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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: John, Suckling; Matthew H, Davis; Cinly, Ooi; Alle Meije, Wink; +6 Authors

    AbstractThe block‐paradigm of the Functional Image Analysis Contest (FIAC) dataset was analysed with the Brain Activation and Morphological Mapping software. Permutation methods in the wavelet domain were used for inference on cluster‐based test statistics of orthogonal contrasts relevant to the factorial design of the study, namely: the average response across all active blocks, the main effect of speaker, the main effect of sentence, and the interaction between sentence and speaker. Extensive activation was seen with all these contrasts. In particular, different vs. same‐speaker blocks produced elevated activation in bilateral regions of the superior temporal lobe and repetition suppression for linguistic materials (same vs. different‐sentence blocks) in left inferior frontal regions. These are regions previously reported in the literature. Additional regions were detected in this study, perhaps due to the enhanced sensitivity of the methodology. Within‐block sentence suppression was tested post‐hoc by regression of an exponential decay model onto the extracted time series from the left inferior frontal gyrus, but no strong evidence of such an effect was found. The significance levels set for the activation maps are P‐values at which we expect <1 false‐positive cluster per image. Nominal type I error control was verified by empirical testing of a test statistic corresponding to a randomly ordered design matrix. The small size of the BOLD effect necessitates sensitive methods of detection of brain activation. Permutation methods permit the necessary flexibility to develop novel test statistics to meet this challenge. Hum Brain Mapp27:425–433, 2006. © 2006 Wiley‐Liss, Inc.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2006
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Human Brain Mapping
    Article . 2006 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Wiley Online Library User Agreement
    Data sources: Crossref
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2006
    Data sources: Hal-Diderot
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2006
      Data sources: PubMed Central
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Human Brain Mapping
      Article . 2006 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Wiley Online Library User Agreement
      Data sources: Crossref
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Hal-Diderot
      Article . 2006
      Data sources: Hal-Diderot
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Sebastian P.H. Speer; Ale Smidts; Maarten A. S. Boksem;

    Every day, we are faced with the conflict between the temptation to cheat for financial gains and maintaining a positive image of ourselves as being a “good person.” While it has been proposed that cognitive control is needed to mediate this conflict between reward and our moral self-image, the exact role of cognitive control in (dis)honesty remains elusive. Here we identify this role, by investigating the neural mechanism underlying cheating. We developed a task which allows for inconspicuously measuring spontaneous cheating on a trial-by-trial basis in the MRI scanner. We found that activity in the nucleus accumbens promotes cheating, particularly for individuals who cheat a lot, while a network consisting of posterior cingulate cortex, temporoparietal junction, and medial prefrontal cortex promotes honesty, particularly in individuals who are generally honest. Finally, activity in areas associated with cognitive control (anterior cingulate cortex and inferior frontal gyrus) helped dishonest participants to be honest, whereas it enabled cheating for honest participants. Thus, our results suggest that cognitive control is not needed to be honest or dishonest per se but that it depends on an individual’s moral default. Significance Considering the immense economic costs associated with dishonest behavior, such as tax evasion or music piracy, reducing dishonesty is of great relevance to policy-makers. However, targeting dishonesty with interventions requires a thorough understanding of the underlying (neuro)cognitive processes. We combine neuroimaging with a task that pioneers in measuring the neural mechanisms underlying (dis)honesty. While replicating previous findings that greed drives dishonesty, we reveal that self-referential thinking processes promoted honest behavior. Moreover, we found that cognitive control does not serve the same purpose across individuals but facilitates honest decisions for cheaters, whereas it enables cheating for honest participants. We thus observe that different processes prevent dishonesty for different individuals, which can prove instrumental in the development of more effective interventions.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2020
      Data sources: PubMed Central
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2020
      Data sources: PubMed Central
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY NC ND
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Cyril Pernet; Marta I. Garrido; Alexandre Gramfort; Natasha M. Maurits; +6 Authors

