functions of spontaneous network dynamics.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NeuroImagearrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    NeuroImage
    Article . 2020
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    NeuroImage
    Article . 2020
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    NeuroImage
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC ND
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NeuroImagearrow_drop_down
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      NeuroImage
      Article . 2020
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      NeuroImage
      Article . 2020
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      NeuroImage
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Jessica A. Bernard; Joseph M. Orr; Vijay A. Mittal;

    While our understanding of cerebellar structural development through adolescence and young adulthood has expanded, we still lack knowledge of the developmental patterns of cerebellar networks during this critical portion of the lifespan. Volume in lateral posterior cerebellar regions associated with cognition and the prefrontal cortex develops more slowly, reaching their peak volume in adulthood, particularly as compared to motor Lobule V. We predicted that resting state functional connectivity of the lateral posterior regions would show a similar pattern of development during adolescence and young adulthood. That is, we expected to see changes over time in Crus I and Crus II connectivity with the cortex, but no changes in Lobule V connectivity. Additionally, we were interested in how structural connectivity changes in cerebello-thalamo-cortical white matter are related to changes in functional connectivity. A sample of 23 individuals between 12 and 21 years old underwent neuroimaging scans at baseline and 12-months later. Functional networks of Crus I and Crus II showed significant connectivity decreases over 12-months, though there were no differences in Lobule V. Furthermore, these functional connectivity changes were correlated with increases in white matter structural integrity in the corresponding cerebello-thalamo-cortical white matter tract. We suggest that these functional network changes are due to both later pruning in the prefrontal cortex as well as further development of the white matter tracts linking these brain regions.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Other literature type . 2015
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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    NeuroImage
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Other literature type . 2015
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      NeuroImage
      Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Authors: Brian E Russ; Christopher I Petkov; Sze Chai Kwok; Qi Zhu; +3 Authors

    Functional localizers are invaluable as they can help define regions of interest, provide cross-study comparisons, and most importantly, allow for the aggregation and meta-analyses of data across studies and laboratories. To achieve these goals within the non-human primate (NHP) imaging community, there is a pressing need for the use of standardized and validated localizers that can be readily implemented across different groups. The goal of this paper is to provide an overview of the value of localizer protocols to imaging research and we describe a number of commonly used or novel localizers within NHPs, and keys to implement them across studies. As has been shown with the aggregation of resting-state imaging data in the original PRIME-DE submissions, we believe that the field is ready to apply the same initiative for task-based functional localizers in NHP imaging. By coming together to collect large datasets across research group, implementing the same functional localizers, and sharing the localizers and data via PRIME-DE, it is now possible to fully test their robustness, selectivity and specificity. To do this, we reviewed a number of common localizers and we created a repository of well-established localizer that are easily accessible and implemented through the PRIME-RE platform. ispartof: NEUROIMAGE vol:237 ispartof: location:United States status: published

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2021
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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2021
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    NeuroImage
    Other literature type . Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Lirias
    Article . 2021
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Article . 2021
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      Article . 2021
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      Other literature type . Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2021
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    Authors: Benjamin Becker; Maria Steffens; Zhiying Zhao; Keith M. Kendrick; +6 Authors

    Animal studies suggest that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) dependent signalling in limbic and prefrontal regions is critically involved in both cognitive and emotional functions. In humans, ketamine-induced transient, and disorder associated chronic NMDAR hypofunction (i.e. in schizophrenia) has been associated with deficient performance in the domains of memory and higher-order emotional functioning, as well as altered neural activity in the underlying limbic-prefrontal circuits. To model the effects of NMDAR hypofunction on the integration of emotion and cognition the present pharmacological fMRI study applied the NMDAR antagonist ketamine (target plasma level = 100ng/ml) to 21 healthy volunteers in a within-subject placebo-controlled crossover design during encoding of neutral, positive and negative pictures. Our results show that irrespective of emotion, ketamine suppressed parahippocampal and medial prefrontal activity. In contrast, ketamine selectively increased amygdala and orbitofrontal activity during successful encoding of negative stimuli. On the network level ketamine generally increased medial prefrontal-parahippocampal coupling while specifically decreasing amygdala-orbitofrontal interplay during encoding of negative stimuli. On the behavioural level, ketamine produced generally decreased memory performance and abolished the emotional enhancement of memory after a wash-out period of 5 days. The present findings suggest that ketamine produces general as well as valence-specific effects during emotional memory formation. The pattern partly overlaps with alterations previously observed in patients with schizophrenia.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ King's Research Port...arrow_drop_down
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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2016
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ King's Research Port...arrow_drop_down
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      NeuroImage
      Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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      NeuroImage
      Article . 2016
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      NeuroImage
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    Authors: Wen Zhang; Nai Ding;

