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10,055 Research products

  • Neuroinformatics
  • 2019-2023
  • Open Access
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ningtao Li; Ningtao Li; Ning Xu; Yunan Lin; +7 Authors

    Testosterone (T), predominantly acting through its derivative 17β-estradiol (E2), regulates the brain’s sexual differentiation in rodents during the perinatal sensitive period, which mirrors the window of vulnerability to the adverse effects of general anesthetics. The mechanisms of anesthesia’s adverse effects are poorly understood. We investigated whether sevoflurane alters T and E2 levels and whether they contribute to sevoflurane’s acute adverse effects in postnatal day 5 Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats underwent electroencephalography recordings for 2 h of baseline activity or for 1 h before and another hour during 2.1% sevoflurane exposure, followed by collection of trunk blood and brain tissue. Pharmacological agents, including the GABA type A receptor inhibitor bicuculline and the aromatase inhibitor formestane, were administered 30 min before sevoflurane anesthesia. Sevoflurane increased serum T levels in males only. All other effects of sevoflurane were similar in both sexes, including increases in serum levels of E2, hypothalamic mRNA levels of aromatase, estrogen receptor α (Erα) [not estrogen receptor β (Erβ)], Na+-K+-Cl− cotransporter (Nkcc1)/K+-Cl− cotransporter (Kcc2) mRNA ratio, electroencephalography-detectable seizures, and stress-like corticosterone secretion. Bicuculline and formestane alleviated these effects, except the T level increases. The ERα antagonist MPP, but not the ERβ antagonist PHTPP, reduced electroencephalography-detectable seizures and normalized the Nkcc1/Kcc2 mRNA ratio. Collectively, sevoflurane exacerbates levels of T in males and E2 in both sexes during the period of their organizational effects in rodents. Sevoflurane acts through GABAAR-mediated, systemic T-independent elevation of E2 to cause electroencephalography-detectable seizures, stress-like corticosterone secretion, and changes in the expression of genes critical for brain development.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Frontiers in Endocrinology
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Frontiers in Endocrinology
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2020
      Data sources: PubMed Central
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Endocrinology
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Endocrinology
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Jie Xiang; Cheng Tian; Yan Niu; Ting Yan; +7 Authors

    The complexity change in brain activity in schizophrenia is an interesting topic clinically. Schizophrenia patients exhibit abnormal task-related modulation of complexity, following entropy of electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis. However, complexity modulation in schizophrenia patients during the sensory gating (SG) task, remains unknown. In this study, the classical auditory paired-stimulus paradigm was introduced to investigate SG, and EEG data were recorded from 55 normal controls and 61 schizophrenia patients. Fuzzy entropy (FuzzyEn) was used to explore the complexity of brain activity under the conditions of baseline (BL) and the auditory paired-stimulus paradigm (S1 and S2). Generally, schizophrenia patients showed significantly higher FuzzyEn values in the frontal and occipital regions of interest (ROIs). Relative to the BL condition, the normalized values of FuzzyEn of normal controls were decreased greatly in condition S1 and showed less variance in condition S2. Schizophrenia patients showed a smaller decrease in the normalized values in condition S1. Moreover, schizophrenia patients showed significant diminution in the suppression ratios of FuzzyEn, attributed to the higher FuzzyEn values in condition S1. These results suggested that entropy modulation during the process of sensory information and SG was obvious in normal controls and significantly deficient in schizophrenia patients. Additionally, the FuzzyEn values measured in the frontal ROI were positively correlated with positive scores of Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), indicating that frontal entropy was a potential indicator in evaluating the clinical symptoms. However, negative associations were found between the FuzzyEn values of occipital ROIs and general and total scores of PANSS, likely reflecting the compensation effect in visual processing. Thus, our findings provided a deeper understanding of the deficits in sensory information processing and SG, which contribute to cognitive deficits and symptoms in patients with schizophrenia.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2019
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
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    Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2019
      Data sources: PubMed Central
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
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      Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Y. Zhang; Alexander Rauscher; Christian Kames; Alexander M. Weber;

