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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Marc-Thorsten Hütt; Marcus Kaiser; Claus C. Hilgetag;

    The understanding of neural activity patterns is fundamentally linked to an understanding of how the brain's network architecture shapes dynamical processes. Established approaches rely mostly on deviations of a given network from certain classes of random graphs. Hypotheses about the supposed role of prominent topological features (for instance, the roles of modularity, network motifs or hierarchical network organization) are derived from these deviations. An alternative strategy could be to study deviations of network architectures from regular graphs (rings and lattices) and consider the implications of such deviations for self-organized dynamic patterns on the network. Following this strategy, we draw on the theory of spatio-temporal pattern formation and propose a novel perspective for analysing dynamics on networks, by evaluating how the self-organized dynamics are confined by network architecture to a small set of permissible collective states. In particular, we discuss the role of prominent topological features of brain connectivity, such as hubs, modules and hierarchy, in shaping activity patterns. We illustrate the notion of network-guided pattern formation with numerical simulations and outline how it can facilitate the understanding of neural dynamics.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Philosophical Transa...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2014
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B Biological Sciences
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Royal Society Data Sharing and Accessibility
    Data sources: Crossref
    https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
    Article . 2014
    License: arXiv Non-Exclusive Distribution
    Data sources: Datacite
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Philosophical Transa...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2014
      Data sources: PubMed Central
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B Biological Sciences
      Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Royal Society Data Sharing and Accessibility
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      https://doi.org/10.48550/arxiv...
      Article . 2014
      License: arXiv Non-Exclusive Distribution
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Alizadeh, Mahdi; Fisher, Joshua; Saksena, Sona; Sultan, Yusra; +8 Authors

    The aim of this study is to assess the utility and effectiveness of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) of the entire pediatric cervical and thoracic spinal cord toward discrimination of typically developing (TD) controls and subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI). A total of 43 pediatric subjects, including 23 TD subjects ranging in age from 6 to 16 years old and 20 subjects with SCI ranging in age from 7 to 16 years, were recruited and scanned using a 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance scanner. Reduced field of view diffusion tensor images were acquired axially to cover the entire spinal cord across two slabs. For DTI analysis, motion correction was performed by coregistration of the diffusion-weighted images to the reference image (b0). Streamline deterministic tractography results were generated from the preprocessed data. DTI and DTT parameters of the whole cord, including fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), tract length, and tract density, were calculated, averaged across the whole spinal cord, and compared between the TD and SCI groups. Statistically significant decreases have been shown in FA (TD = 0.46 ± 0.11; SCI = 0.37 ± 0.09; p < 0.0001) and tract density (TD = 405.93 ± 243.84; SCI = 268.90 ± 270.34; p < 0.0001). However, the mean length of tracts and MD did not show significant differences. When investigating differences in DTI and DTT parameters above and below the injury site, it was shown that the FA and tract density in patients with cervical SCI decreased significantly in the thoracic region. An identical trend was observed in the cervical region for patients with thoracic SCI as well. When comparing TD and SCI subjects, FA and tract density were the most sensitive parameters in detecting functional changes of the spinal cord in chronic pediatric SCI. The results show that both DTI and DTT have the potential to be imaging biomarkers in the diagnosis of SCI.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2018
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Journal of Neurotrauma
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Mary Ann Liebert TDM
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2018
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Journal of Neurotrauma
      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Temizer, Incinur; Donovan, Joseph C.; Baier, Herwig; Semmelhack, Julia L.;