    When listening to continuous speech, cortical activity measured by MEG concurrently follows the rhythms of multiple linguistic structures, e.g., syllables, phrases, and sentences. This phenomenon was previously characterized in the frequency domain. Here, we investigate the waveform of neural activity tracking linguistic structures in the time domain and quantify the coherence of neural response phases over subjects listening to the same stimulus. These analyses are achieved by decomposing the multi-channel MEG recordings into components that maximize the correlation between neural response waveforms across listeners. Each MEG component can be viewed as the recording from a virtual sensor that is spatially tuned to a cortical network showing coherent neural activity over subjects. This analysis reveals information not available from previous frequency-domain analysis of MEG global field power: First, concurrent neural tracking of hierarchical linguistic structures emerges at the beginning of the stimulus, rather than slowly building up after repetitions of the same sentential structure. Second, neural tracking of the sentential structure is reflected by slow neural fluctuations, rather than, e.g., a series of short-lasting transient responses at sentential boundaries. Lastly and most importantly, it shows that the MEG responses tracking the syllabic rhythm are spatially separable from the MEG responses tracking the sentential and phrasal rhythms.

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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2016
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      NeuroImage
      Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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      NeuroImage
      Article . 2016
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    Authors: Tianhao Zhang; Qi Huang; Chunxiang Jiao; Hua Liu; +7 Authors

    Abstract Metabolic brain network, which is based on functional correlation patterns of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) images, has been widely applied in both basic and clinical neuroscience. Exploring the properties of the metabolic brain network can provide valuable insight to the physiologic and pathologic processes of the brain. Based on the network theory, modular architecture has the ability to limit the spread of local perturbation impact and therefore modular networks are more robust against external damage. However, whether the metabolic brain network has modular architecture remains unknown. Methods 77 rats performed 18F-FDG PET brain imaging. The metabolic brain network was then constructed by measuring interregional metabolic correlation in inter-subject manner. Afterwards, modular architecture of the network was detected by a greedy algorithm. Further, we perturbed the metabolic brain network by inducing focal photothrombotic ischemia in the bilateral motor cortex and then measured the glucose metabolic change of each brain region using FDG-PET. Results A significant modular architecture was found in the metabolic brain network. The network could be divided into four modules which corresponding approximately to executive, learning/memory, visual/auditory and sensorimotor processing functional domains. After inducing the focal ischemia on the bilateral motor cortex, most of the significantly changed brain regions (13 of 17) belong to the sensorimotor module. Conclusion Our results revealed an inherent modular architecture in the metabolic brain network and gave an experimental evidence that the modularity of the metabolism brain network could limit the spread of local perturbation impact.

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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2018
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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      NeuroImage
      Article . 2018
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      NeuroImage
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Li, Rui; Chen, Kewei; Fleisher, Adam S.; Reiman, Eric M.; +2 Authors

    This study examined the large-scale connectivity among multiple resting-state networks (RSNs) in the human brain. Independent component analysis was first applied to the resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) data acquired from 12 healthy young subjects for the separation of RSNs. Four sensory (lateral and medial visual, auditory, and sensory-motor) RSNs and four cognitive (default-mode, self-referential, dorsal and ventral attention) RSNs were identified. Gaussian Bayesian network (BN) learning approach was then used for the examination of the conditional dependencies among these RSNs and the construction of the network-to-network directional connectivity patterns. The BN based results demonstrated that sensory networks and cognitive networks were hierarchically organized. Specially, we found the sensory networks were highly intra-dependent and the cognitive networks were strongly intra-influenced. In addition, the results depicted dominant bottom-up connectivity from sensory networks to cognitive networks in which the self-referential and the default-mode networks might play respectively important roles in the process of resting-state information transfer and integration. The present study characterized the global connectivity relations among RSNs and delineated more characteristics of spontaneous activity dynamics.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2011
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2011
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      NeuroImage
      Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Jing Huang; Fang Wang; Yulong Ding; Haijing Niu; +3 Authors

