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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Colombo, Pamela;

    Pour produire une profonde reconfiguration sociopolitique, la dictature civilo-militaire en Argentine (1976-1983) n’a pas seulement mis en œuvre un système de disparition forcée des personnes, elle a également essayé une réorganisation territoriale et urbaine au niveau national. Nous nous intéressons ici à l’un de ces programmes : la création de villages stratégiques. Notre recherche a pour objectif de comprendre comment l’État met en œuvre des projets d’ingénierie sociale dans lesquels la réinvention spatiale de territoires périphériques a pour objectif de modifier radicalement un groupe social ainsi que la situation économico-politique de la zone concernée. Pour cela, nous analysons la création du village Fuerte Esperanza dans la Province du Chaco, dans le cadre de ce qui a été appelé la « Campagne de l’Ouest » déployée dans la région de « El Impenetrable » (1976-1980). Nous démontrons comment la création de Fuerte Esperanza, sous couvert d’un programme dit de « développement », avait aussi une fonction de contre-insurrection. Nous essayons de comprendre et de déconstruire les discours et les pratiques autour de ces types de programmes d’« action civique militaire ». De plus, nous soutenons pour la première fois qu’il existe des continuités entre la création de ce village et d’autres programmes similaires de la même époque en Argentine (principalement dans la province de Tucumán). In order to produce a thorough-going sociopolitical reconfiguration, Argentina’s civilian-military dictatorship (1976-1983) did not merely implement a system for the forced disappearance of individuals but also undertook territorial and urban reorganization at the national level. The present article considers one of these programs: the creation of strategic villages. My research seeks to understand how the state implements social engineering projects in which the spatial reinvention of peripheral territories sought to radically modify a social group and the political-economic situation of the zone in question. To do so, I examine the creation of Chaco Province’s Fuerte Esperanza village in the framework of what was known as the “Western Campaign” undertaken in the “El Impenetrable” region (1976-1980). I show how, under cover of what was presented as a “development program”, Fuerte Esperanza was also created for purposes of counterinsurgency. I seek to understand and deconstruct the discourses and practices associated with these types of “military civic action” programs. Moreover, I am the first to advance the argument that continuities existed between the creation of this village and other similar programs of the time in Argentina (mainly in the province of Tucumán).

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    Authors: Sagnard, Maxime; Berthe, Laurent; ECAULT, Romain; Touchard, Fabienne; +1 Authors

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    Authors: Tillier, Mathieu;

    Cet article entreprend de retracer les innovations judiciaires qui eurent lieu en Égypte au premier âge abbasside, à travers une étude des cadis connus pour avoir été les premiers à adopter une pratique donnée. Dans la seconde moitié du IIe/VIIIe siècle, le rayonnement du milieu juridique égyptien - attaché de manière critique à l'école médinoise - se manifesta jusqu'à la cour abbasside, qui construisit en partie sa centralité par assimilation de modèles provinciaux. L'attraction à Bagdad de plusieurs juristes ou cadis égyptiens provoqua en retour, à Fusṭāṭ, l'adoption de nouvelles pratiques judiciaires vraisemblablement inspirées par des modèles iraqiens. La centralisation de la judicature par al-Manṣūr et ses successeurs, qui envoyèrent en Égypte une série de cadis formés en Iraq, accentua encore l'influence des pratiques iraqiennes sur le tribunal de Fusṭāṭ. Paradoxalement, l'affirmation de l'autorité centrale sur la judicature égyptienne mit également en branle une dynamique d'innovations provinciales : la désignation à Fusṭāṭ de cadis non égyptiens provoqua une réorganisation de l'appareil judiciaire au tournant du IIIe/IXe siècle, notamment par la création de nouveaux réseaux et la mise en place d'un corps de témoins professionnels dont l'usage contamina d'autres provinces du califat. This article recounts the judicial innovations that developed in Egypt during the early Abbasid caliphate, through an analysis of qāḍī-s who were the first to adopt a legal practice. The Egyptian legal milieu, which was critically committed to the Medinese school, had some influence in the middle of the 2nd/8th century as far as the Abbasid court, which developed partly its centrality by assimilating provincial models. In return, the attraction of several prominent jurists or qāḍī-s to Bagdad caused the adoption, in Fusṭāṭ, of new judicial practices inspired by Iraqi models. Centralisation of judgeship under al-Manṣūr and his successors, who send in Egypt a series of qāḍī-s trained in Iraq, increased even more the influence of Iraqi practices on the court of Fusṭāṭ. As a paradox, the reinforcement of central authority on the Egyptian judgeship set also in motion a dynamic of local innovations: the designation in Fusṭāṭ of non-Egyptian qāḍī-s caused a reorganisation of the court at the turn of the 3rd/9th century, in particular by the creation of new networks and the setting up of a body of professional witnesses, an institution which spread in other provinces of the caliphate.

