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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Chounet, François;

    Pour comprendre les enjeux li´es `a l’endettement public dans la cr´edibilit´e des accords mon´etairesdans le cas de l’entre-deux-guerres, nous ´etudierons l’influence de l’endettement public sur l’´etalon-or,de sa fondation dans la seconde moiti´e du XIXe si`ecle, `a son abandon au cours de la grande d´epression.La qualit´e des finances publiques, en particulier l’endettement public, fut d´eterminante dans la capacit´ed’une nation `a adh´erer `a cet accord mon´etaire. L’endettement public joua aussi un rˆole d´ecisif dans lafin de ces syst`emes mon´etaires, `a l’issue de la Grande Guerre et lors de la grande d´epression. Dans unsecond temps, notre d´emarche consistera `a comprendre les m´ecanismes qui conduisirent l’endettementpublic `a ˆetre en partie responsable de la fin de l’´etalon de change-or et de l’´emergence de nouveauxblocs mon´etaires dans les ann´ees trente. Face `a la grande d´epression, les modalit´es d’organisation et defonctionnement de cet accord mon´etaire, rendirent impossible son maintien. Si les variables ´economiqueset politiques furent d´eterminantes dans son abandon, celles d’endettement public jou`erent aussi. Apr`esavoir d´ecrit les modalit´es de sortie de l’´etalon de change-or, nous montrerons les m´ecanismes th´eoriquesqui lient les crises mon´etaires et les crises d’endettement et les appliquerons `a la grande d´epression. Nous´etudierons en particulier le cas de la France. Nous montrerons `a l’aide d’un mod`ele de dur´ee, l’influencede la dette publique dans le maintien des parit´es-or pendant la crise. Enfin, nous verrons comment denouveaux blocs mon´etaires se form`erent. To understand the challenges linked to public debt in credibility of monetary agreementsbetween the World Wars, we shall study influence of public debt on the gold standard, from its founda-tion in the second half of the XIXth century to end during the Great Depression. The quality of publicfinances, in particular the public debt, was determining in the capacity of a nation to subscribe to thismonetary agreement. The public debt also had a decisive role in the end of these monetary systems, atthe end of World War I and during the Great Depression. In a second part, our approach will consistin understanding mechanisms which led public debt to be partly accountable for the end of the gold-exchange standard and the rise of new monetary blocks in the thirties. Facing the Great Depression, themodalities of organization and functioning of this monetary agreement, made impossible to sustain it. Ifeconomic and political variables were determining in its end, variables linked to public debt played too.Having described modalities of release of gold-exchange standard, we shall show the theoretical mecha-nisms which link monetary crisis and debts crisis and we will applied them to the Great Depression. Wewill study in particular the case of France. We shall show using a duration model, influence of publicdebt in preservation of gold parity during the crisis. Finally, we shall see how new monetary blocks formed.

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    Other literature type . 2016
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    Oskar Bordeaux
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    Authors: Masson, Eric; Bruyère-Masson, Virginie; Vuillaume, Philippe; Lemoyne, Sylvain; +1 Authors

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    Authors: Genicot, B; Peckova, M; Close, R; Lindsey, Jk; +2 Authors

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    Other literature type . Article . 1994
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      Other literature type . Article . 1994
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    Authors: Soulé, C; Guillou, Jp; Vallet, C; Perret, C; +1 Authors

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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Paviot, Y.;

    Les technologies actuelles permettent l'intégration de systèmes de plus en plus complexes sur une seule puce. L'augmentation de la complexité induit un accroissement du temps de conception alors que paradoxalement, le concurrence économique impose des temps de mise sur le marché de plus en plus courts. Pour tenter de limiter ce décalage et d'accroître la productivité, l'industrie fait de plus en plus appel à la réutilisation de composants logiciels et matériels pour concevoir leurs systèmes.L'un des problèmes de ce type de conception est celui de la réalisation de la communication entre composants. Cette thèse traite de la communication entre processeurs réalisée par des interfaces mixtes logicielles/matérielles. Leur difficulté de conception et l'impact du choix de partitionnement entre parties logicielles et matérielles nécessitent le développement de méthodes de génération automatique d'interfaces logicielles/matérielles pour l'exploration du partitionnement des services de communication.La contribution de cette thèse consiste en une formalisation des problèmes liés à l'implémentation mixte logicielle/matérielle des services de communication et une proposition de flot pour la génération automatique d'interfaces. Des expériences de réalisations de primitives MPI ont permis d'appréhender le problème et de proposer un flot de génération automatique. Current technologies enable the integration of more and more complex systems on a single chip. The increase in complexity leads to an increase of design time whereas economical competition demands to ever shorter time to market. In order to try to fill this gap and to increase productivity, reuse of HW and SW components to design systems is used more and more by industrial firms.One problem of these design methodologies is about communication between components. The topic of this thesis is hardware/software interface implementation for communication between processors. Interface design difficulties and impact of hardware/software partitioning require automatic interfaces generation in order to enable exploration of partitioning solutions.The contributions of this thesis are formalization of problems with regard to communication services implementation by hardware/software interface, and a suggestion of an automatic interfaces generation flow. Two experiences with MPI implementations led to understanding of the partitioning problematics and to an automatic generation flow.

