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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Opitz, Alexander; Legon, Wynn; Rowlands, Abby; Bickel, Warren K.; +2 Authors

    Recent evidence indicates subject-specific gyral folding patterns and white matter anisotropy uniquely shape electric fields generated by TMS. Current methods for predicting the brain regions influenced by TMS involve projecting the TMS coil position or center of gravity onto realistic head models derived from structural and functional imaging data. Similarly, spherical models have been used to estimate electric field distributions generated by TMS pulses delivered from a particular coil location and position. In the present paper we inspect differences between electric field computations estimated using the finite element method (FEM) and projection-based approaches described above. We then more specifically examined an approach for estimating cortical excitation volumes based on individualistic FEM simulations of electric fields. We evaluated this approach by performing neurophysiological recordings during MR-navigated motormapping experiments. We recorded motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in response to single pulse TMS using two different coil orientations (45 degrees and 90 degrees to midline) at 25 different locations (5 x 5 grid, 1 cm spacing) centered on the hotspot of the right first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle in left motor cortex. We observed that motor excitability maps varied within and between subjects as a function of TMS coil position and orientation. For each coil position and orientation tested, simulations of the TMS-induced electric field were computed using individualistic FEM models and compared to MEP amplitudes obtained during our motormapping experiments. We found FEM simulations of electric field strength, which take into account subject-specific gyral geometry and tissue conductivity anisotropy, significantly correlated with physiologically observed MEP amplitudes (r(max) = 0.91, p = 1.8 x 10(-5) r(mean) = 0.81, p = 0.01). These observations validate the implementation of individualistic FEM models to account for variations in gyral folding patterns and tissue conductivity anisotropy, which should help improve the targeting accuracy of TMS in the mapping or modulation of human brain circuits. (C) 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NeuroImagearrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    NeuroImage
    Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC ND
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    NeuroImage
    Article . 2013
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NeuroImagearrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      NeuroImage
      Article . 2013 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY NC ND
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      NeuroImage
      Article . 2013
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Endres, Kristina; Reinhardt, Sven; Geladaris, Anastasia; Knies, Julia; +3 Authors

    Background Murine models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are mainly based on overexpression of pathologic amyloid precursor protein and/or presenilins. Those genes resemble underlying cause of early onset type of AD while about 99 % of all human cases are to be characterized as sporadic, late onset. Appropriate animal models for this type of AD are still missing. We here investigated, if transnasal delivery of A-beta 42 peptides might serve to mimic pathological effects in mice. Results A-beta 42 peptides, used for the behavioral study, showed the expected dose-dependent toxicity in neur oblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y and were able to form higher molecular weight species in vitro. Upon delivery into nostrils of wild type mice, protein bands that might represent aggregation products of the exogenously applied human A-beta 42 were only observed in total brain homogenates from mice pre-treated with mannitol. By using TAMRA-labeled A-beta 42 peptides we demonstrated, that transport throughout the brain was achieved already 1 h after administration. FVB/N mice treated with A-beta 42 for 3 days were significantly impaired in the cue-retention condition of the fear conditioning task as compared to controls whereas A-beta-treated C57B6/J mice were impaired in the context condition. In the Morris water maze test, these mice also displayed a delayed learning performance, indicated by significantly longer time to find the platform. Those deficits were also seen for memory performance in the probe trial as measured by number of crossings of the former platform position and time spent in the goal quadrant. Conclusions Existing AD mouse models are of genetic origin and need prolonged housing time before onset of pathology. Our short-term treatment induced learning and memory deficits via exogenous application of A-beta peptides comparable to those observed for the transgenic animals. With the transnasal A-beta 42 treatment we present an approach to investigate purely A-beta related changes suitable as a model for symptoms of Alzheimer’s dementia (AD). Resulting behavioral deficits were indicative for familial type of Alzheimer’s disease as well as for the late onset variant. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12868-016-0280-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2016
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    https://doi.org/10.25358/opens...
    Other literature type . 2016
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Article . 2016
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      https://doi.org/10.25358/opens...
      Other literature type . 2016
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Rebecca J. Williams; Elliot C. Brown; Darren L. Clark; G. Bruce Pike; +1 Authors