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    Other literature type . 2011
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    Authors: DRAPIER, Sandrine;

    La fiction romanesque cédant le pas aux réalités contemporaines, les organisations internationales tentent – en raison des surcoûts occasionnés dans le commerce mondial – d’éradiquer la piraterie maritime. Si l’Océan constitue, enprincipe, un espace pacifique, la multiplication d’arsenaux flottants pose tout à la fois des questions de droit international, de territorialisation de la mer et d’évaluation des risques. La privatisation de missions régaliennes de protection des navires en mer devient un commerce lucratif auquel la France n’a pas voulu ou su résister. Une loi du 1er juillet 2014 consacre les « entreprises privées de protection des navires » en tant que sociétés commerciales dont l’objet est de protéger en mer les navires battant pavillon français contre les menaces extérieures, ainsi que l’équipage et les biens à bord. Aucune réglementation internationale ne vient pourtant encadrer les activités des sociétés privées de sécurité en mer. Parmi l’ensemble des interrogations que soulève le dispositif national, comme par exemple le rôle du capitaine dans les zonesà risques, l’accord des pays traversés à titre pacifique ou les risques liés à la présence d’un stock d’armes à bord, seule l’approche internationaliste sera retenue ici. En effet, la présence de gardes privés armés sur les navires suppose d’analyser leurs activités au regard de deux questions essentiellement : d’une part, le contrôle opéré dans les zones à risques en considération des menaces encourues ou de la présence d’armes à bord et d’autre part, les conditions d’appréhension et de retenue des pirates à bord au regard des droits fondamentaux ou du droit local proche de la zoned’intervention. Romantic fiction giving way to contemporary realities, international organizations attempt-because of the additional costs in global trade-to eradicate maritime piracy. While ocean is in principle a peaceful space, the proliferation of floating arsenals raises international law issues and concerns about regionalization of the sea and risk assessment. The privatization of sovereign missions to protect ships at sea becomes a lucrative trade to which France did not want or has not been able to resist. An Act of 1 July 2014 enshrines the «private enterprises for protecting vessels» as commercial companies whose object is to protect vessels flying the French flag against external threats, as well as the crew and goods on board. No international regulations regulate the activities of private security companies at sea. Of all the questions raised by the national system, such as the role of captain in hazardous areas, the agreement of the countries peacefully crossed or the risks related to the presence of a stock of weapons on board, only the internationalist approach will be adopted here. Indeed, the presence of armed private guards on vessels requires to analyse their activities in relation to two main issues: first, the control operated in risky areas in view of the threats incurred or the presence of weapons on board and secondly, the conditions of arrest and detention of pirates on board in light of fundamental rights or local law applicable close to the area of intervention.

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    Authors: Jaouen, Vincent; Gonzales, Paolo; Serrière, Sophie; GUILLOTEAU, Denis; +2 Authors

    National audience; Dans cet article, nous proposons une nouvelle méthode pour la restauration d'images multi-composantes afin de diminuer le bruit tout en rehaussant simultanément les contours. Notre approche repose sur un filtrage couplant diffusion anisotrope et filtre de choc qui exploite un nouveau champ de decteurs 4DGVF robuste adapté aux images multi-composantes. Le schéma proposé permet de rehausser les contours dans des directions calculées à partir de l'intégralité de l'information spatio-spectrale disponible et d'obtenir un rehaussement plus précis et plus stable au cours du traitement itératif. Nous validons notre méthode sur des images couleurs ainsi que des simulations réalistes d'images TEP dynamiques du cerveau.

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    Other literature type . 2014
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      Other literature type . 2014
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    Authors: Jaouen, Vincent;