    SummaryAvoiding the strike of an approaching predator requires rapid visual detection of a looming object, followed by a directed escape maneuver. While looming-sensitive neurons have been discovered in various animal species, the relative importance of stimulus features that are extracted by the visual system is still unclear. Furthermore, the neural mechanisms that compute object approach are largely unknown. We found that a virtual looming stimulus, i.e., a dark expanding disk on a bright background, reliably evoked rapid escape movements. Related stimuli, such as dimming, receding, or bright looming objects, were substantially less effective, and angular size was a critical determinant of escape initiation. Two-photon calcium imaging in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons revealed three retinorecipient areas that responded robustly to looming stimuli. One of these areas, the optic tectum, is innervated by a subset of RGC axons that respond selectively to looming stimuli. Laser-induced lesions of the tectal neuropil impaired the behavior. Our findings demonstrate a visually mediated escape behavior in zebrafish larvae exposed to objects approaching on a collision course. This response is sensitive to spatiotemporal parameters of the looming stimulus. Our data indicate that a subset of RGC axons within the tectum responds selectively to features of looming stimuli and that this input is necessary for visually evoked escape.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Current Biologyarrow_drop_down
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    Current Biology
    Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier Non-Commercial
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Current Biology
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    https://doi.org/10.12751/nncn....
    Conference object . 2015
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Current Biologyarrow_drop_down
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      Current Biology
      Article . 2015 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier Non-Commercial
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Current Biology
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      https://doi.org/10.12751/nncn....
      Conference object . 2015
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    Authors: Shafik, Andrew M.; Zhang, Feiran; Guo, Zhenxing; Dai, Qing; +9 Authors

    AbstractBackgroundN6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification is known to impact many aspects of RNA metabolism, including mRNA stability and translation, and is highly prevalent in the brain.ResultsWe show that m6A modification displays temporal and spatial dynamics during neurodevelopment and aging. Genes that are temporally differentially methylated are more prone to have mRNA expression changes and affect many pathways associated with nervous system development. Furthermore, m6A shows a distinct tissue-specific methylation profile, which is most pronounced in the hypothalamus. Tissue-specific methylation is associated with an increase in mRNA expression and is associated with tissue-specific developmental processes. During the aging process, we observe significantly more m6A sites as age increases, in both mouse and human. We show a high level of overlap between mouse and human; however, humans at both young and old ages consistently show more m6A sites compared to mice. Differential m6A sites are found to be enriched in alternative untranslated regions of genes that affect aging-related pathways. These m6A sites are associated with a strong negative effect on mRNA expression. We also show that many Alzheimer-related transcripts exhibit decreased m6A methylation in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease, which is correlated with reduced protein levels.ConclusionsOur results suggest that m6A exerts a critical function in both early and late brain development in a spatio-temporal fashion. Furthermore, m6A controls protein levels of key genes involved in Alzheimer’s disease-associated pathways, suggesting that m6A plays an important role in aging and neurodegenerative disease.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2021
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    Article . 2021
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    Genome Biology
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2021
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      Genome Biology
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Rossitza Draganova; Frank Konietschke; Katharina M. Steiner; Naveen Elangovan; +7 Authors

    AbstractCerebellar degeneration progressively impairs motor function. Recent research showed that cerebellar patients can improve motor performance with practice, but the optimal feedback type (visual, proprioceptive, verbal) for such learning and the underlying neuroplastic changes are unknown. Here, patients with cerebellar degeneration (N = 40) and age‐ and sex‐matched healthy controls (N = 40) practiced single‐joint, goal‐directed forearm movements for 5 days. Cerebellar patients improved performance during visuomotor practice, but a training focusing on either proprioceptive feedback, or explicit verbal feedback and instruction did not show additional benefits. Voxel‐based morphometry revealed that after training gray matter volume (GMV) was increased prominently in the visual association cortices of controls, whereas cerebellar patients exhibited GMV increase predominantly in premotor cortex. The premotor cortex as a recipient of cerebellar efferents appears to be an important hub in compensatory remodeling following damage of the cerebro‐cerebellar motor system.

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    Human Brain Mapping
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    Human Brain Mapping
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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      Human Brain Mapping
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      Human Brain Mapping
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Nora A. Herweg; Ashwini Sharan; Michael R. Sperling; Armin Brandt; +2 Authors