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: It is difficult to distinguish punctate white matter lesions from focal hemorrhagic lesions in neonates on conventional MR imaging because both kinds of lesions show increased signal intensity on T1-weighted images and, frequently, decreased signal intensity on T2-weighted images. Our aim was to distinguish punctate white matter lesions and focal hemorrhagic lesions using quantitative measures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the current study, we acquired multiecho gradient recalled-echo MR imaging data from 24 neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and postprocessed them as R2* relaxation maps and quantitative susceptibility maps. Seven subjects who were found to have multifocal punctate white matter lesions and/or focal hemorrhagic lesions on R2* maps were included (mean gestational age at birth, 33 ± 4.28 weeks; mean gestational age at scanning, 38 ± 2 weeks). Manually drawing ROIs on R2* maps, we measured R2* and magnetic susceptibility values of the lesions, along with white matter regions within the corpus callosum as healthy comparison tissue. RESULTS: R2* and magnetic susceptibility values were both found to easily distinguish punctate white matter lesions, focal hemorrhagic lesions, and healthy white matter tissue from each other (P < .05), with a large Hedge g. R2* and magnetic susceptibility values were significantly increased in focal hemorrhagic lesions compared with punctate white matter lesions and healthy white matter tissue. Punctate white matter lesions were also found to have significantly increased values over healthy white matter tissue. CONCLUSIONS: R2* and quantitative susceptibility maps can be used to help clinicians distinguish and measure focal hemorrhages, punctate white matter lesions, and healthy white matter tissue.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ American Journal of ...arrow_drop_down
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    American Journal of Neuroradiology
    Article
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2019
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    American Journal of Neuroradiology
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ American Journal of ...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      American Journal of Neuroradiology
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2019
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      American Journal of Neuroradiology
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Maria Luisa Bringas Vega; Shengnan Liu; Min Zhang; Ivonne Pedroso Ibáñez; +5 Authors

    AbstractWe used EEG source analysis to identify which cortical areas were involved in the automatic and controlled processes of inhibitory control on a flanker task and compared the potential efficacy of recombinant-human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) on the performance of Parkinson’ s Disease patients.The samples were 18 medicated PD patients (nine of them received rHuEPO in addition to their usual anti-PD medication through random allocation and the other nine patients were on their regular anti-PD medication only) and 9 age and education-matched healthy controls (HCs) who completed the flanker task with simultaneous EEG recordings. N1 and N2 event-related potential (ERP) components were identified and a low-resolution tomography (LORETA) inverse solution was employed to localize the neural generators.Reaction times and errors were increased for the incongruent flankers for PD patients compared to controls. EEG source analysis identified an effect of rHuEPO on the lingual gyri for the early N1 component. N2-related sources in middle cingulate and precuneus were associated with the inhibition of automatic responses evoked by incongruent stimuli differentiated PD and HCs.From our results rHuEPO, seems to mediate an effect on N1 sources in lingual gyri but not on behavioural performance. N2-related sources in middle cingulate and precuneus evoked by incongruent stimuli differentiated PD and HCs.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020
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    Parkinson's Disease
    Article . 2020
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    Parkinson's Disease
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    Parkinson's Disease
    Article . Preprint
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2020
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      Parkinson's Disease
      Article . 2020
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      Parkinson's Disease
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Parkinson's Disease
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Zhibin, He; Lei, Du; Ying, Huang; Xi, Jiang; +4 Authors

    Abstract Prior studies reported the global structure of brain networks exhibits the “small-world” and “rich-world” attributes. However, the underlying structural and functional architecture highlighted by these graph theory findings hasn’t been explicitly related to the morphology of the cortex. This could be attributed to the lower resolution of used folding patterns, such as gyro-sulcal patterns. By defining a novel gyral folding pattern, termed gyral hinge (GH), which is the conjunction of ordinary gyri from multiple directions, we found GHs possess the highest length and cost in the white matter fiber connective network, and the shortest paths in the network tend to travel through GHs in their middle part. Based on these findings, we would hypothesize GHs could reside in the centers of a network core, thereby accounting for the highest cost and the highest communication capacity in a corticocortical network. The following results further support our hypothesis: 1) GHs possess stronger functional network integration capacity. 2) Higher cost is found on the connection with GHs to hinges and GHs to GHs. 3) Moving GHs introduces higher extra network cost. Our findings and hypotheses could reveal a profound relationship among the cortical folding patterns, axonal wiring architectures, and brain functions.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Cerebral Cortexarrow_drop_down
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    Cerebral Cortex
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: OUP Standard Publication Reuse
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    Cerebral Cortex
    Article . 2021
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      Cerebral Cortex
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      Cerebral Cortex
      Article . 2021
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    Authors: Meng-Yao, Li; Xiao-Bin, Lou; Yan-Qin, Cui; Rou-Yi, Lin; +8 Authors