    Cette thèse présente plusieurs contributions méthodologiques au traitement des images multicomposantes. Nous présentons notre travail dans le contexte applicatif difficile de l'imagerie de tomographie d'émission de positons dynamique (TEPd), une modalité d'imagerie fonctionnelle produisant des images multicomposantes fortement dégradées. Le caractère vectoriel du signal offre des propriétés de redondance et de complémentarité de l'information le long des différentes composantes permettant d'en améliorer le traitement. Notre première contribution exploite cet avantage pour la segmentation robuste de volumes d'intérêt au moyen de modèles déformables. Nous proposons un champ de forces extérieures guidant les modèles déformables vers les contours vectoriels des régions à délimiter. Notre seconde contribution porte sur la restauration de telles images pour faciliter leur traitement ultérieur. Nous proposons une nouvelle méthode de restauration par équations aux dérivées partielles permettant d'augmenter le rapport signal sur bruit d'images dégradées et d'en renforcer la netteté. Appliqués à l'imagerie TEPd, nous montrons l'apport de nos contributions pour un problème ouvert des neurosciences, la quantification non invasive d'un radiotraceur de la neuroinflammation. This thesis presents several methodological contributions to the processing of vector-valued images, with dynamic positron emission tomography imaging (dPET) as its target application. dPET imaging is a functional imaging modality that produces highly degraded images composed of subsequent temporal acquisitions. Vector-valued images often present some level of redundancy or complementarity of information along the channels, allowing the enhancement of processing results. Our first contribution exploits such properties for performing robust segmentation of target volumes with deformable models. We propose a new external force field to guide deformable models toward the vector edges of regions of interest. Our second contribution deals with the restoration of such images to further facilitate their analysis. We propose a new partial differential equation-based approach that enhances the signal to noise ratio of degraded images while sharpening their edges.Applied to dPET imaging, we show to what extent our methodological contributions can help to solve an open problem in neuroscience : noninvasive quantification of neuroinflammation.

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    Other literature type . 2016
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    Authors: Vamparys, Lydie;

    Certains processus biologiques tels que le transport vésiculaire sont régulés par des motifs qui guident les protéines vers les membranes courbées. L'un d'entre eux est le motif ALPS (Amphipathic Lipid Packing Sensor) qui reconnaît les défauts de packing provoqués par la courbure convexe de la membrane. Dans ce travail, nous combinons des simulations de dynamique moléculaire (DM) et des expériences de dichroïsme circulaire (CD) pour comprendre ce phénomène à l'échelle moléculaire. Les simulations de DM nous ont permis de caractériser et de quantifier les défauts de packing entre les lipides. Nous montrons que les défauts de packing provoqués par la courbure membranaire sont similaires à ceux provoqués par l'introduction de lipides coniques dans une bicouche plate composée de lipides cylindriques. En examinant l'interaction du motif ALPS avec une membrane contenant de tels défauts, nous montrons que l'insertion précoce de ce motif à la membrane est guidée par l'insertion de ses gros résidus hydrophobes dans des défauts pré-existants. Les expériences de CD et les simulations de DM avec échanges de répliques indiquent que les défauts facilitent le repliement du motif ALPS en une hélice alpha partielle. Enfin, les expériences de CD nous ont permis d'explorer la thermodynamique d'insertion du motif ALPS en fonction de la composition lipidique. Notre travail suggère que la composition de séquence particulière du motif ALPS ainsi que son faible taux d'hélicité jouent un rôle dans la reconnaissance des défauts de packing, donc de la courbure. Some biological processes such as vesicular transport are regulated by motifs that guide proteins to curved membranes. One of them is the ALPS (Amphipathic Lipid Packing Sensor) motif that recognizes packing defects induced by the convex curvature of the membrane. In this work, we combine molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and circular dichroism (CD) experiments to understand this phenomenon at the molecular level. MD simulations allowed us to characterize and quantify lipid packing defects. We show that packing defects caused by the membrane curvature are similar to those caused by the introduction of conical lipids in a flat bilayer composed of cylindrical lipids. By examining the interaction of the ALPS motif with a membrane containing such defects, we show that the early insertion of this motif on the membrane surface is driven by the inserton of its bulky hydrophobic residues in pre-existing defects. CD experiments and replica exchange MD simulations indicate that defects facilitate the ALPS folding into a partial alpha-helix. Finally, CD experiments allowed us to explore the thermodynamics of ALPS motif insertion as a function of lipid composition. Our work suggests that the peculiar amino-acid composition of the ALPS motif, as well as, its low helicity play a role in the recognition of packing defects, therefore curvature.

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    Authors: Duclos, Vincent;

    This Working Paper explores the relationship between space, media, and immunity in the work of Peter Sloterdijk. Modernity, argues Sloterdijk, may best be understood as a vast technical project aimed at compensating for a loss of insurance regarding our position in the world: the loss of a comforting roundness, of a being-inside the whole. What is at stake is therefore to design immune systems that are adapted for the burst and globalized spaces we inhabit. In dialogue with the work of Marshall McLuhan, this WP pays specific attention to our radical immersion in conditioning relations that operate upon us by the outside: in the media. Ce papier explore les relations entre espace, média et immunité dans l'oeuvre de Peter Sloterdijk. La modernité, pour Sloterdijk, est un vaste projet technique visant à compenser une perte d'assurance quant à notre position dans le monde : une perte du privilège de l'être-à-l'intérieur. Il s'agit alors de penser la création de systèmes immunitaires adaptés aux espaces éclatés et globalisés que nous habitons. En dialogue avec les travaux de Marshall McLuhan, ce papier accorde une attention particulière est accordée à notre immersion radicale dans ce qui nous dépasse et nous façonne de l'extérieur : le média.