    The Organization for Human Brain Mapping (OHBM) has been active in advocating for the instantiation of best practices in neuroimaging data acquisition, analysis, reporting and sharing of both data and analysis code to deal with issues in science related to reproducibility and replicability. Here we summarize recommendations for such practices in magnetoencephalographic (MEG) and electroencephalographic (EEG) research, recently developed by the OHBM neuroimaging community known by the abbreviated name of COBIDAS MEEG. We discuss the rationale for the guidelines and their general content, which encompass many topics under active discussion in the field. We highlight future opportunities and challenges to maximizing the sharing and exploitation of MEG and EEG data, and we also discuss how this 'living' set of guidelines will evolve to continually address new developments in neurophysiological assessment methods and multimodal integration of neurophysiological data with other data types.The Organization for Human Brain Mapping presents its best practices report for reproducible EEG and MEG research, highlighting issues and main recommendations in this Perspective.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCIS; Nature Neuro...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Aaltodoc Publication Archive
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Radboud Repository
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: Radboud Repository
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Nature Neuroscience
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Springer TDM
    Data sources: Crossref; NARCIS
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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    Article . 2020
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCIS; Nature Neuro...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Aaltodoc Publication Archive
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Radboud Repository
      Article . 2020
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Nature Neuroscience
      Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      Article . 2020
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Hofstee, Marissa; Huijding, Jorg; Cuevas, Kimberly; Dekovic, Maja; +2 Authors

    AbstractIntegrating behavioral and neurophysiological measures has created new and advanced ways to understand the development of self‐regulation. Electroencephalography (EEG) has been used to examine how self‐regulatory processes are related to frontal alpha power during infancy and early childhood. However, findings across previous studies have been inconsistent. To address this issue, the current meta‐analysis synthesized all prior literature examining associations between individual differences in self‐regulation and frontal EEG alpha power (baseline and/or task). In total, 23 studies consisting of 1275 participants between 1 month and 6 years of age were included, which yielded 149 effect sizes. Findings of the three‐level meta‐analytic model demonstrated a non‐significant overall association between self‐regulation and frontal alpha power. Yet, significant moderating effects were found for self‐regulation construct (emotion regulation, effortful control, executive function), self‐regulation measurement (behavioral task, computer assessment, lab observation, questionnaire), and children's mean age. Self‐regulation was only significantly correlated with frontal alpha power when studies focused on the executive functioning construct. Moreover, the use of behavioral tasks or questionnaires and a higher mean age of the children resulted in small but significant effect size estimates. Higher frontal alpha power values were related to higher order top‐down mechanisms of self‐regulation, indicating that these mechanisms might become stronger when the frontal cortex is sufficiently developed. The findings of the current meta‐analysis highlight the importance of longitudinal analyses and multimethod approaches in future work to reach a more comprehensive understanding of the role of frontal EEG alpha activity in the etiology of individual differences in early self‐regulation.Research Highlights The first meta‐analysis of individual differences in self‐regulation and frontal EEG alpha power during infancy and early childhood demonstrated a non‐significant overall association. Moderation analyses revealed that variations in frontal alpha power were significantly associated with executive function, but not with effortful control and emotion regulation. Frontal alpha power was related to variations in self‐regulation when measured by behavioral tasks and questionnaires, but not via computer assessments and lab observations. The association between individual differences in self‐regulation and frontal alpha power becomes significantly stronger with age.

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    Developmental Science
    Article . 2022
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    Developmental Science
    Article . 2022 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Szabolcs David; Anneriet M. Heemskerk; Francesco Corrivetti; Michel Thiebaut de Schotten; +12 Authors