    The medial temporal lobe (MTL) is known as the locus of spatial coding and episodic memory, but the interaction between these cognitive domains as well as the extent to which they rely on common neurophysiological mechanisms is poorly understood. Here, we use intracranial electroencephalography and a hybrid spatial-episodic memory task (29 subjects, 15 female) to determine how spatial information is dynamically reactivated in subregions of the human MTL and how this reactivation guides recall of episodic information. Our results implicate theta oscillations across the MTL as a common neurophysiological substrate for spatial coding in navigation and episodic recall. We further show that our index of retrieved spatial context is high in the hippocampus (HC) in an early time window preceding recall. Closer to recall, it decreases in the HC and increases in the parahippocampal gyrus. Finally, we demonstrate that hippocampal theta phase modulates parahippocampal gamma amplitude during retrieval of spatial context, suggesting a role for cross-frequency coupling in coding and transmitting retrieved spatial information.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTBy recording from the human medial temporal lobe (MTL) while subjects recall items experienced in a virtual environment, we establish a direct relation between the strength of theta activity during memory search and the extent to which memories are organized by their spatial locations. We thereby pinpoint a role for theta oscillations in accessing the “cognitive map” during episodic retrieval and further highlight the dynamic interplay of hippocampus and extrahippocampal MTL in representing retrieved spatial context. Our results provide an important step toward a unified theory of MTL function encompassing its role in spatial navigation and episodic memory.

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    bioRxiv
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    Journal of Neuroscience
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2020
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    Journal of Neuroscience
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2020
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      Journal of Neuroscience
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: T, Grunwald; K, Lehnertz; H J, Heinze; C, Helmstaedter; +1 Authors

    Animal studies and neuropsychological tests of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy have demonstrated the importance of human medial temporal lobes for memory formation. In addition, more recent studies have shown that the human hippocampal region is also involved in novelty detection. However, the exact contribution of the hippocampus proper to these processes is still unknown. To examine further its role we compared event-related potentials recorded within the medial temporal lobes in 29 temporal lobe epilepsy patients with and 21 without hippocampal sclerosis. While in patients with extrahippocampal lesions but without hippocampal sclerosis event-related potentials to first presentations and repetitions of words were reduced on the side of the epileptogenic focus, in patients with hippocampal sclerosis only those to first presentations but not to repetitions were affected. Because sclerosis of the hippocampus proper selectively reduced event-related potentials to new but not old verbal stimuli, it can be concluded that the human hippocampus proper contributes to verbal novelty detection.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 1998
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    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
    Article . 1998 . Peer-reviewed
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      Europe PubMed Central
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      Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
      Article . 1998 . Peer-reviewed
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    AbstractSimulating transcranial electric stimulation is actively researched as knowledge about the distribution of the electrical field is decisive for understanding the variability in the elicited stimulation effect. Several software pipelines comprehensively solve this task in an automated manner for standard use-cases. However, simulations for non-standard applications such as uncommon electrode shapes or the creation of head models from non-optimized T1-weighted imaging data and the inclusion of irregular structures are more difficult to accomplish.We address these limitations and suggest a comprehensive workflow to simulate transcranial electric stimulation based on open-source tools. The workflow covers the head model creation from MRI data, the electrode modeling, the modeling of anisotropic conductivity behavior of the white matter, the numerical simulation and visualization.Skin, skull, air cavities, cerebrospinal fluid, white matter, and gray matter are segmented semi-automatically from T1-weighted MR images. Electrodes of arbitrary number and shape can be modeled. The meshing of the head model is implemented in a way to preserve feature edges of the electrodes and is free of topological restrictions of the considered structures of the head model. White matter anisotropy can be computed from diffusion-tensor imaging data.Our solver application was verified analytically and by contrasting tDCS simulation results with another simulation pipeline (SimNIBS 3.0). An agreement in both cases underlines the validity of our workflow.Our suggested solutions facilitate investigations of irregular structures in patients (e.g. lesions, implants) or of new electrode types. For a coupled use of the described workflow, we provide documentation and disclose the full source code of the developed tools.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020
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    bioRxiv
    Preprint . 2020
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    MPG.PuRe
    Article . 2020
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    PLoS ONE
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    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2020
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      PLoS ONE
      Article . 2020
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    Authors: Rene Terporten; Jan-Mathijs Schoffelen; Bohan Dai; Peter Hagoort; +1 Authors