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    Authors: Narra, Sai Sandhya;

    Le diabète est un problème majeur de santé publique. Il est caractérisé par une hyperglycémie, une résistance à l’insuline et est associé à des complications macro et micro vasculaires. En situation de diabètes, la concentration de méthylglyoxal (MGO) est augmentée. Le MGO est un précurseur des produits avancés de glycation (AGE) et il induit un stress oxydatif, une inflammation et un stress du réticulum endoplasmique. Ces stress jouent un rôle important dans les dysfonctions endothéliales et de la barrière hématoencéphalique ainsi que dans le retard de réparation des lésions. L’objectif de ma thèse a été d’améliorer la délivrance de curcumine, une molécule d’origine végétale. La curcumine a plusieurs effets bénéfiques tel que des activités anti oxydantes et anti inflammatoires, mais ces effets sont limités par son hydrophobicité. Des nanovecteurs tel que des protéines de hautes densités (HDL) ou des micelles peuvent améliorer la délivrance de la curcumine. L’effet de la curcumine, vectorisée par des HDL ou par des micelles, a été évaluée dans deux modèles différents : la protection de cellules endothéliales en présence de MGO in vitro et in vivo, la régénération de la nageoire caudale chez le poisson zèbre. Des nanoparticules de rHDL associées avec la curcumine (Cur-rHDLs) ont été préparées par ultracentrifugation après avoir mélangé brièvement les HDL avec la curcumine. Une analyse par LC-MS/MS a permis de quantifier la curcumine associée aux HDL. Les cellules endothéliales cérébrales Bend3 ont été prétraitées 1 heure en présence de rHDL, de curcumine ou de Cur-rHDLs puis incubées en présence de MGO. Sur des cellules traitées par du MGO, la Cur-rHDLs a montré un effet protecteur en réduisant la cytotoxicité, la production d’espèces radicalaires d’oxygène, le stress du réticulum endoplasmique et la condensation de la chromatine. Elle améliore également l’intégrité des cellules endothéliales compromise par le MGO. La Cur-rHDLs a un effet synergique en comparaison des effets de la curcumine ou des rHDLs seuls. Des micelles de polysaccharide d’algues (des carraghénanes) associées avec de la curcumine (Cur-micelles) ont été préparées en copolymérisant des oligocarraghénanes (carraghénanes digérées) avec du polycaprolactone. La curcumine a été associée aux micelles par la méthode d’évaporation de l’acétone. Les Cur-micelles ont été caractérisées par des analyses de spectroscopie de résonance magnétique nucléaire et de diffusion dynamique de la lumière. Dans ce modèle, les Cur-micelles augmentent le recrutement des macrophages et des neutrophiles au site de la lésion ainsi que la taille de la surface de la nageoire régénérée. Les Cur-micelles ont également un effet synergique en comparaison des effets de la curcumine ou des micelles seules. Ces travaux montrent les effets bénéfiques des Cur-rHDLs sur des cellules endothéliales en présence de MGO et des Cur-micelles sur la régénérescence de la nageoire caudale des poissons zèbres. Ils permettent une meilleure compréhension de ces approches et ouvrent de nouvelles perspectives de recherche pour le développement de thérapies dans le cadre de complications vasculaires associées au diabète. Diabetes is a major health issue worldwide. It is characterized by hyperglycemia, insulin resistance and is associated with many microvascular and macrovascular complications. In diabetic conditions, methylglyoxal (MGO) levels are increased. MGO is a major precursor of advanced glycation end products (AGE) formation and it induces cellular oxidative stress, inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. These cellular stresses play a crucial role in endothelial and blood brain barrier (BBB) dysfunctions and also delay the wound healing. My thesis objective was to improve the drug delivery of a plant derived compound (Curcumin). Curcumin has several beneficial properties such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties but its effects are limited due to its hydrophobic nature. Nanovectors such as High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) or micelles may help to improve the delivery of curcumin. Curcumin vectorized by HDL or micelles were evaluated in two different models: in vitro brain endothelial cell protection from methylglyoxal and in vivo tail regeneration in Zebra fish. Curcumin loaded rHDL nanoparticles (Cur-rHDLs) were prepared by mixing HDL and curcumin briefly followed by ultracentrifugation. Amount of curcumin loaded was quantified by LC-MS/MS analysis. Brain endothelial cells (Bend3), were pre-treated with rHDL, curcumin and Cur-rHDLs for 1h before co-incubating with MGO. Cur-rHDLs showed a protective effect by reducing the cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, ER stress, and chromatin condensation induced by MGO. It also improved the endothelial cell integrity impaired by MGO. Cur-rHDLs showed a synergistic effect compared to curcumin or rHDL alone. Curcumin loaded carrageenan polysaccharide micelles (Cur-micelles) were prepared by using oligocarrageenan (digested carrageenan) copolymerized with polycaprolactone. Curcumin was loaded by acetone volatilization method. Cur-micelles were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance analysis and dynamic light scattering analysis. On the Zebrafish tail amputation model, Cur-micelles increased macrophages and neutrophils recruitment to the site of tail injuryand had a positive impact on the tail regeneration by increasing the tail regenerative area. Curmicelles also showed a synergistic effect compared to curcumin or micelles alone. These studies show the potential beneficial effects of Cur-rHDLs and Cur-micelles on MGO stimulated endothelial cells and on zebrafish tail regeneration, respectively. They open new research perspectives to further investigate and understand the mechanisms that can be used to develop therapeutics for diabetic vascular complications.