    Abstract Introduction Pre‐treatment blood oxygenation level‐dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been used for the early identification of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) who later respond or fail to respond to medication. However, BOLD responses early after treatment initiation may offer insight into early neural changes associated with later clinical response. The present study evaluated both pre‐treatment and early post‐treatment fMRI responses to an emotion processing task, to further our understanding of neural changes associated with a successful response to pharmacological intervention. Methods MDD patients who responded (n = 22) and failed to respond (n = 12) after 8 weeks of treatment with either citalopram or quetiapine extended release, and healthy controls (n = 18) underwent two fMRI scans, baseline (pre‐treatment), and early post‐treatment (one week after treatment commencement). Participants completed an emotional face matching task at both scans. Results Using threshold‐free cluster enhancement (TFCE) and non‐parametric permutation testing, fMRI activation maps showed that after one week of treatment, responders demonstrated increased activation in the left parietal lobule, precentral gyrus, and bilateral insula (all P < 0.05 threshold‐free cluster enhancement (TFCE) family‐wise error‐corrected) to negative facial expressions. Non‐responders showed some small increases in the precentral gyrus, while controls showed no differences between scans. Compared to non‐responders, responders showed some increased activation in the superior parietal lobule and middle temporal gyrus at the post‐treatment scan. There were no group differences between responders, non‐responders, and controls at baseline. Conclusions One week after treatment commencement, BOLD signal changes in the parietal lobules, insula, and middle temporal gyrus were related to clinical response to pharmacological treatment. Patients diagnosed MDD who later went on to respond to medication showed robust BOLD increases after one week of treatment to an emotion processing task. There were no differences between responders, non‐responders and healthy controls at baseline, indicating that BOLD fMRI can be used to identify mediating markers of treatment response.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2021
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    Brain and Behavior
    Article . 2021
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    Brain and Behavior
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    Brain and Behavior
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2021
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      Brain and Behavior
      Article . 2021
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Brain and Behavior
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Bersano, Anna; Bedini, Gloria; Markus, Hugh Stephen; Vitali, Paolo; +80 Authors

    Background: Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is the most common familial cerebral small vessel disease, caused by NOTCH3 gene mutations. The aim of our study was to identify clinical and neuroradiological features which would be useful in identifying which patients presenting with lacunar stroke and TIA are likely to have CADASIL. Methods: Patients with lacunar stroke or TIA were included in the present study. For each patient, demographic and clinical data were collected. MRI images were centrally analysed for the presence of lacunar infarcts, microbleeds, temporal lobe involvement, global atrophy and white matter hyperintensities. Results: 128 patients (mean age 56.3 ± 12.4 years) were included. A NOTCH3 mutation was found in 12.5% of them. A family history of stroke, the presence of dementia and external capsule lesions on MRI were the only features significantly associated with the diagnosis of CADASIL. Although thalamic, temporal pole gliosis and severe white matter hyperintensities were less specific for CADASIL diagnosis, the combination of a number of these factors together with familial history for stroke result in a higher positive predictive value and specificity. Conclusions: A careful familial history collection and neuroradiological assessment can identify patients in whom NOTCH3 genetic testing has a higher yield.

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    Other literature type . 2018
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    Journal of Neurology
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Article . 2019
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      Other literature type . 2018
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Journal of Neurology
      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Springer TDM
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      Apollo
      Article . 2019
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    Authors: Savary, E.; Rojas, K.; Maus, M.; Clement, B.; +15 Authors