    Abstract Understanding the properties of attentional control, along with the neural mechanisms subserving them, has long invited intense scrutiny in research groups. However, it has not been demonstrated how the top-down anticipatory hemodynamic activation influences the subsequent attentional processing of targets and distractors. Here, with concurrent fNIRS–ERP recording, we explored the potential contribution of anticipatory oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO) based brain activity to attentional control by examining how HbO influences the subsequent ERP N2pc components assumed to reflect attentional selection. We found that expecting a target led to a larger increase of preparatory HbO response over the visual cortex contralateral to the upcoming target, which was positively correlated with the subsequent target-evoked N2pc amplitude. Further, anticipation concerning the presence of a competing distractor resulted in large and prolonged preparatory HbO signals in the visual cortex contralateral to the distractor, indicating that the salient distractor might be actively suppressed by preparatory top-down attentional control. However, the pre-suppressed distractor still captured part of the attention in the subsequent visual search as revealed by a decrease in the N2pc amplitude, and such a distraction effect on N2pc was negatively correlated with preparatory HbO enhancement contralateral to the anticipated distractor. Overall, each individuals attentional shift to the target and resistance to the distractor measured by ERP is predictable in advance via anticipatory hemodynamic activity in the visual cortex measured by fNIRS.

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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2014
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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2014
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      NeuroImage
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Andrew C N, Chen; Weijia, Feng; Huixuan, Zhao; Yanling, Yin; +1 Authors

    Eyes-closed (EC) and eyes-open (EO) are essential behaviors in mammalians, including man. At resting EC-EO state, brain activity in the default mode devoid of task-demand has recently been established in fMRI. However, the corresponding comprehensive electrophysiological conditions are little known even though EEG has been recorded in humans for nearly 80 years. In this study, we examined the spatial characteristics of spectral distribution in EEG field powers, i.e., sitting quietly with an EC and EO resting state of 3 min each, measured with high-density 128-ch EEG recording and FFT signal analyses in 15 right-handed healthy college females. Region of interest was set at a threshold at 90% of the spectral effective value to delimit the dominant spatial field power of effective energy in brain activity. Low-frequency delta (0.5-3.5 Hz) EEG field power was distributed at the prefrontal area with great expansion of spatial field and enhancement of field power (t=-2.72, p<0.02) from the EC to the EO state. Theta (4-7 Hz) EEG field power was distributed over the fronto-central area and leaned forward from EC to the EO state but with drastic reduction in field power (t=4.04, p<0.01). The middle-frequency alpha-1 (7.5-9.5 Hz) and alpha-2 (10-12 Hz) EEG powers exhibited bilateral distribution over the posterior areas with an anterior field in lower alpha-1. Both showed significantly reduction of field powers (respectively, W=120, p<0.001 for alpha-1; t=4.12, p<0.001 for alpha-2) from EC to the EO state. Beta-1 (13-23 Hz) exhibited a similar spatial region over the posterior area as in alpha-2 and showed reduction of field power (t=4.42, p<0.001) from EC to the EO state. In contrast, high-frequency beta-2 and gamma band exhibited similar, mainly prefrontal distribution in field power, and exhibited no change from EC to the EO state. Corresponding correlation analyses indicated significant group association between EC and EO only in the field powers of delta (r=0.95, p<0.001) and theta (r=0.77, p<0.001) band. In addition, the great inter-individual variability (90 folds in alpha-1, 62 folds in alpha-2) in regional field power was largely observed in the EC state (10 folds) than the EO state in subjects. To summarize, our study depicts a network of spectral EEG activities simultaneously operative at well defined regional fields in the EC state, varying specifically between EC and EO states. In contrast to transient EEG spectral rhythmic dynamics, current study of long-lasting (e.g. 3 min) spectral field powers can characterize state features in EEG. The EEG default mode network (EEG-DMN) of spectral field powers at rest in the respective EC or EO state is valued to serve as the basal electrophysiological condition in human brain. In health, this EEG-DMN is deemed essential for evaluation of brain functions without task demands for gender difference, developmental change in age span, and brain response to task activation. It is expected to define brain dysfunction in disease at resting state and with consequences for sensory, affective and cognitive alteration in the human brain.