    International audience; Fiber tractography (FT) using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) is widely used for investigating microstructural properties of white matter (WM) fiber-bundles and for mapping structural connections of the human brain. While studying the architectural configuration of the brain's circuitry with FT is not without controversy, recent progress in acquisition, processing, modeling, analysis, and visualization of dMRI data pushes forward the reliability in reconstructing WM pathways. Despite being aware of the well-known pitfalls in analyzing dMRI data and several other limitations of FT discussed in recent literature, we present the superoanterior fasciculus (SAF), a novel bilateral fiber tract in the frontal region of the human brain that-to the best of our knowledge-has not been documented. The SAF has a similar shape to the anterior part of the cingulum bundle, but it is located more frontally. To minimize the possibility that these FT findings are based on acquisition or processing artifacts, different dMRI data sets and processing pipelines have been used to describe the SAF. Furthermore, we evaluated the configuration of the SAF with complementary methods, such as polarized light imaging (PLI) and human brain dissections. The FT results of the SAF demonstrate a long pathway, consistent across individuals, while the human dissections indicate fiber pathways connecting the postero-dorsal with the antero-dorsal cortices of the frontal lobe.

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    ACU Research Bank
    Article . 2019
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    Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
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      Article . 2019
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      Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
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      Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
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    Authors: Tiesinga, P.H.E.;

    AbstractIdentifying the dominant dynamical motifs in cortical circuits and determining their functional relevance is of the utmost importance to understand the underlying mechanisms of psychiatric diseases and to develop effective therapies. Optogenetics can be used to interrogate cortical circuits to determine the dominant motif and thereby identify the relevant biophysical time scales that set the oscillation frequency. We review how computational models of cortical networks can help guide optogenetics experiments. We focus our attention on the pyramidal interneuron gamma motif, which is comprised of reciprocally connected excitatory and inhibitory neurons, and determine how the different biophysical time scales of the circuit components are reflected in the resonance of the power in the local field potential at the frequency of stimulation as a function of that frequency. Cardin et al. [J.A. Cardin et al. (2009)Nature, 459, 663–667] find that periodic stimulation of inhibitory cells leads to a resonance at gamma frequencies (30–80 Hz), but that stimulation of excitatory cells does not lead to a resonance. We can account for these results when the pyramidal cells are endowed with an intrinsic frequency preference due to a slow hyperpolarizing current. Furthermore, when fast α‐amino‐3‐hydroxy‐5‐methyl‐4‐isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)‐mediated excitatory currents are replaced by slow N‐methyl‐d‐aspartate (NMDA)‐mediated ones in inhibitory cells, the gamma frequency resonance is reduced; however, when the same replacement is made in excitatory cells, gamma oscillations are enhanced. The results are relevant to schizophrenia, because there is evidence that NMDA receptors on parvalbumin‐positive cells are primarily affected and that the regulation of gamma oscillations is impaired.

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    European Journal of Neuroscience
    Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 2012
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      European Journal of Neuroscience
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    Authors: Maumet, Camille;

    Cette thèse aborde l'étude de la fonction cérébrale en Imagerie par Résonance Magnétique (IRM) à l'aide de deux séquences : l'IRM fonctionnelle (IRMf) BOLD et l'imagerie de perfusion par marquage de spins (ASL). Dans ce contexte, les analyses de groupe jouent un rôle important dans l'identification des dysfonctionnements globaux associés à une pathologie. D'autre part, les études individuelles, qui fournissent des conclusions au niveau d'un sujet unique, présentent un intérêt croissant. Dans ce travail, nous abordons à la fois les études de groupe et les analyses individuelles. Dans un premier temps, nous réalisons une analyse de groupe en IRMf BOLD en vue d'étudier la dysphasie chez l'enfant, une pathologie peu explorée en neuroimagerie. Nous mettons ainsi en évidence un fonctionnement et une latéralisation atypiques des aires langagières. Ensuite, nous nous concentrons sur les analyses individuelles. Nous proposons l'utilisation d'estimateurs robustes pour calculer les cartographies de débit sanguin cérébral en ASL. Ensuite, nous étudions la validité des hypothèses qui sous-tendent les analyses statistiques standard dans le contexte de l'ASL. Finalement, nous proposons une nouvelle méthode localement multivariée basée sur une approche a contrario. La validation de cette nouvelle approche est réalisée dans deux contextes applicatifs : la détection d'anomalies de perfusion en ASL et la détection de zones d'activation en IRMf BOLD. This thesis deals with the analysis of brain function in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) using two sequences: BOLD functional MRI (fMRI) and Arterial Spin Labelling (ASL). In this context, group statistical analyses are of great importance in order to understand the general mechanisms underlying a pathology, but there is also an increasing interest towards patient-specific analyses that draw conclusions at the patient level. Both group and patient-specific analyses are studied in this thesis. We first introduce a group analysis in BOLD fMRI for the study of specific language impairment, a pathology that was very little investigated in neuroimaging. We outline atypical patterns of functional activity and lateralisation in language regions. Then, we move forward to patient-specific analysis. We propose the use of robust estimators to compute cerebral blood flow maps in ASL. Then, we analyse the validity of the assumptions underlying standard statistical analyses in the context of ASL. Finally, we propose a new locally multivariate statistical method based on an a contrario approach and apply it to the detection of atypical patterns of perfusion in ASL and to activation detection in BOLD functional MRI.

