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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Todorovic, A.; van Ede, F.L.; Maris, E.G.G.; de Lange, F.P.;

    Contains fulltext : 99626.pdf (Publisher’s version ) (Open Access) Repetition suppression, the phenomenon that the second presentation of a stimulus attenuates neural activity, is typically viewed as an automatic consequence of repeated stimulus presentation. However, a recent neuroimaging study has suggested that repetition suppression may be driven by top-down expectations. Here we examined whether and when repetition suppression can be modulated by top-down expectation. Participants listened to auditory stimuli in blocks where tone repetitions were either expected or unexpected, while we recorded ongoing neural activity using magnetoencephalography. We found robust repetition suppression in the auditory cortex for repeated tones. Interestingly, this reduction was significantly larger for expected than unexpected repetitions, both in terms of evoked activity and gamma-band synchrony. These findings indicate a role of top-down expectation in generating repetition suppression and are in line with predictive coding models of perception, in which the difference between expected and actual input is propagated from lower to higher cortical areas. 6 p.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCISarrow_drop_down
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    NARCIS
    Article . 2011
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    Journal of Neuroscience
    Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Crossref; NARCIS
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Radboud Repository
    Article . 2011
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2011
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCISarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Article . 2011
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      Journal of Neuroscience
      Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Radboud Repository
      Article . 2011
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2011
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/

    AbstractSimulating transcranial electric stimulation is actively researched as knowledge about the distribution of the electrical field is decisive for understanding the variability in the elicited stimulation effect. Several software pipelines comprehensively solve this task in an automated manner for standard use-cases. However, simulations for non-standard applications such as uncommon electrode shapes or the creation of head models from non-optimized T1-weighted imaging data and the inclusion of irregular structures are more difficult to accomplish.We address these limitations and suggest a comprehensive workflow to simulate transcranial electric stimulation based on open-source tools. The workflow covers the head model creation from MRI data, the electrode modeling, the modeling of anisotropic conductivity behavior of the white matter, the numerical simulation and visualization.Skin, skull, air cavities, cerebrospinal fluid, white matter, and gray matter are segmented semi-automatically from T1-weighted MR images. Electrodes of arbitrary number and shape can be modeled. The meshing of the head model is implemented in a way to preserve feature edges of the electrodes and is free of topological restrictions of the considered structures of the head model. White matter anisotropy can be computed from diffusion-tensor imaging data.Our solver application was verified analytically and by contrasting tDCS simulation results with another simulation pipeline (SimNIBS 3.0). An agreement in both cases underlines the validity of our workflow.Our suggested solutions facilitate investigations of irregular structures in patients (e.g. lesions, implants) or of new electrode types. For a coupled use of the described workflow, we provide documentation and disclose the full source code of the developed tools.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020
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    bioRxiv
    Preprint . 2020
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    Article . 2020
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    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2020
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2020
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      Preprint . 2020
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      Article . 2020
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Article . 2020
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      Article . 2020
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Rene Terporten; Jan-Mathijs Schoffelen; Bohan Dai; Peter Hagoort; +1 Authors