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    Authors: Vidalenc, Bruno;

    Les opérateurs de réseaux de télécommunications accordent une importance toute particulière à la gestion des pannes. L’implication de l'humain dans la prise de décision et l'analyse d'une quantité énorme d'alarmes et d'informations, ainsi que le caractère réactif des mécanismes de gestion des pannes, ne permettent pas la réactivité nécessaire à une gestion optimale des incidents. Pour pallier ce problème, cette thèse s'intéresse à des mécanismes proactifs qui anticipent les pannes afin d'améliorer l'efficacité de leur gestion. La mise en oeuvre, dans les équipements, de composants autonomes capables d'analyser en permanence l'état de santé du réseau permettrait de fournir une information en temps réel sur le risque de panne, nécessaire au déploiement de nouveaux mécanismes d'autoréparation proactifs. La première partie de cette thèse est donc consacrée à la définition des composants architecturaux indispensables à l'introduction de fonctions d'autoréparation proactives. Dans un deuxième temps, nous étudions et analysons en détail trois mécanismes d'autoréparation proactifs exploitant une information de risque de panne. Le premier mécanisme a pour objectif d'accélérer la convergence des protocoles de routage à état de lien en adaptant la fréquence d'envoi des messages de détection de pannes en fonction du risque de panne. Le deuxième mécanisme modifie dynamiquement les métriques de routage afin de détourner le trafic des équipements risqués et de minimiser l'impact d'une panne sur le trafic. Enfin, le dernier mécanisme s'attache aux dispositifs de protection et de restauration du protocole GMPLS afin d'adapter dynamiquement la consommation des ressources, aux risques encourus Network providers attach a significant focus to fault-management. Indeed, availability and quality of service are highly important parameters in the competition between networks operators. Tthe involvement of human in the decision making process and the analyzing a huge amount of alarms and information, as well as the reactive nature of fault management mechanisms, do not allow the required reactivity for optimal management of incidents. This thesis focuses on proactive mechanisms which anticipate failures to improve the effectiveness of their management. Indeed, the failures are often preceded by alarms or symptomatic behaviors. Implementation, in equipment, of autonomous components capable of continuously analyzing the network health would enable to provide a real-time risk of failure information, required to deploy new proactive self-healing mechanisms. The first part of this thesis is devoted to the definition of architectural components necessary for the introduction of proactive self-healing functions. Then, in a second step, we study and analyze in detail three self-healing mechanisms exploiting a proactive risk-level of failure information. The first mechanism is designed to accelerate the convergence of link-state routing protocols by adjusting the frequency of sending failure detection messages function of the risk-level. The second mechanism dynamically tunes routing metrics in order to divert traffic flows from risky equipment and to minimize the failure incidence on traffic. Finally, the last proposition is dedicated to the recovery mechanisms of GMPLS protocol by dynamically adapting the resources consumption of recovery to the involved risks

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    Authors: Colombo, Pamela;