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    Authors: Vidal, Jérémie; Su, Sylvie; Cébron, David;

    Acoustic eigenmodes are often used to passively infer physical properties of the interiors of rotating planets and stars. Acoustic wave imaging has been also introduced in fluid dynamics. The experimental technique consists in observing and analysing the splitting in frequency of the acoustic modes, by solving an inverse problem. For instance, the presence of an (unknown) rotational profile disturbs the acoustic spectrum. Moreover, a topographic splitting is often superimposed on the rotational splitting. Indeed, rotating celestial objects are rather ellipsoidal than spherical at the leading order, as well as laboratory experiments which are weakly non-spherical (due to mechanical deformations). Rotation and topography should be taken into account simultaneously, but the acoustic problem does not admit exact solutions in the presence of rotation. Fully numerical solutions are often computed. However, they cannot be easily combined with inversion schemes to yield robust results. Hence, the usual approach is to consider small perturbations to non-rotating solutions. As an alternative, we present a new description of the compressible modes, relying on the method of weighted residuals. Here, we present a new spectral method to describe potential flows in triaxial ellipsoids. It relies on an explicit Galerkin expansion, made of global polynomials expressed in Cartesian coordinates. We illustrate this method by considering the canonical situation of diffusionless acoustic modes in an homogeneous, compressible and homentropic fluid ellipsoid at rest. The pressure satisfies a Dirichlet condition (sound soft boundary). We validate our results against fully numerical simulations performed with the commercial software comsol, showing a perfect quantitative agreement. This new method will be extended to include additional effects and alternative boundary conditions. Les modes acoustiques sont couramment utilisés pour déterminer les propriétés physiques de l'intérieur des planètes et des étoiles. La méthode d'imagerie par vélocimétrie acoustique a été récemment introduite en mécanique des fluides, en complément des méthodes d'imagerie existantes. Elle consiste à reconstruire l'écoulement à partir de la levée de dégénérescence des modes acoustiques, observée expérimentalement (par exemple) en présence d'un profil de rotation. Ainsi, des algorithmes d'inversion sont nécessaires pour reconstruire indirectement l'écoulement en rotation dans des expériences en géométrie quasi-sphérique. Cependant, les objets célestes et les expériences ne sont pas rigoureusement sphériques, mais plutôt ellipsoïdaux (au premier ordre). Les effets topographiques et la rotation doivent alors être pris en compte correctement dans le modèle physique. Les méthodes analytiques et numériques existantes (en géométrie déformée) ne peuvent plus alors être couplées facilement et efficacement aux algorithmes d'inversion. Pour remédier à ce problème, nous avons développé une nouvelle méthode de Galerkin semi-analytique en ellipsoïdes tri-axes. Elle repose sur une décomposition polynomiale explicite, en coordonnées cartésiennes, des écoulements potentiels en ellipsoïdes. Nous illustrons la méthode en considérant les modes acoustiques d'un fluide compressible, uniforme et homentropique, avec une condition de Dirichlet homogène à la paroi (condition isobare). Nous validons nos résultats avec des simulations numériques réalisées avec le logiciel comsol. Nous étendrons cette méthode novatrice afin de prendre en compte des effets physiques supplémentaires, afin de décrire plus précisément les conditions expérimentales.