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    Other literature type . 2013
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    Authors: Meteran, Hanieh; Vindbjerg, Erik; Uldall, Sigurd Wiingaard; Glenthøj, Birte; +2 Authors

    AbstractBackgroundImpairments in mechanisms underlying early information processing have been reported in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, findings in the existing literature are inconsistent. This current study capitalizes on technological advancements of research on electroencephalographic event-related potential and applies it to a novel PTSD population consisting of trauma-affected refugees.MethodsA total of 25 trauma-affected refugees with PTSD and 20 healthy refugee controls matched on age, gender, and country of origin completed the study. In two distinct auditory paradigms sensory gating, indexed as P50 suppression, and sensorimotor gating, indexed as prepulse inhibition (PPI), startle reactivity, and habituation of the eye-blink startle response were examined. Within the P50 paradigm, N100 and P200 amplitudes were also assessed. In addition, correlations between psychophysiological and clinical measures were investigated.ResultsPTSD patients demonstrated significantly elevated stimuli responses across the two paradigms, reflected in both increased amplitude of the eye-blink startle response, and increased N100 and P200 amplitudes relative to healthy refugee controls. We found a trend toward reduced habituation in the patients, while the groups did not differ in PPI and P50 suppression. Among correlations, we found that eye-blink startle responses were associated with higher overall illness severity and lower levels of functioning.ConclusionsFundamental gating mechanisms appeared intact, while the pattern of deficits in trauma-affected refugees with PTSD point toward a different form of sensory overload, an overall neural hypersensitivity and disrupted the ability to down-regulate stimuli responses. This study represents an initial step toward elucidating sensory processing deficits in a PTSD subgroup.

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    Psychological Medicine
    Article . 2019
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    Psychological Medicine
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Psychological Medicine
      Article . 2019
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Psychological Medicine
      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: O'Hanlon, Erik; Howley, Sarah; Prasad, Sarah; McGrath, Jane; +4 Authors

    AbstractIntroductionImpaired spatial working memory is a core cognitive deficit observed in people with 22q11 Deletion syndrome (22q11DS) and has been suggested as a candidate endophenotype for schizophrenia. However, to date, the neuroanatomical mechanisms describing its structural and functional underpinnings in 22q11DS remain unclear. We quantitatively investigate the cognitive processes and associated neuroanatomy of spatial working memory in people with 22q11DS compared to matched controls. We examine whether there are significant between‐group differences in spatial working memory using task related fMRI, Voxel based morphometry and white matter fiber tractography.Materials and MethodsMultimodal magnetic resonance imaging employing functional, diffusion and volumetric techniques were used to quantitatively assess the cognitive and neuroanatomical features of spatial working memory processes in 22q11DS. Twenty‐six participants with genetically confirmed 22q11DS aged between 9 and 52 years and 26 controls aged between 8 and 46 years, matched for age, gender, and handedness were recruited.ResultsPeople with 22q11DS have significant differences in spatial working memory functioning accompanied by a gray matter volume reduction in the right precuneus. Gray matter volume was significantly correlated with task performance scores in these areas. Tractography revealed extensive differences along fibers between task‐related cortical activations with pronounced differences localized to interhemispheric commissural fibers within the parietal section of the corpus callosum.ConclusionsAbnormal spatial working memory in 22q11DS is associated with aberrant functional activity in conjunction with gray and white matter structural abnormalities. These anomalies in discrete brain regions may increase susceptibility to the development of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. Hum Brain Mapp 37:4689–4705, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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    Human Brain Mapping
    Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2016
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      Human Brain Mapping
      Article . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
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      Other literature type . 2016
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    Authors: Jagessar, Anwar; Kap, Yolanda; Heijmans, N; van Driel, N; +7 Authors

