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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Christoph Huber-Huber; Julia Steininger; Markus Grüner; Ulrich Ansorge;

    Abstract Visual attention and saccadic eye movements are linked in a tight, yet flexible fashion. In humans, this link is typically studied with dual‐task setups. Participants are instructed to execute a saccade to some target location, while a discrimination target is flashed on a screen before the saccade can be made. Participants are also instructed to report a specific feature of this discrimination target at the trial end. Discrimination performance is usually better if the discrimination target occurred at the same location as the saccade target compared to when it occurred at a different location, which is explained by the mandatory shift of attention to the saccade target location before saccade onset. This pre‐saccadic shift of attention presumably enhances the perception of the discrimination target if it occurred at the same, but not if it occurred at a different location. It is, however, known that a dual‐task setup can alter the primary process under investigation. Here, we directly compared pre‐saccadic attention in single‐task versus dual‐task setups using concurrent electroencephalography (EEG) and eye‐tracking. Our results corroborate the idea of a pre‐saccadic shift of attention. They, however, question that this shift leads to the same‐position discrimination advantage. The relation of saccade and discrimination target position affected the EEG signal only after saccade onset. Our results, thus, favor an alternative explanation based on the role of saccades for the consolidation of sensory and short‐term memory. We conclude that studies with dual‐task setups arrived at a valid conclusion despite not measuring exactly what they intended to measure. In humans, the relation between visual attention and saccadic eye movements is usually studied with psychophysical dual‐task setups. Here, we employ concurrent EEG and eye‐tracking to directly compare dual‐task to single‐task setups and conclude in line with previous research that attention precedes saccades. However, our results suggest that dual‐task setups do not measure what they are supposed to measure, that is, the pre‐saccadic shift of attention.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCISarrow_drop_down
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    NARCIS
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: NARCIS
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Radboud Repository
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: Radboud Repository
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    Psychophysiology
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCISarrow_drop_down
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      NARCIS
      Article . 2021
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2021
      Data sources: PubMed Central
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Radboud Repository
      Article . 2021
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      Psychophysiology
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: S. Soloukey; E. Collée; L. Verhoef; D.D. Satoer; +10 Authors

    Accurate, depth-resolved functional imaging is key in both understanding and treatment of the human brain. A new sonography-based imaging technique named functional Ultrasound (fUS) uniquely combines high sensitivity with submillimeter-subsecond spatiotemporal resolution available in large fields-of-view. In this proof-of-concept study we show that: (A) fUS reveals the same eloquent regions as found by fMRI while concomitantly visualizing in-vivo microvascular morphology underlying these functional hemodynamics and (B) fUS-based functional maps are confirmed by Electrocortical Stimulation Mapping (ESM), the current gold-standard in awake neurosurgical practice. This unique cross-modality experiment was performed using motor, visual and language-related functional tasks in patients undergoing awake brain tumor resection. The current work serves as an important milestone towards further maturity of fUS as well as a novel avenue to increase our understanding of hemodynamics-based functional brain imaging.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NeuroImagearrow_drop_down
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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2023
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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2023
    Data sources: KNAW Pure
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    NeuroImage
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NeuroImagearrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      NeuroImage
      Article . 2023
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      NeuroImage
      Article . 2023
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      NeuroImage
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Eduard H J Voormolen; Peter A Woerdeman; Marijn van Stralen; Herke Jan Noordmans; +3 Authors

    Background A neuronavigation interface with extended function as compared with current systems was developed to aid during temporal bone surgery. The interface, named EVADE, updates the prior anatomical image and visualizes the bone drilling process virtually in real-time without need for intra-operative imaging. Furthermore, EVADE continuously calculates the distance from the drill tip to segmented temporal bone critical structures (e.g. the sigmoid sinus and facial nerve) and produces audiovisual warnings if the surgeon drills in too close vicinity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and surgical utility of EVADE in physical phantoms. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed 228 measurements assessing the position accuracy of tracking a navigated drill in the operating theatre. A mean target registration error of 1.33±0.61 mm with a maximum error of 3.04 mm was found. Five neurosurgeons each drilled two temporal bone phantoms, once using EVADE, and once using a standard neuronavigation interface. While using standard neuronavigation the surgeons damaged three modeled temporal bone critical structures. No structure was hit by surgeons utilizing EVADE. Surgeons felt better orientated and thought they had improved tumor exposure with EVADE. Furthermore, we compared the distances between surface meshes of the virtual drill cavities created by EVADE to actual drill cavities: average maximum errors of 2.54±0.49 mm and −2.70±0.48 mm were found. Conclusions/Significance These results demonstrate that EVADE gives accurate feedback which reduces risks of harming modeled critical structures compared to a standard neuronavigation interface during temporal bone phantom drilling.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2012
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    PLoS ONE
    Article . 2012
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2012
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      PLoS ONE
      Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2012
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      PLoS ONE
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Filippo Abbondanza; Philip S. Dale; Carol A. Wang; Marianna E. Hayiou‐Thomas; +29 Authors