    We present a search for galaxy-scale strong gravitational lenses in the initial 2 500 square degrees of the Canada-France Imaging Survey (CFIS). We designed a convolutional neural network (CNN) committee that we applied to a selection of 2 344 002 exquisite-seeing $r$-band images of color-selected luminous red galaxies (LRGs). Our classification uses a realistic training set where the lensing galaxies and the lensed sources are both taken from real data, namely the CFIS $r$-band images themselves and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). A total of 9 460 candidates obtain a score above 0.5 with the CNN committee. After a visual inspection of the candidates, we find a total of 133 lens candidates, of which 104 are completely new. The set of false positives mainly contains ring, spiral, and merger galaxies, and to a lesser extent galaxies with nearby companions. We classify 32 of the lens candidates as secure lenses and 101 as maybe lenses. For the 32 highest quality lenses, we also fit a singular isothermal ellipsoid mass profile with external shear along with an elliptical Sersic profile for the lens and source light. This automated modeling step provides distributions of properties for both sources and lenses that have Einstein radii in the range $0.5\arcsec<θ_E<2.5\arcsec$. Finally, we introduce a new lens and/or source single-band deblending algorithm based on auto-encoder representation of our candidates. This is the first time an end-to-end lens-finding and modeling pipeline is assembled together, in view of future lens searches in a single band, as will be possible with Euclid. 29 pages, 21 figures, accepted by A&A, in press

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    Astronomy and Astrophysics
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Other literature type . 2021
    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
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      Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Ming-Wei Chao; Chie-Pein Chen; Yu-Hsiu Yang; Yu-Chen Chuang; +2 Authors

    AbstractOxidative stress and inflammatory insults are the major instigating events of bacterial intrauterine infection that lead to fetal brain injury. The purpose of this study is to investigate the remedial effects of N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) for inflammation-caused deficits in brain development. We found that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by RAW264.7 cells. Macrophage-conditioned medium caused noticeable cortical cell damage, specifically in cortical neurons. LPS at 25 μg/kg caused more than 75% fetal loss in rats. An increase in fetal cortical thickness was noted in the LPS-treated group. In the enlarged fetal cortex, laminar positioning of the early born cortical cells expressing Tbr1 and Ctip2 was disrupted, with a scattered distribution. The effect was similar, but minor, in later born Satb2-expressing cortical cells. NAC protected against LPS-induced neuron toxicity in vitro and counteracted pregnancy loss and alterations in thickness and lamination of the neocortex in vivo. Fetal loss and abnormal fetal brain development were due to LPS-induced ROS production. NAC is an effective protective agent against LPS-induced damage. This finding highlights the key therapeutic impact of NAC in LPS-caused abnormal neuronal laminar distribution during brain development.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2016
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    Scientific Reports
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      Europe PubMed Central
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      Scientific Reports
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    Authors: Benjamin H. Brinkmann; Philippa J. Karoly; Ewan S. Nurse; Ewan S. Nurse; +10 Authors

    It is a major challenge in clinical epilepsy to diagnose and treat a disease characterized by infrequent seizures based on patient or caregiver reports and limited duration clinical testing. The poor reliability of self-reported seizure diaries for many people with epilepsy is well-established, but these records remain necessary in clinical care and therapeutic studies. A number of wearable devices have emerged, which may be capable of detecting seizures, recording seizure data, and alerting caregivers. Developments in non-invasive wearable sensors to measure accelerometry, photoplethysmography (PPG), electrodermal activity (EDA), electromyography (EMG), and other signals outside of the traditional clinical environment may be able to identify seizure-related changes. Non-invasive scalp electroencephalography (EEG) and minimally invasive subscalp EEG may allow direct measurement of seizure activity. However, significant network and computational infrastructure is needed for continuous, secure transmission of data. The large volume of data acquired by these devices necessitates computer-assisted review and detection to reduce the burden on human reviewers. Furthermore, user acceptability of such devices must be a paramount consideration to ensure adherence with long-term device use. Such devices can identify tonic-clonic seizures, but identification of other seizure semiologies with non-EEG wearables is an ongoing challenge. Identification of electrographic seizures with subscalp EEG systems has recently been demonstrated over long (>6 month) durations, and this shows promise for accurate, objective seizure records. While the ability to detect and forecast seizures from ambulatory intracranial EEG is established, invasive devices may not be acceptable for many individuals with epilepsy. Recent studies show promising results for probabilistic forecasts of seizure risk from long-term wearable devices and electronic diaries of self-reported seizures. There may also be predictive value in individuals' symptoms, mood, and cognitive performance. However, seizure forecasting requires perpetual use of a device for monitoring, increasing the importance of the system's acceptability to users. Furthermore, long-term studies with concurrent EEG confirmation are lacking currently. This review describes the current evidence and challenges in the use of minimally and non-invasive devices for long-term epilepsy monitoring, the essential components in remote monitoring systems, and explores the feasibility to detect and forecast impending seizures via long-term use of these systems. Copyright © 2021 Brinkmann, Karoly, Nurse, Dumanis, Nasseri, Viana, Schulze-Bonhage, Freestone, Worrell, Richardson and Cook. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2021
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    Frontiers in Neurology
    Article . 2021
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    Frontiers in Neurology
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      Frontiers in Neurology
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    Authors: Elvira Brattico; Brigitte Bogert; Vinoo Alluri; Mari Tervaniemi; +2 Authors