    Pour produire une profonde reconfiguration sociopolitique, la dictature civilo-militaire en Argentine (1976-1983) n’a pas seulement mis en œuvre un système de disparition forcée des personnes, elle a également essayé une réorganisation territoriale et urbaine au niveau national. Nous nous intéressons ici à l’un de ces programmes : la création de villages stratégiques. Notre recherche a pour objectif de comprendre comment l’État met en œuvre des projets d’ingénierie sociale dans lesquels la réinvention spatiale de territoires périphériques a pour objectif de modifier radicalement un groupe social ainsi que la situation économico-politique de la zone concernée. Pour cela, nous analysons la création du village Fuerte Esperanza dans la Province du Chaco, dans le cadre de ce qui a été appelé la « Campagne de l’Ouest » déployée dans la région de « El Impenetrable » (1976-1980). Nous démontrons comment la création de Fuerte Esperanza, sous couvert d’un programme dit de « développement », avait aussi une fonction de contre-insurrection. Nous essayons de comprendre et de déconstruire les discours et les pratiques autour de ces types de programmes d’« action civique militaire ». De plus, nous soutenons pour la première fois qu’il existe des continuités entre la création de ce village et d’autres programmes similaires de la même époque en Argentine (principalement dans la province de Tucumán). In order to produce a thorough-going sociopolitical reconfiguration, Argentina’s civilian-military dictatorship (1976-1983) did not merely implement a system for the forced disappearance of individuals but also undertook territorial and urban reorganization at the national level. The present article considers one of these programs: the creation of strategic villages. My research seeks to understand how the state implements social engineering projects in which the spatial reinvention of peripheral territories sought to radically modify a social group and the political-economic situation of the zone in question. To do so, I examine the creation of Chaco Province’s Fuerte Esperanza village in the framework of what was known as the “Western Campaign” undertaken in the “El Impenetrable” region (1976-1980). I show how, under cover of what was presented as a “development program”, Fuerte Esperanza was also created for purposes of counterinsurgency. I seek to understand and deconstruct the discourses and practices associated with these types of “military civic action” programs. Moreover, I am the first to advance the argument that continuities existed between the creation of this village and other similar programs of the time in Argentina (mainly in the province of Tucumán).

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    Authors: Sagnard, Maxime; Berthe, Laurent; ECAULT, Romain; Touchard, Fabienne; +1 Authors

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    Authors: Tillier, Mathieu;

    Cet article entreprend de retracer les innovations judiciaires qui eurent lieu en Égypte au premier âge abbasside, à travers une étude des cadis connus pour avoir été les premiers à adopter une pratique donnée. Dans la seconde moitié du IIe/VIIIe siècle, le rayonnement du milieu juridique égyptien - attaché de manière critique à l'école médinoise - se manifesta jusqu'à la cour abbasside, qui construisit en partie sa centralité par assimilation de modèles provinciaux. L'attraction à Bagdad de plusieurs juristes ou cadis égyptiens provoqua en retour, à Fusṭāṭ, l'adoption de nouvelles pratiques judiciaires vraisemblablement inspirées par des modèles iraqiens. La centralisation de la judicature par al-Manṣūr et ses successeurs, qui envoyèrent en Égypte une série de cadis formés en Iraq, accentua encore l'influence des pratiques iraqiennes sur le tribunal de Fusṭāṭ. Paradoxalement, l'affirmation de l'autorité centrale sur la judicature égyptienne mit également en branle une dynamique d'innovations provinciales : la désignation à Fusṭāṭ de cadis non égyptiens provoqua une réorganisation de l'appareil judiciaire au tournant du IIIe/IXe siècle, notamment par la création de nouveaux réseaux et la mise en place d'un corps de témoins professionnels dont l'usage contamina d'autres provinces du califat. This article recounts the judicial innovations that developed in Egypt during the early Abbasid caliphate, through an analysis of qāḍī-s who were the first to adopt a legal practice. The Egyptian legal milieu, which was critically committed to the Medinese school, had some influence in the middle of the 2nd/8th century as far as the Abbasid court, which developed partly its centrality by assimilating provincial models. In return, the attraction of several prominent jurists or qāḍī-s to Bagdad caused the adoption, in Fusṭāṭ, of new judicial practices inspired by Iraqi models. Centralisation of judgeship under al-Manṣūr and his successors, who send in Egypt a series of qāḍī-s trained in Iraq, increased even more the influence of Iraqi practices on the court of Fusṭāṭ. As a paradox, the reinforcement of central authority on the Egyptian judgeship set also in motion a dynamic of local innovations: the designation in Fusṭāṭ of non-Egyptian qāḍī-s caused a reorganisation of the court at the turn of the 3rd/9th century, in particular by the creation of new networks and the setting up of a body of professional witnesses, an institution which spread in other provinces of the caliphate.