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    Other literature type . 2019
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    Authors: Barr, Charles;

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    Other literature type . 1999
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    Authors: Tillier, Mathieu;

    Cet article entreprend de retracer les innovations judiciaires qui eurent lieu en Égypte au premier âge abbasside, à travers une étude des cadis connus pour avoir été les premiers à adopter une pratique donnée. Dans la seconde moitié du IIe/VIIIe siècle, le rayonnement du milieu juridique égyptien - attaché de manière critique à l'école médinoise - se manifesta jusqu'à la cour abbasside, qui construisit en partie sa centralité par assimilation de modèles provinciaux. L'attraction à Bagdad de plusieurs juristes ou cadis égyptiens provoqua en retour, à Fusṭāṭ, l'adoption de nouvelles pratiques judiciaires vraisemblablement inspirées par des modèles iraqiens. La centralisation de la judicature par al-Manṣūr et ses successeurs, qui envoyèrent en Égypte une série de cadis formés en Iraq, accentua encore l'influence des pratiques iraqiennes sur le tribunal de Fusṭāṭ. Paradoxalement, l'affirmation de l'autorité centrale sur la judicature égyptienne mit également en branle une dynamique d'innovations provinciales : la désignation à Fusṭāṭ de cadis non égyptiens provoqua une réorganisation de l'appareil judiciaire au tournant du IIIe/IXe siècle, notamment par la création de nouveaux réseaux et la mise en place d'un corps de témoins professionnels dont l'usage contamina d'autres provinces du califat. This article recounts the judicial innovations that developed in Egypt during the early Abbasid caliphate, through an analysis of qāḍī-s who were the first to adopt a legal practice. The Egyptian legal milieu, which was critically committed to the Medinese school, had some influence in the middle of the 2nd/8th century as far as the Abbasid court, which developed partly its centrality by assimilating provincial models. In return, the attraction of several prominent jurists or qāḍī-s to Bagdad caused the adoption, in Fusṭāṭ, of new judicial practices inspired by Iraqi models. Centralisation of judgeship under al-Manṣūr and his successors, who send in Egypt a series of qāḍī-s trained in Iraq, increased even more the influence of Iraqi practices on the court of Fusṭāṭ. As a paradox, the reinforcement of central authority on the Egyptian judgeship set also in motion a dynamic of local innovations: the designation in Fusṭāṭ of non-Egyptian qāḍī-s caused a reorganisation of the court at the turn of the 3rd/9th century, in particular by the creation of new networks and the setting up of a body of professional witnesses, an institution which spread in other provinces of the caliphate.

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    Authors: Baudry, C; de Cremoux, R; Chartier, C; Perrin, G;

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    Authors: Boulard, C; Pépin, Michel; Parodi, André-Laurent;

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    Authors: Chounet, François;

    Pour comprendre les enjeux li´es `a l’endettement public dans la cr´edibilit´e des accords mon´etairesdans le cas de l’entre-deux-guerres, nous ´etudierons l’influence de l’endettement public sur l’´etalon-or,de sa fondation dans la seconde moiti´e du XIXe si`ecle, `a son abandon au cours de la grande d´epression.La qualit´e des finances publiques, en particulier l’endettement public, fut d´eterminante dans la capacit´ed’une nation `a adh´erer `a cet accord mon´etaire. L’endettement public joua aussi un rˆole d´ecisif dans lafin de ces syst`emes mon´etaires, `a l’issue de la Grande Guerre et lors de la grande d´epression. Dans unsecond temps, notre d´emarche consistera `a comprendre les m´ecanismes qui conduisirent l’endettementpublic `a ˆetre en partie responsable de la fin de l’´etalon de change-or et de l’´emergence de nouveauxblocs mon´etaires dans les ann´ees trente. Face `a la grande d´epression, les modalit´es d’organisation et defonctionnement de cet accord mon´etaire, rendirent impossible son maintien. Si les variables ´economiqueset politiques furent d´eterminantes dans son abandon, celles d’endettement public jou`erent aussi. Apr`esavoir d´ecrit les modalit´es de sortie de l’´etalon de change-or, nous montrerons les m´ecanismes th´eoriquesqui lient les crises mon´etaires et les crises d’endettement et les appliquerons `a la grande d´epression. Nous´etudierons en particulier le cas de la France. Nous montrerons `a l’aide d’un mod`ele de dur´ee, l’influencede la dette publique dans le maintien des parit´es-or pendant la crise. Enfin, nous verrons comment denouveaux blocs mon´etaires se form`erent. To understand the challenges linked to public debt in credibility of monetary agreementsbetween the World Wars, we shall study influence of public debt on the gold standard, from its founda-tion in the second half of the XIXth century to end during the Great Depression. The quality of publicfinances, in particular the public debt, was determining in the capacity of a nation to subscribe to thismonetary agreement. The public debt also had a decisive role in the end of these monetary systems, atthe end of World War I and during the Great Depression. In a second part, our approach will consistin understanding mechanisms which led public debt to be partly accountable for the end of the gold-exchange standard and the rise of new monetary blocks in the thirties. Facing the Great Depression, themodalities of organization and functioning of this monetary agreement, made impossible to sustain it. Ifeconomic and political variables were determining in its end, variables linked to public debt played too.Having described modalities of release of gold-exchange standard, we shall show the theoretical mecha-nisms which link monetary crisis and debts crisis and we will applied them to the Great Depression. Wewill study in particular the case of France. We shall show using a duration model, influence of publicdebt in preservation of gold parity during the crisis. Finally, we shall see how new monetary blocks formed.