    Abstract OBJECTIVES The postoperative risk factors for electroencephalogram(EEG) abnormalities after paediatric cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) remain to be identified. We investigated the characteristics of EEG abnormalities and risk factors in routine clinical management post-CPB. METHODS EEG and cerebral oxygen saturation (ScO2) were monitored in 96 patients (aged 3 days, 37 months, median 5 months) for 72 h post-CPB. Clinical measurements included 4-hourly arterial and central venous pressure, arterial blood gases, doses of inotropic and vasoactive drugs, daily C-reactive protein (CRP) and NT-proB-type Natriuretic Peptide (NT-proBNP). Demographics, STAT categories and outcomes (duration of mechanical ventilation,CICU stay) were recorded. Un RESULTS Seizures occurred in 20 patients (20.8%) beginning at 0–48 hand lasting 10 min–31 h; background abnormalities occurred in 67 (69.8%) beginning at 0–8 h and lasting 4–48 h. Patients with EEG abnormalities had worse outcomes. In univariable regression, seizures positively correlated with STAT categories, CPB time, temperature, blood pressure, central venous pressure, NT-proBNP, CRP, lactate and epinephrine, negatively with ScO2 and PaCO2 (P &lt; 0.001 for lactate and epinephrine, P &lt; 0.1 for the remaining). The degree of background abnormalities positively correlated with STAT categories, CPB time, operative time, central venous pressure, milrinone, negatively with blood pressure (P = 0.0003–0.087); it negatively correlated with lower dose of epinephrine (P &lt; 0.001) and positively with higher dose (P = 0.03l). In multivariable regression, seizures positively correlated with epinephrine, lactate and temperature; the background abnormality correlations remain significant except for milrinone and operative time (P &lt; 0.001 for epinephrine, P &lt; 0.05 for the remaining). CONCLUSIONS Numerous perioperative risk factors are associated with EEG abnormalities post-CPB. The most significant and consistent risk factor is epinephrine.

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    Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Shafik, Andrew M.; Zhang, Feiran; Guo, Zhenxing; Dai, Qing; +9 Authors

    AbstractBackgroundN6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification is known to impact many aspects of RNA metabolism, including mRNA stability and translation, and is highly prevalent in the brain.ResultsWe show that m6A modification displays temporal and spatial dynamics during neurodevelopment and aging. Genes that are temporally differentially methylated are more prone to have mRNA expression changes and affect many pathways associated with nervous system development. Furthermore, m6A shows a distinct tissue-specific methylation profile, which is most pronounced in the hypothalamus. Tissue-specific methylation is associated with an increase in mRNA expression and is associated with tissue-specific developmental processes. During the aging process, we observe significantly more m6A sites as age increases, in both mouse and human. We show a high level of overlap between mouse and human; however, humans at both young and old ages consistently show more m6A sites compared to mice. Differential m6A sites are found to be enriched in alternative untranslated regions of genes that affect aging-related pathways. These m6A sites are associated with a strong negative effect on mRNA expression. We also show that many Alzheimer-related transcripts exhibit decreased m6A methylation in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease, which is correlated with reduced protein levels.ConclusionsOur results suggest that m6A exerts a critical function in both early and late brain development in a spatio-temporal fashion. Furthermore, m6A controls protein levels of key genes involved in Alzheimer’s disease-associated pathways, suggesting that m6A plays an important role in aging and neurodegenerative disease.