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    Authors: DRAPIER, Sandrine;

    La fiction romanesque cédant le pas aux réalités contemporaines, les organisations internationales tentent – en raison des surcoûts occasionnés dans le commerce mondial – d’éradiquer la piraterie maritime. Si l’Océan constitue, enprincipe, un espace pacifique, la multiplication d’arsenaux flottants pose tout à la fois des questions de droit international, de territorialisation de la mer et d’évaluation des risques. La privatisation de missions régaliennes de protection des navires en mer devient un commerce lucratif auquel la France n’a pas voulu ou su résister. Une loi du 1er juillet 2014 consacre les « entreprises privées de protection des navires » en tant que sociétés commerciales dont l’objet est de protéger en mer les navires battant pavillon français contre les menaces extérieures, ainsi que l’équipage et les biens à bord. Aucune réglementation internationale ne vient pourtant encadrer les activités des sociétés privées de sécurité en mer. Parmi l’ensemble des interrogations que soulève le dispositif national, comme par exemple le rôle du capitaine dans les zonesà risques, l’accord des pays traversés à titre pacifique ou les risques liés à la présence d’un stock d’armes à bord, seule l’approche internationaliste sera retenue ici. En effet, la présence de gardes privés armés sur les navires suppose d’analyser leurs activités au regard de deux questions essentiellement : d’une part, le contrôle opéré dans les zones à risques en considération des menaces encourues ou de la présence d’armes à bord et d’autre part, les conditions d’appréhension et de retenue des pirates à bord au regard des droits fondamentaux ou du droit local proche de la zoned’intervention. Romantic fiction giving way to contemporary realities, international organizations attempt-because of the additional costs in global trade-to eradicate maritime piracy. While ocean is in principle a peaceful space, the proliferation of floating arsenals raises international law issues and concerns about regionalization of the sea and risk assessment. The privatization of sovereign missions to protect ships at sea becomes a lucrative trade to which France did not want or has not been able to resist. An Act of 1 July 2014 enshrines the «private enterprises for protecting vessels» as commercial companies whose object is to protect vessels flying the French flag against external threats, as well as the crew and goods on board. No international regulations regulate the activities of private security companies at sea. Of all the questions raised by the national system, such as the role of captain in hazardous areas, the agreement of the countries peacefully crossed or the risks related to the presence of a stock of weapons on board, only the internationalist approach will be adopted here. Indeed, the presence of armed private guards on vessels requires to analyse their activities in relation to two main issues: first, the control operated in risky areas in view of the threats incurred or the presence of weapons on board and secondly, the conditions of arrest and detention of pirates on board in light of fundamental rights or local law applicable close to the area of intervention.

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    Authors: Jaouen, Vincent; Gonzales, Paolo; Serrière, Sophie; GUILLOTEAU, Denis; +2 Authors

    National audience; Dans cet article, nous proposons une nouvelle méthode pour la restauration d'images multi-composantes afin de diminuer le bruit tout en rehaussant simultanément les contours. Notre approche repose sur un filtrage couplant diffusion anisotrope et filtre de choc qui exploite un nouveau champ de decteurs 4DGVF robuste adapté aux images multi-composantes. Le schéma proposé permet de rehausser les contours dans des directions calculées à partir de l'intégralité de l'information spatio-spectrale disponible et d'obtenir un rehaussement plus précis et plus stable au cours du traitement itératif. Nous validons notre méthode sur des images couleurs ainsi que des simulations réalistes d'images TEP dynamiques du cerveau.

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    Authors: Jaouen, Vincent;

    Cette thèse présente plusieurs contributions méthodologiques au traitement des images multicomposantes. Nous présentons notre travail dans le contexte applicatif difficile de l'imagerie de tomographie d'émission de positons dynamique (TEPd), une modalité d'imagerie fonctionnelle produisant des images multicomposantes fortement dégradées. Le caractère vectoriel du signal offre des propriétés de redondance et de complémentarité de l'information le long des différentes composantes permettant d'en améliorer le traitement. Notre première contribution exploite cet avantage pour la segmentation robuste de volumes d'intérêt au moyen de modèles déformables. Nous proposons un champ de forces extérieures guidant les modèles déformables vers les contours vectoriels des régions à délimiter. Notre seconde contribution porte sur la restauration de telles images pour faciliter leur traitement ultérieur. Nous proposons une nouvelle méthode de restauration par équations aux dérivées partielles permettant d'augmenter le rapport signal sur bruit d'images dégradées et d'en renforcer la netteté. Appliqués à l'imagerie TEPd, nous montrons l'apport de nos contributions pour un problème ouvert des neurosciences, la quantification non invasive d'un radiotraceur de la neuroinflammation. This thesis presents several methodological contributions to the processing of vector-valued images, with dynamic positron emission tomography imaging (dPET) as its target application. dPET imaging is a functional imaging modality that produces highly degraded images composed of subsequent temporal acquisitions. Vector-valued images often present some level of redundancy or complementarity of information along the channels, allowing the enhancement of processing results. Our first contribution exploits such properties for performing robust segmentation of target volumes with deformable models. We propose a new external force field to guide deformable models toward the vector edges of regions of interest. Our second contribution deals with the restoration of such images to further facilitate their analysis. We propose a new partial differential equation-based approach that enhances the signal to noise ratio of degraded images while sharpening their edges.Applied to dPET imaging, we show to what extent our methodological contributions can help to solve an open problem in neuroscience : noninvasive quantification of neuroinflammation.