    ABSTRACT Within the sensory domain, alpha/beta oscillations have been frequently linked to the prediction of upcoming sensory input. Here, we investigated whether oscillations at these frequency bands serve as a neural marker in the context of linguistic input prediction as well. Specifically, we hypothesized that if alpha/beta oscillations do index language prediction, their power should modulate during sentence processing, indicating stronger engagement of underlying neuronal populations involved in the linguistic prediction process. Importantly, the modulation should monotonically relate to the degrees of predictability of incoming words based on past context. Specifically, we expected that the more predictable the last word of a sentence, the stronger the alpha/beta power modulation. To test this, we measured neural responses with magnetoencephalography of healthy individuals (of either sex) during exposure to a set of linguistically matched sentences featuring three distinct levels of sentence context constraint (high, medium and low constraint). We observed fluctuations in alpha/beta power before last word onset, and also modulations in M400 amplitude after last word onset that are known to gradually relate to semantic predictability. In line with previous findings, the M400 amplitude was monotonically related to the degree of context constraint, with a high constraining context resulting in the strongest amplitude decrease. In contrast, alpha/beta power was non-monotonically related to context constraints. The strongest power decrease was observed for intermediate constraints, followed by high and low constraints. While the monotonous M400 amplitude modulation fits within a framework of prediction, the non-monotonous oscillatory results are not easily reconciled with this idea. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Neural activity in the alpha (8-10Hz) and beta (16-20) frequency ranges have been related to the prediction of upcoming sensory input. It remains still debated whether these frequency bands relate to language prediction as well. In this magnetoencephalography study, we recorded alpha/beta oscillatory activity while participants listened to sentences whose ending had varying degree of predictability based on past linguistic information. Our results show that alpha/beta power modulations were non-monotonically related to the degree of linguistic predictability: the strongest modulation of alpha/beta power was observed for intermediate levels of linguistic predictability during sentence reading. Together, the results emphasize that alpha/beta oscillations cannot directly be linked to predictability in language, but potentially relate to attention or control operations during language processing.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ bioRxivarrow_drop_down
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    bioRxiv
    Preprint . 2018
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    NARCIS
    Article . 2019
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2019
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    Radboud Repository
    Article . 2019
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    Scientific Reports
    Article . 2019
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    Scientific Reports
    Article . 2019
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    Scientific Reports
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      bioRxiv
      Preprint . 2018
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      Article . 2019
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2019
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      Article . 2019
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      Scientific Reports
      Article . 2019
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      Article . 2019
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      Scientific Reports
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Gamze, Kurt;

    International audience; This study explores the informal statistical inference (ISI) experiences through the graph construction of young children regarding the pictograph as one of the conventional data displays. Within a case study approach, interviews with 7 years-old children were conducted through a module including a task. The task designed here presents a statistical context structure which focuses on the eye colors observed in a class. Through forming a pictograph, children responded the questions in order to investigate their informal inferential reasoning ability. Findings revealed that young children’s graph construction experiences could be expressed as a construct of ISI. Besides, it was concluded that the integration of context with data helped their graph construction since they analyzed data within the context.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Gutteling, T.P.; Schutter, D.J.L.G.; Medendorp, W.P.;

    Contains fulltext : 177245.pdf (Publisher’s version ) (Open Access) Spatial updating is essential to maintain an accurate representation of our visual environment when we move. A neural mechanism that contributes to this ability is called remapping: the transfer of visual information from neural populations that code a location before the motion to those that encode it after the motion. While there is ample evidence for neural remapping in conjunction with eye movements, only recent findings suggest a role of this mechanism for whole-body motion updating, based on the observation that alpha band (10 Hz) activity is selectively reorganized during remapping. This study tested whether alpha oscillations directly contribute to whole-body motion updating using transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS). In a double blind sham controlled design, healthy volunteers received 10 Hz tACS at an intensity of 1 mA over either the left or right posterior hemisphere during a whole-body motion updating task. Updating performance was assessed psychometrically and indices of gain and precision were obtained. No tACS-related effects on updating gain were found, irrespective of whether the remapping was across or within the hemispheres. In contrast, updating precision was enhanced when a target representation had to be internally remapped to the stimulated hemisphere, but not in other remapping conditions. Our observations suggest that alpha band oscillations do not directly affect the transfer of target representations during remapping, but increase the fidelity of the updated representation by attenuating interference of afferent information. 8 p.

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    NARCIS
    Article . 2017
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    Neuropsychologia
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    Radboud Repository
    Article . 2017
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    Neuropsychologia
    Article . 2017
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      Neuropsychologia
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      Radboud Repository
      Article . 2017
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      Neuropsychologia
      Article . 2017
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Authors: Carolien G.F. de Kovel; Lyubomir I. Aftanas; André Aleman; Aaron Alexander-Bloch; +74 Authors