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    Genome Biology
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Lingling Zhang; Kuan Hu; Tuo Shao; Lu Hou; +10 Authors

    The 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO), previously known as the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, is predominately localized to the outer mitochondrial membrane in steroidogenic cells. Brain TSPO expression is relatively low under physiological conditions, but is upregulated in response to glial cell activation. As the primary index of neuroinflammation, TSPO is implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of numerous neuropsychiatric disorders and neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Parkinson's disease (PD), multiple sclerosis (MS), major depressive disorder (MDD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). In this context, numerous TSPO-targeted positron emission tomography (PET) tracers have been developed. Among them, several radioligands have advanced to clinical research studies. In this review, we will overview the recent development of TSPO PET tracers, focusing on the radioligand design, radioisotope labeling, pharmacokinetics, and PET imaging evaluation. Additionally, we will consider current limitations, as well as translational potential for future application of TSPO radiopharmaceuticals. This review aims to not only present the challenges in current TSPO PET imaging, but to also provide a new perspective on TSPO targeted PET tracer discovery efforts. Addressing these challenges will facilitate the translation of TSPO in clinical studies of neuroinflammation associated with central nervous system diseases. Graphical abstract The 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) expression in the central nervous system is upregulated in response to glial cell activation. There is a great potential for the future application of TSPO radioligands as diagnostic and prognostic tools, as well as for assessing therapeutic interventions for neurologic diseases.Image 1

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B
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    Authors: Yuanyuan Yin; Shushu He; Jingchen Xu; Wanfang You; +8 Authors

    AbstractChronic pain surrounding the temporomandibular joints and masticatory muscles is often the primary chief complaint of patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) seeking treatment. Yet, the neuro-pathophysiological basis underlying it remains to be clarified. Neuroimaging techniques have provided a deeper understanding of what happens to brain structure and function in TMD patients with chronic pain. Therefore, we performed a systematic review of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies investigating structural and functional brain alterations in TMD patients to further unravel the neurobiological underpinnings of TMD-related pain. Online databases (PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science) were searched up to August 3, 2019, as complemented by a hand search in reference lists. A total of 622 papers were initially identified after duplicates removed and 25 studies met inclusion criteria for this review. Notably, the variations of MRI techniques used and study design among included studies preclude a meta-analysis and we discussed the findings qualitatively according to the specific neural system or network the brain regions were involved in. Brain changes were found in pathways responsible for abnormal pain perception, including the classic trigemino-thalamo-cortical system and the lateral and medial pain systems. Dysfunction and maladaptive changes were also identified in the default mode network, the top-down antinociceptive periaqueductal gray-raphe magnus pathway, as well as the motor system. TMD patients displayed altered brain activations in response to both innocuous and painful stimuli compared with healthy controls. Additionally, evidence indicates that splint therapy can alleviate TMD-related symptoms by inducing functional brain changes. In summary, MRI research provides important novel insights into the altered neural manifestations underlying chronic pain in TMD.

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    Article . 2020
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    The Journal of Headache and Pain
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    The Journal of Headache and Pain
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    Authors: Yijing Zhang; Jinfei Ma; Chi Zhang; Ruosong Chang;

    Abstract With the continuous improvement of automated vehicles, researchers have found that automated driving is more likely to cause insufficient mental workload for the driver, which induces passive fatigue and endangers traffic safety. To explore the impact of automation and scenario complexity on the passive fatigue of the driver, we developed a three-factor, 2 (automated driving, manual driving) × 2 (monotonic condition, engaging condition) × 6 (measurement stage: 1–6) mixed experiment. We collected electroencephalography (EEG), detection-response task (DRT) performance, and the subjective report scores of 48 drivers. We found that in automated driving under monotonic conditions, the topographic map’s activation range of the drivers brain was the smallest in the six stages, and the mental workload of this group continued to maintain the lowest state at each stage; however, the subjectively reported fatigue level was significantly increased; thus, the driver experienced passive fatigue. After simulating a low-load scenario for 40 min, the power of the alpha of the driver’s EEG indicators increased significantly, the accuracy of the detection reaction task decreased, and the reaction time became slower. The EEG sample’s entropy value of the driver’s passive fatigue was 0.243, and the judgement accuracy rate was 0.71. We proved that in automated driving under monotonic conditions, the driver is more prone to passive fatigue owing to insufficient mental workload.