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    Oskar Bordeaux
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    Authors: Masson, Eric; Bruyère-Masson, Virginie; Vuillaume, Philippe; Lemoyne, Sylvain; +1 Authors

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    Authors: Genicot, B; Peckova, M; Close, R; Lindsey, Jk; +2 Authors

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    Authors: Soulé, C; Guillou, Jp; Vallet, C; Perret, C; +1 Authors

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    Authors: Paviot, Y.;

    Les technologies actuelles permettent l'intégration de systèmes de plus en plus complexes sur une seule puce. L'augmentation de la complexité induit un accroissement du temps de conception alors que paradoxalement, le concurrence économique impose des temps de mise sur le marché de plus en plus courts. Pour tenter de limiter ce décalage et d'accroître la productivité, l'industrie fait de plus en plus appel à la réutilisation de composants logiciels et matériels pour concevoir leurs systèmes.L'un des problèmes de ce type de conception est celui de la réalisation de la communication entre composants. Cette thèse traite de la communication entre processeurs réalisée par des interfaces mixtes logicielles/matérielles. Leur difficulté de conception et l'impact du choix de partitionnement entre parties logicielles et matérielles nécessitent le développement de méthodes de génération automatique d'interfaces logicielles/matérielles pour l'exploration du partitionnement des services de communication.La contribution de cette thèse consiste en une formalisation des problèmes liés à l'implémentation mixte logicielle/matérielle des services de communication et une proposition de flot pour la génération automatique d'interfaces. Des expériences de réalisations de primitives MPI ont permis d'appréhender le problème et de proposer un flot de génération automatique. Current technologies enable the integration of more and more complex systems on a single chip. The increase in complexity leads to an increase of design time whereas economical competition demands to ever shorter time to market. In order to try to fill this gap and to increase productivity, reuse of HW and SW components to design systems is used more and more by industrial firms.One problem of these design methodologies is about communication between components. The topic of this thesis is hardware/software interface implementation for communication between processors. Interface design difficulties and impact of hardware/software partitioning require automatic interfaces generation in order to enable exploration of partitioning solutions.The contributions of this thesis are formalization of problems with regard to communication services implementation by hardware/software interface, and a suggestion of an automatic interfaces generation flow. Two experiences with MPI implementations led to understanding of the partitioning problematics and to an automatic generation flow.

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    Authors: Vidal, Jérémie; Su, Sylvie; Cébron, David;