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    Article . 2007
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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2008 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2007
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      Article . 2008 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Liang Wang; Yanfang Li; Paul D. Metzak; Yong He; +1 Authors

    In this study we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate age-related changes in large-scale brain functional networks during memory encoding and recognition in 12 younger and 16 older adults. For each participant, functional brain networks were constructed by computing temporal correlation matrices of 90 brain regions and analyzed using graph theoretical approaches. We found the age-related changes mainly in the long-range connections with widespread reductions associated with aging in the fronto-temporal and temporo-parietal regions, and a few age-related increases in the posterior parietal regions. Graph theoretical analysis revealed that the older adults had longer path lengths linking different regions in the functional brain networks as compared to the younger adults. Further analysis indicated that the increases in shortest path length in the networks were combined with the loss of long-range connections. Finally, we showed that for older adults, frontal areas played reduced roles in the network (reduced regional centrality), whereas several default-mode regions played increased roles relative to younger subjects (increased regional centrality). Together, our results suggest that normal aging is associated with disruption of large-scale brain systems during the performance of memory tasks, which provides novel insights into the understanding of age-related decline in multiple cognitive functions.

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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2010 . Peer-reviewed
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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2009
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      Article . 2010 . Peer-reviewed
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      NeuroImage
      Article . 2009
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    Authors: Jin Liu; Mingrui Xia; Xindi Wang; Xuhong Liao; +1 Authors

    The chronnectome of the human brain represents dynamic connectivity patterns of brain networks among interacting regions, but its organization principle and related transcriptional signatures remain unclear. Using task-free fMRI data from the Human Connectome Project (681 participants) and microarray-based gene expression data from the Allen Institute for Brain Science (1791 brain tissue samples from six donors), we conduct a transcriptome-chronnectome association study to investigate the spatial configurations of dynamic brain networks and their linkages with transcriptional profiles. We first classify the dynamic brain networks into four categories of nodes according to their time-varying characteristics in global connectivity and modular switching: the primary sensorimotor regions with large global variations, the paralimbic/limbic regions with frequent modular switching, the frontoparietal cortex with both high global and modular dynamics, and the sensorimotor association cortex with limited dynamics. Such a spatial layout reflects the cortical functional hierarchy, microarchitecture, and primary connectivity gradient spanning from primary to transmodal areas, and the cognitive spectrum from perception to abstract processing. Importantly, the partial least squares regression analysis reveals that the transcriptional profiles could explain 28% of the variation in this spatial layout of network dynamics. The top-related genes in the transcriptional profiles are enriched for potassium ion channel complex and activity and mitochondrial part of the cellular component. These findings highlight the hierarchically spatial arrangement of dynamic brain networks and their coupling with the variation in transcriptional signatures, which provides indispensable implications for the organizational principle and cellular and molecular functions of spontaneous network dynamics.

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    Article . 2020
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    Article . 2020
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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2020
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      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Jessica A. Bernard; Joseph M. Orr; Vijay A. Mittal;

    While our understanding of cerebellar structural development through adolescence and young adulthood has expanded, we still lack knowledge of the developmental patterns of cerebellar networks during this critical portion of the lifespan. Volume in lateral posterior cerebellar regions associated with cognition and the prefrontal cortex develops more slowly, reaching their peak volume in adulthood, particularly as compared to motor Lobule V. We predicted that resting state functional connectivity of the lateral posterior regions would show a similar pattern of development during adolescence and young adulthood. That is, we expected to see changes over time in Crus I and Crus II connectivity with the cortex, but no changes in Lobule V connectivity. Additionally, we were interested in how structural connectivity changes in cerebello-thalamo-cortical white matter are related to changes in functional connectivity. A sample of 23 individuals between 12 and 21 years old underwent neuroimaging scans at baseline and 12-months later. Functional networks of Crus I and Crus II showed significant connectivity decreases over 12-months, though there were no differences in Lobule V. Furthermore, these functional connectivity changes were correlated with increases in white matter structural integrity in the corresponding cerebello-thalamo-cortical white matter tract. We suggest that these functional network changes are due to both later pruning in the prefrontal cortex as well as further development of the white matter tracts linking these brain regions.

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    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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