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    https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3....
    Preprint . 2021
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      https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3....
      Preprint . 2021
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ningtao Li; Ningtao Li; Ning Xu; Yunan Lin; +7 Authors

    Testosterone (T), predominantly acting through its derivative 17β-estradiol (E2), regulates the brain’s sexual differentiation in rodents during the perinatal sensitive period, which mirrors the window of vulnerability to the adverse effects of general anesthetics. The mechanisms of anesthesia’s adverse effects are poorly understood. We investigated whether sevoflurane alters T and E2 levels and whether they contribute to sevoflurane’s acute adverse effects in postnatal day 5 Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats underwent electroencephalography recordings for 2 h of baseline activity or for 1 h before and another hour during 2.1% sevoflurane exposure, followed by collection of trunk blood and brain tissue. Pharmacological agents, including the GABA type A receptor inhibitor bicuculline and the aromatase inhibitor formestane, were administered 30 min before sevoflurane anesthesia. Sevoflurane increased serum T levels in males only. All other effects of sevoflurane were similar in both sexes, including increases in serum levels of E2, hypothalamic mRNA levels of aromatase, estrogen receptor α (Erα) [not estrogen receptor β (Erβ)], Na+-K+-Cl− cotransporter (Nkcc1)/K+-Cl− cotransporter (Kcc2) mRNA ratio, electroencephalography-detectable seizures, and stress-like corticosterone secretion. Bicuculline and formestane alleviated these effects, except the T level increases. The ERα antagonist MPP, but not the ERβ antagonist PHTPP, reduced electroencephalography-detectable seizures and normalized the Nkcc1/Kcc2 mRNA ratio. Collectively, sevoflurane exacerbates levels of T in males and E2 in both sexes during the period of their organizational effects in rodents. Sevoflurane acts through GABAAR-mediated, systemic T-independent elevation of E2 to cause electroencephalography-detectable seizures, stress-like corticosterone secretion, and changes in the expression of genes critical for brain development.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020
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    Frontiers in Endocrinology
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Frontiers in Endocrinology
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      Frontiers in Endocrinology
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    Authors: Jie Xiang; Cheng Tian; Yan Niu; Ting Yan; +7 Authors

    The complexity change in brain activity in schizophrenia is an interesting topic clinically. Schizophrenia patients exhibit abnormal task-related modulation of complexity, following entropy of electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis. However, complexity modulation in schizophrenia patients during the sensory gating (SG) task, remains unknown. In this study, the classical auditory paired-stimulus paradigm was introduced to investigate SG, and EEG data were recorded from 55 normal controls and 61 schizophrenia patients. Fuzzy entropy (FuzzyEn) was used to explore the complexity of brain activity under the conditions of baseline (BL) and the auditory paired-stimulus paradigm (S1 and S2). Generally, schizophrenia patients showed significantly higher FuzzyEn values in the frontal and occipital regions of interest (ROIs). Relative to the BL condition, the normalized values of FuzzyEn of normal controls were decreased greatly in condition S1 and showed less variance in condition S2. Schizophrenia patients showed a smaller decrease in the normalized values in condition S1. Moreover, schizophrenia patients showed significant diminution in the suppression ratios of FuzzyEn, attributed to the higher FuzzyEn values in condition S1. These results suggested that entropy modulation during the process of sensory information and SG was obvious in normal controls and significantly deficient in schizophrenia patients. Additionally, the FuzzyEn values measured in the frontal ROI were positively correlated with positive scores of Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), indicating that frontal entropy was a potential indicator in evaluating the clinical symptoms. However, negative associations were found between the FuzzyEn values of occipital ROIs and general and total scores of PANSS, likely reflecting the compensation effect in visual processing. Thus, our findings provided a deeper understanding of the deficits in sensory information processing and SG, which contribute to cognitive deficits and symptoms in patients with schizophrenia.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2019
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    Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
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    Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
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      Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
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