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in the neotropical primate common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a relevant autoimmune animal model of multiple sclerosis. T cells specific for peptide 34 to 56 of myelin/oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG(34-56)) have a central pathogenic role in this model. The aim of this study was to assess the requirement for innate immune stimulation for activation of this core pathogenic autoimmune mechanism. Marmoset monkeys were sensitized against synthetic MOG(34-56) peptide alone or in combination with the nonencephalitogenic peptide MOG(74-96) formulated in incomplete Freund adjuvant, which lacks microbial components. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis development was recorded by monitoring neurological signs, brain magnetic resonance imaging, and longitudinal profiling of cellular and humoral immune parameters. All monkeys developed autoimmune inflammatory/demyelinating central nervous system disease characterized by massive brain and spinal cord demyelinating white matter lesions with activated macrophages and CD3(+) T cells. Immune profiling ex vivo demonstrated the activation of mainly CD3(+)CD4(+)/8(+)CD56(+) T cells against MOG(34-56). Upon ex vivo stimulation, these T cells produced more interleukin 17A compared with TH1 cytokines (e. g. interferon-gamma) and displayed peptide-specific cytolytic activity. These results indicate that the full spectrum of marmoset experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis can be induced by sensitization against a single MOG peptide in incomplete Freund adjuvant lacking microbial compounds for innate immune activation and by eliciting antigen-specific T-cell cytolytic activity.

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    Article . 2010
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    Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology
    Article . 2010 . Peer-reviewed
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      Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology
      Article . 2010 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: John, Suckling; Matthew H, Davis; Cinly, Ooi; Alle Meije, Wink; +6 Authors

    AbstractThe block‐paradigm of the Functional Image Analysis Contest (FIAC) dataset was analysed with the Brain Activation and Morphological Mapping software. Permutation methods in the wavelet domain were used for inference on cluster‐based test statistics of orthogonal contrasts relevant to the factorial design of the study, namely: the average response across all active blocks, the main effect of speaker, the main effect of sentence, and the interaction between sentence and speaker. Extensive activation was seen with all these contrasts. In particular, different vs. same‐speaker blocks produced elevated activation in bilateral regions of the superior temporal lobe and repetition suppression for linguistic materials (same vs. different‐sentence blocks) in left inferior frontal regions. These are regions previously reported in the literature. Additional regions were detected in this study, perhaps due to the enhanced sensitivity of the methodology. Within‐block sentence suppression was tested post‐hoc by regression of an exponential decay model onto the extracted time series from the left inferior frontal gyrus, but no strong evidence of such an effect was found. The significance levels set for the activation maps are P‐values at which we expect <1 false‐positive cluster per image. Nominal type I error control was verified by empirical testing of a test statistic corresponding to a randomly ordered design matrix. The small size of the BOLD effect necessitates sensitive methods of detection of brain activation. Permutation methods permit the necessary flexibility to develop novel test statistics to meet this challenge. Hum Brain Mapp27:425–433, 2006. © 2006 Wiley‐Liss, Inc.

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    Other literature type . 2006
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    Human Brain Mapping
    Article . 2006 . Peer-reviewed
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2006
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