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    Authors: Vamparys, Lydie;

    Certains processus biologiques tels que le transport vésiculaire sont régulés par des motifs qui guident les protéines vers les membranes courbées. L'un d'entre eux est le motif ALPS (Amphipathic Lipid Packing Sensor) qui reconnaît les défauts de packing provoqués par la courbure convexe de la membrane. Dans ce travail, nous combinons des simulations de dynamique moléculaire (DM) et des expériences de dichroïsme circulaire (CD) pour comprendre ce phénomène à l'échelle moléculaire. Les simulations de DM nous ont permis de caractériser et de quantifier les défauts de packing entre les lipides. Nous montrons que les défauts de packing provoqués par la courbure membranaire sont similaires à ceux provoqués par l'introduction de lipides coniques dans une bicouche plate composée de lipides cylindriques. En examinant l'interaction du motif ALPS avec une membrane contenant de tels défauts, nous montrons que l'insertion précoce de ce motif à la membrane est guidée par l'insertion de ses gros résidus hydrophobes dans des défauts pré-existants. Les expériences de CD et les simulations de DM avec échanges de répliques indiquent que les défauts facilitent le repliement du motif ALPS en une hélice alpha partielle. Enfin, les expériences de CD nous ont permis d'explorer la thermodynamique d'insertion du motif ALPS en fonction de la composition lipidique. Notre travail suggère que la composition de séquence particulière du motif ALPS ainsi que son faible taux d'hélicité jouent un rôle dans la reconnaissance des défauts de packing, donc de la courbure. Some biological processes such as vesicular transport are regulated by motifs that guide proteins to curved membranes. One of them is the ALPS (Amphipathic Lipid Packing Sensor) motif that recognizes packing defects induced by the convex curvature of the membrane. In this work, we combine molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and circular dichroism (CD) experiments to understand this phenomenon at the molecular level. MD simulations allowed us to characterize and quantify lipid packing defects. We show that packing defects caused by the membrane curvature are similar to those caused by the introduction of conical lipids in a flat bilayer composed of cylindrical lipids. By examining the interaction of the ALPS motif with a membrane containing such defects, we show that the early insertion of this motif on the membrane surface is driven by the inserton of its bulky hydrophobic residues in pre-existing defects. CD experiments and replica exchange MD simulations indicate that defects facilitate the ALPS folding into a partial alpha-helix. Finally, CD experiments allowed us to explore the thermodynamics of ALPS motif insertion as a function of lipid composition. Our work suggests that the peculiar amino-acid composition of the ALPS motif, as well as, its low helicity play a role in the recognition of packing defects, therefore curvature.

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    Authors: Duclos, Vincent;

    This Working Paper explores the relationship between space, media, and immunity in the work of Peter Sloterdijk. Modernity, argues Sloterdijk, may best be understood as a vast technical project aimed at compensating for a loss of insurance regarding our position in the world: the loss of a comforting roundness, of a being-inside the whole. What is at stake is therefore to design immune systems that are adapted for the burst and globalized spaces we inhabit. In dialogue with the work of Marshall McLuhan, this WP pays specific attention to our radical immersion in conditioning relations that operate upon us by the outside: in the media. Ce papier explore les relations entre espace, média et immunité dans l'oeuvre de Peter Sloterdijk. La modernité, pour Sloterdijk, est un vaste projet technique visant à compenser une perte d'assurance quant à notre position dans le monde : une perte du privilège de l'être-à-l'intérieur. Il s'agit alors de penser la création de systèmes immunitaires adaptés aux espaces éclatés et globalisés que nous habitons. En dialogue avec les travaux de Marshall McLuhan, ce papier accorde une attention particulière est accordée à notre immersion radicale dans ce qui nous dépasse et nous façonne de l'extérieur : le média.

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