    Funding: Royal Society - UF150663, RGF\EA\180141; Wellcome Trust - 217065/Z/19/Z; H2020 European Research Council - 694189; NWO - 451-15-017; National Health and Medical Research Council - 1173896; Canadian Institute for Health Research - MOP-133440. Handedness has been studied for association with language-related disorders because of its link with language hemispheric dominance. No clear pattern has emerged, possibly because of small samples, publication bias, and heterogeneous criteria across studies. Non-right-handedness (NRH) frequency was assessed in N = 2503 cases with reading and/or language impairment and N = 4316 sex-matched controls identified from 10 distinct cohorts (age range 6–19 years old; European ethnicity) using a priori set criteria. A meta-analysis (Ncases = 1994) showed elevated NRH % in individuals with language/reading impairment compared with controls (OR = 1.21, CI = 1.06–1.39, p = .01). The association between reading/language impairments and NRH could result from shared pathways underlying brain lateralization, handedness, and cognitive functions. Publisher PDF Peer reviewed

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    MPG.PuRe
    Article . 2023
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    St Andrews Research Repository
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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    Oxford Brookes University: RADAR
    Other literature type . 2023
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Vrije Universiteit A...arrow_drop_down
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      St Andrews Research Repository
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
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      Oxford Brookes University: RADAR
      Other literature type . 2023
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    Authors: Jan Van Erum; Femke Valkenburg; Debby Van Dam; Peter Paul De Deyn;

    Abstract: In several tauopathies such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), an increased incidence of seizures is observed. Tau, one of the major proteins implicated in AD pathology, is an important regulator of neural network excitability and might participate in the underlying epileptic cascade. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship are not fully elucidated. We aim to investigate this mechanism by analyzing seizure susceptibility to the convulsant pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) in a novel rodent tauopathy model. A single dose of PTZ was systemically injected in Tau58/4 transgenic mice. To investigate whether young and aged heterozygous (HET) mice exhibit a higher susceptibility to seizures in comparison with wild-type (WT) littermates, video electroencephalography (EEG) in combination with behavioral scoring according to a modified Racine scale was used. The employment of different dosage groups enabled us to characterize the dose range reliably inducing seizures. Here, we report an increased seizure susceptibility in young but not in old HET Tau58/4 mice. Young HET animals displayed more severe seizures and had a reduced latency to the first seizure compared to WTs. Also, age-related differences in susceptibility could be demonstrated for both genotypes. Identification and targeting of secondary diseases such as epilepsy, which aggravate dementia and lead to earlier institutionalization, is key. This study finds that tau pathology itself is sufficient to alter seizure susceptibility in a rodent model, indicating that the disease process is crucial in the emergence of epilepsy in patients with tauopathy. (C) 2019 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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    NARCIS
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: NARCIS
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    Neuroscience
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      Article . 2020
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      Neuroscience
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Anna, Gardumi; Dimo, Ivanov; Lars, Hausfeld; Giancarlo, Valente; +2 Authors

    Multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) in fMRI has been used to extract information from distributed cortical activation patterns, which may go undetected in conventional univariate analysis. However, little is known about the physical and physiological underpinnings of MVPA in fMRI as well as about the effect of spatial smoothing on its performance. Several studies have addressed these issues, but their investigation was limited to the visual cortex at 3T with conflicting results. Here, we used ultra-high field (7T) fMRI to investigate the effect of spatial resolution and smoothing on decoding of speech content (vowels) and speaker identity from auditory cortical responses. To that end, we acquired high-resolution (1.1mm isotropic) fMRI data and additionally reconstructed them at 2.2 and 3.3mm in-plane spatial resolutions from the original k-space data. Furthermore, the data at each resolution were spatially smoothed with different 3D Gaussian kernel sizes (i.e. no smoothing or 1.1, 2.2, 3.3, 4.4, or 8.8mm kernels). For all spatial resolutions and smoothing kernels, we demonstrate the feasibility of decoding speech content (vowel) and speaker identity at 7T using support vector machine (SVM) MVPA. In addition, we found that high spatial frequencies are informative for vowel decoding and that the relative contribution of high and low spatial frequencies is different across the two decoding tasks. Moderate smoothing (up to 2.2mm) improved the accuracies for both decoding of vowels and speakers, possibly due to reduction of noise (e.g. residual motion artifacts or instrument noise) while still preserving information at high spatial frequency. In summary, our results show that - even with the same stimuli and within the same brain areas - the optimal spatial resolution for MVPA in fMRI depends on the specific decoding task of interest.