    Emotion-related areas of the brain, such as the medial frontal cortices, amygdala, and striatum, are activated during listening to sad or happy music as well as during listening to pleasurable music. Indeed, in music, like in other arts, sad and happy emotions might co-exist and be distinct from emotions of pleasure or enjoyment. Here we aimed at discerning the neural correlates of sadness or happiness in music as opposed those related to musical enjoyment. We further investigated whether musical expertise modulates the neural activity during affective listening of music. To these aims, 13 musicians and 16 non-musicians brought to the lab their most liked and disliked musical pieces with a happy and sad connotation. Based on a listening test, we selected the most representative 18 sec excerpts of the emotions of interest for each individual participant. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) recordings were obtained while subjects listened to and rated the excerpts. The cortico-thalamo-striatal reward circuit and motor areas were more active during liked than disliked music, whereas only the auditory cortex and the right amygdala were more active for disliked over liked music. These results discern the brain structures responsible for the perception of sad and happy emotions in music from those related to musical enjoyment. We also obtained novel evidence for functional differences in the limbic system associated with musical expertise, by showing enhanced liking-related activity in fronto-insular and cingulate areas in musicians. Peer reviewed

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    Durham Research Online
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    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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    Jyväskylä University Digital Archive
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    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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      Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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      Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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      Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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      Jyväskylä University Digital Archive
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
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      Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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      Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Hibar, Derrek P; Stein, Jason L; Aribisala, Benjamin S; de Zubicaray, Greig I; +244 Authors

    Contains fulltext : 144426.pdf (Publisher’s version ) (Closed access) Contains fulltext : 144426pre.pdf (Author’s version preprint ) (Open Access) The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement, learning, memory and motivation, and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease. To investigate how common genetic variants affect the structure of these brain regions, here we conduct genome-wide association studies of the volumes of seven subcortical regions and the intracranial volume derived from magnetic resonance images of 30,717 individuals from 50 cohorts. We identify five novel genetic variants influencing the volumes of the putamen and caudate nucleus. We also find stronger evidence for three loci with previously established influences on hippocampal volume and intracranial volume. These variants show specific volumetric effects on brain structures rather than global effects across structures. The strongest effects were found for the putamen, where a novel intergenic locus with replicable influence on volume (rs945270; P = 1.08 x 10(-33); 0.52% variance explained) showed evidence of altering the expression of the KTN1 gene in both brain and blood tissue. Variants influencing putamen volume clustered near developmental genes that regulate apoptosis, axon guidance and vesicle transport. Identification of these genetic variants provides insight into the causes of variability in human brain development, and may help to determine mechanisms of neuropsychiatric dysfunction. 6 p.

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    MPG.PuRe
    Article . 2015
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    Nature
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    Europe PubMed Central
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    NARCIS
    Article . 2015
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Nature
    Article . 2015
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Nature
    Article . 2015
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      MPG.PuRe
      Article . 2015
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Nature
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      Europe PubMed Central
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      Article . 2015
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      Article . 2015
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      Other literature type . 2015
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      Article . 2015
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      Article . 2015
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      Nature
      Article . 2015
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      NARCIS
      Article . 2015
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      Nature
      Article . 2015
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