    Objective: Asymmetry is a subtle but pervasive aspect of the human brain, and it may be altered in several psychiatric conditions. MRI studies have shown subtle differences of brain anatomy between people with major depressive disorder and healthy control subjects, but few studies have specifically examined brain anatomical asymmetry in relation to this disorder, and results from those studies have remained inconclusive. At the functional level, some electroencephalography studies have indicated left fronto-cortical hypoactivity and right parietal hypoactivity in depressive disorders, so aspects of lateralized anatomy may also be affected. The authors used pooled individual-level data from data sets collected around the world to investigate differences in laterality in measures of cortical thickness, cortical surface area, and subcortical volume between individuals with major depression and healthy control subjects.Methods: The authors investigated differences in the laterality of thickness and surface area measures of 34 cerebral cortical regions in 2,256 individuals with major depression and 3,504 control subjects from 31 separate data sets, and they investigated volume asymmetries of eight subcortical structures in 2,540 individuals with major depression and 4,230 control subjects from 32 data sets. T-1-weighted MRI data were processedwith a single protocol using FreeSurfer and the Desikan-Killiany atlas. The large sample size provided 80% power to detect effects of the order of Cohen's d=0.1.Results: The largest effect size (Cohen's d) of major depression diagnosis was 0.085 for the thickness asymmetry of the superior temporal cortex, which was not significant after adjustment for multiple testing. Asymmetry measures were not significantly associated with medication use, acute compared with remitted status, first episode compared with recurrent status, or age at onset.Conclusions: Altered brain macro-anatomical asymmetry may be of little relevance to major depression etiology in most cases.

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    American Journal of Psychiatry
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Crossref; NARCIS
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    Article . 2019
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    Article . 2019
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    American Journal of Psychiatry
    Article . 2019
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    Article . 2019
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      American Journal of Psychiatry
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      American Journal of Psychiatry
      Article . 2019
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      DZNE Pub
      Article . 2019
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    Authors: Mourao-Miranda, J.; Reinders, A. A. T. S.; Rocha-Rego, V.; Lappin, J.; +9 Authors

    BackgroundTo date, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has made little impact on the diagnosis and monitoring of psychoses in individual patients. In this study, we used a support vector machine (SVM) whole-brain classification approach to predict future illness course at the individual level from MRI data obtained at the first psychotic episode.MethodOne hundred patients at their first psychotic episode and 91 healthy controls had an MRI scan. Patients were re-evaluated 6.2 years (s.d.=2.3) later, and were classified as having a continuous, episodic or intermediate illness course. Twenty-eight subjects with a continuous course were compared with 28 patients with an episodic course and with 28 healthy controls. We trained each SVM classifier independently for the following contrasts: continuous versus episodic, continuous versus healthy controls, and episodic versus healthy controls.ResultsAt baseline, patients with a continuous course were already distinguishable, with significance above chance level, from both patients with an episodic course (p=0.004, sensitivity=71, specificity=68) and healthy individuals (p=0.01, sensitivity=71, specificity=61). Patients with an episodic course could not be distinguished from healthy individuals. When patients with an intermediate outcome were classified according to the discriminating pattern episodic versus continuous, 74% of those who did not develop other episodes were classified as episodic, and 65% of those who did develop further episodes were classified as continuous (p=0.035).ConclusionsWe provide preliminary evidence of MRI application in the individualized prediction of future illness course, using a simple and automated SVM pipeline. When replicated and validated in larger groups, this could enable targeted clinical decisions based on imaging data.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2011
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    Psychological Medicine
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    Psychological Medicine
    Article . 2012
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    Article . 2012
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    Psychological Medicine
    Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2011
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      Psychological Medicine
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      Psychological Medicine
      Article . 2012
      Data sources: NARCIS
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      Article . 2012
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Psychological Medicine
      Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Bögels, S.; Schriefers, H.; Vonk, W.; Chwilla, D.; +1 Authors

    Abstract This study addresses the question whether prosodic information can affect the choice for a syntactic analysis in auditory sentence processing. We manipulated the prosody (in the form of a prosodic break; PB) of locally ambiguous Dutch sentences to favor one of two interpretations. The experimental items contained two different types of so-called control verbs (subject and object control) in the matrix clause and were syntactically disambiguated by a transitive or by an intransitive verb. In Experiment 1, we established the default off-line preference of the items for a transitive or an intransitive disambiguating verb with a visual and an auditory fragment completion test. The results suggested that subject- and object-control verbs differently affect the syntactic structure that listeners expect. In Experiment 2, we investigated these two types of verbs separately in an on-line ERP study. Consistent with the literature, the PB elicited a closure positive shift. Furthermore, in subject-control items, an N400 effect for intransitive relative to transitive disambiguating verbs was found, both for sentences with and for sentences without a PB. This result suggests that the default preference for subject-control verbs goes in the same direction as the effect of the PB. In object-control items, an N400 effect for intransitive relative to transitive disambiguating verbs was found for sentences with a PB but no effect in the absence of a PB. This indicates that a PB can affect the syntactic analysis that listeners pursue.