    Acoustic eigenmodes are often used to passively infer physical properties of the interiors of rotating planets and stars. Acoustic wave imaging has been also introduced in fluid dynamics. The experimental technique consists in observing and analysing the splitting in frequency of the acoustic modes, by solving an inverse problem. For instance, the presence of an (unknown) rotational profile disturbs the acoustic spectrum. Moreover, a topographic splitting is often superimposed on the rotational splitting. Indeed, rotating celestial objects are rather ellipsoidal than spherical at the leading order, as well as laboratory experiments which are weakly non-spherical (due to mechanical deformations). Rotation and topography should be taken into account simultaneously, but the acoustic problem does not admit exact solutions in the presence of rotation. Fully numerical solutions are often computed. However, they cannot be easily combined with inversion schemes to yield robust results. Hence, the usual approach is to consider small perturbations to non-rotating solutions. As an alternative, we present a new description of the compressible modes, relying on the method of weighted residuals. Here, we present a new spectral method to describe potential flows in triaxial ellipsoids. It relies on an explicit Galerkin expansion, made of global polynomials expressed in Cartesian coordinates. We illustrate this method by considering the canonical situation of diffusionless acoustic modes in an homogeneous, compressible and homentropic fluid ellipsoid at rest. The pressure satisfies a Dirichlet condition (sound soft boundary). We validate our results against fully numerical simulations performed with the commercial software comsol, showing a perfect quantitative agreement. This new method will be extended to include additional effects and alternative boundary conditions. Les modes acoustiques sont couramment utilisés pour déterminer les propriétés physiques de l'intérieur des planètes et des étoiles. La méthode d'imagerie par vélocimétrie acoustique a été récemment introduite en mécanique des fluides, en complément des méthodes d'imagerie existantes. Elle consiste à reconstruire l'écoulement à partir de la levée de dégénérescence des modes acoustiques, observée expérimentalement (par exemple) en présence d'un profil de rotation. Ainsi, des algorithmes d'inversion sont nécessaires pour reconstruire indirectement l'écoulement en rotation dans des expériences en géométrie quasi-sphérique. Cependant, les objets célestes et les expériences ne sont pas rigoureusement sphériques, mais plutôt ellipsoïdaux (au premier ordre). Les effets topographiques et la rotation doivent alors être pris en compte correctement dans le modèle physique. Les méthodes analytiques et numériques existantes (en géométrie déformée) ne peuvent plus alors être couplées facilement et efficacement aux algorithmes d'inversion. Pour remédier à ce problème, nous avons développé une nouvelle méthode de Galerkin semi-analytique en ellipsoïdes tri-axes. Elle repose sur une décomposition polynomiale explicite, en coordonnées cartésiennes, des écoulements potentiels en ellipsoïdes. Nous illustrons la méthode en considérant les modes acoustiques d'un fluide compressible, uniforme et homentropique, avec une condition de Dirichlet homogène à la paroi (condition isobare). Nous validons nos résultats avec des simulations numériques réalisées avec le logiciel comsol. Nous étendrons cette méthode novatrice afin de prendre en compte des effets physiques supplémentaires, afin de décrire plus précisément les conditions expérimentales.

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    Other literature type . 2019
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      Other literature type . 2019
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    Authors: Barr, Charles;

    International audience

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    Other literature type . 1999
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    Authors: Tillier, Mathieu;

    Cet article entreprend de retracer les innovations judiciaires qui eurent lieu en Égypte au premier âge abbasside, à travers une étude des cadis connus pour avoir été les premiers à adopter une pratique donnée. Dans la seconde moitié du IIe/VIIIe siècle, le rayonnement du milieu juridique égyptien - attaché de manière critique à l'école médinoise - se manifesta jusqu'à la cour abbasside, qui construisit en partie sa centralité par assimilation de modèles provinciaux. L'attraction à Bagdad de plusieurs juristes ou cadis égyptiens provoqua en retour, à Fusṭāṭ, l'adoption de nouvelles pratiques judiciaires vraisemblablement inspirées par des modèles iraqiens. La centralisation de la judicature par al-Manṣūr et ses successeurs, qui envoyèrent en Égypte une série de cadis formés en Iraq, accentua encore l'influence des pratiques iraqiennes sur le tribunal de Fusṭāṭ. Paradoxalement, l'affirmation de l'autorité centrale sur la judicature égyptienne mit également en branle une dynamique d'innovations provinciales : la désignation à Fusṭāṭ de cadis non égyptiens provoqua une réorganisation de l'appareil judiciaire au tournant du IIIe/IXe siècle, notamment par la création de nouveaux réseaux et la mise en place d'un corps de témoins professionnels dont l'usage contamina d'autres provinces du califat. This article recounts the judicial innovations that developed in Egypt during the early Abbasid caliphate, through an analysis of qāḍī-s who were the first to adopt a legal practice. The Egyptian legal milieu, which was critically committed to the Medinese school, had some influence in the middle of the 2nd/8th century as far as the Abbasid court, which developed partly its centrality by assimilating provincial models. In return, the attraction of several prominent jurists or qāḍī-s to Bagdad caused the adoption, in Fusṭāṭ, of new judicial practices inspired by Iraqi models. Centralisation of judgeship under al-Manṣūr and his successors, who send in Egypt a series of qāḍī-s trained in Iraq, increased even more the influence of Iraqi practices on the court of Fusṭāṭ. As a paradox, the reinforcement of central authority on the Egyptian judgeship set also in motion a dynamic of local innovations: the designation in Fusṭāṭ of non-Egyptian qāḍī-s caused a reorganisation of the court at the turn of the 3rd/9th century, in particular by the creation of new networks and the setting up of a body of professional witnesses, an institution which spread in other provinces of the caliphate.

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