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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2015
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    NeuroImage
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
    Data sources: Crossref
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      NeuroImage
      Article . 2015
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      NeuroImage
      Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Elsevier TDM
      Data sources: Crossref
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    Authors: Cox, Roy; van Driel, J.; de Boer, Marieke; Talamini, Lucia M;

    Large-amplitude sleep slow oscillations group faster neuronal oscillations and are of functional relevance for memory performance. However, relatively little is known about the impact of slow oscillations on functionally coupled networks. Here, we provide a comprehensive view on how human slow oscillatory dynamics influence various measures of brain processing. We demonstrate that slow oscillations coordinate interregional cortical communication, as assessed by phase synchrony in the sleep spindle frequency range and cross-frequency coupling between spindle and beta activity. Furthermore, we show that the organizing role of slow oscillations is restricted to circumscribed topographical areas. These findings add importantly to our basic understanding of the orchestrating role of slow oscillations. In addition, they are of considerable relevance for accounts of sleep-dependent memory reprocessing and consolidation.

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    NARCIS
    Article . 2014
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2014
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Journal of Neuroscience
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC SA
    Data sources: Crossref
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    Article . 2014
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      Article . 2014
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2014
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      Journal of Neuroscience
      Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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      Article . 2014
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    Authors: Mathias Lühr Hansen; Simon Hyttel-Sorensen; Janus Christian Jakobsen; Christian Gluud; +7 Authors

    AbstractBackgroundMultiple clinical conditions are associated with cerebral hypoxia/ischaemia and thereby an increased risk of hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury. Cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy monitoring (NIRS) is a tool to monitor brain oxygenation and perfusion, and the clinical uptake of NIRS has expanded over recent years. Specifically, NIRS is used in the neonatal, paediatric, and adult perioperative and intensive care settings. However, the available literature suggests that clinical benefits and harms of cerebral NIRS monitoring are uncertain. As rates of clinically significant hypoxic-ischaemic brain injuries are typically low, it is difficult for randomised clinical trials to capture a sufficiently large number of events to evaluate the clinical effect of cerebral NIRS monitoring, when focusing on specific clinical settings. The aim of this systematic review will be to evaluate the benefits and harms of clinical care with access to cerebral NIRS monitoring versus clinical care without cerebral NIRS monitoring in children and adults across all clinical settings.MethodsWe will conduct a systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis. We will only include randomised clinical trials. The primary outcomes are all-cause mortality, moderate or severe persistent cognitive or neurological deficit, and proportion of participants with one or more serious adverse events. We will search CENTRAL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and the Science Citation Index Expanded from their inception and onwards. Two reviewers will independently screen all citations, full-text articles, and extract data. The risk of bias will be appraised using the Cochrane risk of bias tool version 2.0. If feasible, we will conduct both random-effects meta-analysis and fixed-effect meta-analysis of outcome data. Additional analysis will be conducted to explore the potential sources of heterogeneity (e.g. risk of bias, clinical setting).DiscussionAs we include trials across multiple clinical settings, there is an increased probability of reaching a sufficient information size. However, heterogeneity between the included trials may impair our ability to interpret results to specific clinical settings. In this situation, we may have to depend on subgroup analyses with inherent increased risks of type I and II errors.Systematic review registrationPROSPEROCRD42020202986. This systematic review protocol has been submitted for registration in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) (http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero) on the 12th of October 2020 and published on the 12th of November 2020 (registration IDCRD42020202986).