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    MPG.PuRe
    Article . 2010
    Data sources: MPG.PuRe
    Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
    Article . 2010 . Peer-reviewed
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      MPG.PuRe
      Article . 2010
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      Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
      Article . 2010 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Lodewijk J.A. Toonen; Maurice Overzier; Melvin M. Evers; Leticia G. Leon; +10 Authors

    Background Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by expansion of the polyglutamine repeat in the ataxin-3 protein. Expression of mutant ataxin-3 is known to result in transcriptional dysregulation, which can contribute to the cellular toxicity and neurodegeneration. Since the exact causative mechanisms underlying this process have not been fully elucidated, gene expression analyses in brains of transgenic SCA3 mouse models may provide useful insights. Methods Here we characterised the MJD84.2 SCA3 mouse model expressing the mutant human ataxin-3 gene using a multi-omics approach on brain and blood. Gene expression changes in brainstem, cerebellum, striatum and cortex were used to study pathological changes in brain, while blood gene expression and metabolites/lipids levels were examined as potential biomarkers for disease. Results Despite normal motor performance at 17.5 months of age, transcriptional changes in brain tissue of the SCA3 mice were observed. Most transcriptional changes occurred in brainstem and striatum, whilst cerebellum and cortex were only modestly affected. The most significantly altered genes in SCA3 mouse brain were Tmc3, Zfp488, Car2, and Chdh. Based on the transcriptional changes, α-adrenergic and CREB pathways were most consistently altered for combined analysis of the four brain regions. When examining individual brain regions, axon guidance and synaptic transmission pathways were most strongly altered in striatum, whilst brainstem presented with strongest alterations in the pi-3 k cascade and cholesterol biosynthesis pathways. Similar to other neurodegenerative diseases, reduced levels of tryptophan and increased levels of ceramides, di- and triglycerides were observed in SCA3 mouse blood. Conclusions The observed transcriptional changes in SCA3 mouse brain reveal parallels with previous reported neuropathology in patients, but also shows brain region specific effects as well as involvement of adrenergic signalling and CREB pathway changes in SCA3. Importantly, the transcriptional changes occur prior to onset of motor- and coordination deficits. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1186/s13024-018-0261-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2018
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Article . 2018
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    Article . 2018
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    Article . 2018
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    Radboud Repository
    Article . 2018
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    Molecular Neurodegeneration
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    Molecular Neurodegeneration; NARCIS
    Other literature type . Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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    ZENODO
    Article . 2018
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      Radboud Repository
      Article . 2018
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      Molecular Neurodegeneration
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      Molecular Neurodegeneration; NARCIS
      Other literature type . Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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      ZENODO
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    Authors: Pieter, van Eijsden; Fahmeed, Hyder; Douglas L, Rothman; Robert G, Shulman;

    The successes of PET and fMRI in non-invasively localizing sensory functions had encouraged efforts to transform the subjective concepts of cognitive psychology into objective physical measures. The assumption was that mental functions could be decomposed into non-overlapping, context-independent modules that are operated on by separable areas of a computer-like brain. The failures of cognitive modularity and of a very localized phrenology are generally, but not universally, accepted; but in their place, and usually not distinguished from the original revolutionary hopes of clarification, experimental results are being interpreted in terms of rather flexible definitions of both cognitive concepts and the degree of localization. In an alternative approach, we have connected fMRI, (13)C MRS, and electrophysiology measurements of brain energy to connect with observable properties of mental life (i.e., awareness). We illustrate this approach with a sensory stimulation experiment; the degree of localization found in BOLD signals was related to the global energy of the brain which, when manipulated by anesthetics, affected the degree of awareness. The influence of brain energy upon functional imaging maps is changing the interpretations of neuroimaging experiments, from psychological concepts generating computer-like responses to empirical responses dominated by the high brain energy and signaling at rest. In our view "baseline" is an operational term, an adjective that defines a property of a state of the system before it is perturbed by a stimulus. Given the dependence of observable psychological properties upon the "baseline" energy, we believe that it is unnecessarily limiting to de. ne a particular state as the baseline. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2009
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2008
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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2009 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 2009
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