    ABSTRACT Within the sensory domain, alpha/beta oscillations have been frequently linked to the prediction of upcoming sensory input. Here, we investigated whether oscillations at these frequency bands serve as a neural marker in the context of linguistic input prediction as well. Specifically, we hypothesized that if alpha/beta oscillations do index language prediction, their power should modulate during sentence processing, indicating stronger engagement of underlying neuronal populations involved in the linguistic prediction process. Importantly, the modulation should monotonically relate to the degrees of predictability of incoming words based on past context. Specifically, we expected that the more predictable the last word of a sentence, the stronger the alpha/beta power modulation. To test this, we measured neural responses with magnetoencephalography of healthy individuals (of either sex) during exposure to a set of linguistically matched sentences featuring three distinct levels of sentence context constraint (high, medium and low constraint). We observed fluctuations in alpha/beta power before last word onset, and also modulations in M400 amplitude after last word onset that are known to gradually relate to semantic predictability. In line with previous findings, the M400 amplitude was monotonically related to the degree of context constraint, with a high constraining context resulting in the strongest amplitude decrease. In contrast, alpha/beta power was non-monotonically related to context constraints. The strongest power decrease was observed for intermediate constraints, followed by high and low constraints. While the monotonous M400 amplitude modulation fits within a framework of prediction, the non-monotonous oscillatory results are not easily reconciled with this idea. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Neural activity in the alpha (8-10Hz) and beta (16-20) frequency ranges have been related to the prediction of upcoming sensory input. It remains still debated whether these frequency bands relate to language prediction as well. In this magnetoencephalography study, we recorded alpha/beta oscillatory activity while participants listened to sentences whose ending had varying degree of predictability based on past linguistic information. Our results show that alpha/beta power modulations were non-monotonically related to the degree of linguistic predictability: the strongest modulation of alpha/beta power was observed for intermediate levels of linguistic predictability during sentence reading. Together, the results emphasize that alpha/beta oscillations cannot directly be linked to predictability in language, but potentially relate to attention or control operations during language processing.

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    Preprint . 2018
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2019
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    Scientific Reports
    Article . 2019
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    Scientific Reports
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    Authors: E. Markakis; F. Theophilo; R. Heyer; L. Stoeppler;

    The article reports on 13 cases of agenesis of the perisylvian region in patients aged 2 to 53 years. The agenesis occurred in the temporal operculum in 7 cases, in the frontal operculum in 5 cases and the whole fronto-parieto-temporal region in one case. The agenesis was always associated with space requiring arachnoidal cysts. Symphyses and obstruction of the flow of the basal CSF spaces were also seen. In 85% of the patients were males. The patients tend to decompensate after light cerebrocranial trauma, and in many cases surgery reveals a subdural haematoma which fills the aplastic region, due to detachment of the exposed cerebral veins effecting basal drainage. In the remaining cases, surgery was performed because of general signs of cerebral compression, exarcebation of an existing disease associated with attacks, or because of the space occupying character of the concomitant arachnoidal cysts. In patients with agenesis of the perisylvian region without space occupying arachnoidal cysts, surgery is not performed for the time being, instead, regular neurological and CAT-Scan control is effected.

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    Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria
    Article . 1981 . Peer-reviewed
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    Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria
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      Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria
      Article . 1981 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Marc-Thorsten Hütt; Marcus Kaiser; Claus C. Hilgetag;

    The understanding of neural activity patterns is fundamentally linked to an understanding of how the brain's network architecture shapes dynamical processes. Established approaches rely mostly on deviations of a given network from certain classes of random graphs. Hypotheses about the supposed role of prominent topological features (for instance, the roles of modularity, network motifs or hierarchical network organization) are derived from these deviations. An alternative strategy could be to study deviations of network architectures from regular graphs (rings and lattices) and consider the implications of such deviations for self-organized dynamic patterns on the network. Following this strategy, we draw on the theory of spatio-temporal pattern formation and propose a novel perspective for analysing dynamics on networks, by evaluating how the self-organized dynamics are confined by network architecture to a small set of permissible collective states. In particular, we discuss the role of prominent topological features of brain connectivity, such as hubs, modules and hierarchy, in shaping activity patterns. We illustrate the notion of network-guided pattern formation with numerical simulations and outline how it can facilitate the understanding of neural dynamics.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2014
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    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B Biological Sciences
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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      Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B Biological Sciences
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