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    Article . 2021
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2021
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    Article . 2021
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    Article . 2021
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    Systematic Reviews
    Article
    License: CC BY
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    Systematic Reviews
    Article . 2021
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    Contains fulltext : 251957.pdf (Publisher’s version ) (Open Access) Human language stands out in the natural world as a biological signal that uses a structured system to combine the meanings of small linguistic units (e.g., words) into larger constituents (e.g., phrases and sentences). However, the physical dynamics of speech (or sign) do not stand in a one-to-one relationship with the meanings listeners perceive. Instead, listeners infer meaning based on their knowledge of the language. The neural readouts of the perceptual and cognitive processes underlying these inferences are still poorly understood. In the present study, we used scalp electroencephalography (EEG) to compare the neural response to phrases (e.g., the red vase) and sentences (e.g., the vase is red), which were close in semantic meaning and had been synthesized to be physically indistinguishable. Differences in structure were well captured in the reorganization of neural phase responses in delta (approximately <2 Hz) and theta bands (approximately 2 to 7 Hz),and in power and power connectivity changes in the alpha band (approximately 7.5 to 13.5 Hz). Consistent with predictions from a computational model, sentences showed more power, more power connectivity, and more phase synchronization than phrases did. Theta-gamma phase-amplitude coupling occurred, but did not differ between the syntactic structures. Spectral–temporal response function (STRF) modeling revealed different encoding states for phrases and sentences, over and above the acoustically driven neural response. Our findings provide a comprehensive description of how the brain encodes and separates linguistic structures in the dynamics of neural responses. They imply that phase synchronization and strength of connectivity are readouts for the constituent structure of language. The results provide a novel basis for future neurophysiological research on linguistic structure representation in the brain, and, together with our simulations, support time-based binding as a mechanism of structure encoding in neural dynamics. 40 p.

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    Authors: Emilio Russo; Rita Citraro; Andrew Constanti; Antonio Leo; +3 Authors

    Item does not contain fulltext The WAG/Rij rat model has recently gathered attention as a suitable animal model of absence epileptogenesis. This latter term has a broad definition encompassing any possible cause that determines the development of spontaneous seizures; however, most of, if not all, preclinical knowledge on epileptogenesis is confined to the study of post-brain insult models such as traumatic brain injury or post-status epilepticus models. WAG/Rij rats, but also synapsin 2 knockout, Kv7 current-deficient mice represent the first examples of genetic models where an efficacious antiepileptogenic treatment (ethosuximide) was started before seizure onset. In this review, we have critically reconsidered all articles published regarding WAG/Rij rats, from the perspective that the period before SWD onset is considered as the latent period. In our new theory on seizure development, it is proposed that genes might be considered as the initial 'insult' responsible for all plastic changes underpinning the development of spontaneous seizures. According to this idea, in WAG/Rij rats, genetic predisposition would lead to the development of abnormal bilateral cortical epileptic foci, which would then non-genetically stimulate the rest of the brain to rearrange networks in order to phenotypically develop seizures similarly to what happens during electrical kindling. 21 p.

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    Authors: Christoph Huber-Huber; Julia Steininger; Markus Grüner; Ulrich Ansorge;

    Abstract Visual attention and saccadic eye movements are linked in a tight, yet flexible fashion. In humans, this link is typically studied with dual‐task setups. Participants are instructed to execute a saccade to some target location, while a discrimination target is flashed on a screen before the saccade can be made. Participants are also instructed to report a specific feature of this discrimination target at the trial end. Discrimination performance is usually better if the discrimination target occurred at the same location as the saccade target compared to when it occurred at a different location, which is explained by the mandatory shift of attention to the saccade target location before saccade onset. This pre‐saccadic shift of attention presumably enhances the perception of the discrimination target if it occurred at the same, but not if it occurred at a different location. It is, however, known that a dual‐task setup can alter the primary process under investigation. Here, we directly compared pre‐saccadic attention in single‐task versus dual‐task setups using concurrent electroencephalography (EEG) and eye‐tracking. Our results corroborate the idea of a pre‐saccadic shift of attention. They, however, question that this shift leads to the same‐position discrimination advantage. The relation of saccade and discrimination target position affected the EEG signal only after saccade onset. Our results, thus, favor an alternative explanation based on the role of saccades for the consolidation of sensory and short‐term memory. We conclude that studies with dual‐task setups arrived at a valid conclusion despite not measuring exactly what they intended to measure. In humans, the relation between visual attention and saccadic eye movements is usually studied with psychophysical dual‐task setups. Here, we employ concurrent EEG and eye‐tracking to directly compare dual‐task to single‐task setups and conclude in line with previous research that attention precedes saccades. However, our results suggest that dual‐task setups do not measure what they are supposed to measure, that is, the pre‐saccadic shift of attention.

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    Europe PubMed Central
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