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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Csaba Kerepesi; Balázs Szalkai; Bálint Varga; Vince Kornél Grolmusz;

    Abstract The human braingraph, or connectome is a description of the connections of the brain: the nodes of the graph correspond to small areas of the gray matter, and two nodes are connected by an edge if a diffusion MRI-based workflow finds fibers between those brain areas. We have constructed 1015-vertex graphs from the diffusion MRI brain images of 392 human subjects and compared the individual graphs with respect to several different areas of the brain. The inter-individual variability of the graphs within different brain regions was discovered and described. We have found that the frontal and the limbic lobes are more conservative, while the edges in the temporal and occipital lobes are more diverse. Interestingly, a “hybrid” conservative and diverse distribution was found in the paracentral lobule and the fusiform gyrus. Smaller cortical areas were also evaluated: precentral gyri were found to be more conservative, and the postcentral and the superior temporal gyri to be very diverse. Similar studies concerning the human genome discovered more and less conservative sections of the DNA, opening up entirely new fields in genomics. We think that the present study is the first step in this direction in human connectomics. The clinical significance of the conservativity of a given cerebral area could be the higher sensitivity for traumas and developmental or neuro-degenerative events than the less conservative areas.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Neuroscience Lettersarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Neuroscience Letters
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Neuroscience Lettersarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Neuroscience Letters
      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Xuehe, Li; Yong-Woon, Jung; Scott E, Snyder; Joseph, Blair; +4 Authors

    Abstract As potential new ligands targeting the binding site of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor ionophore, trans -5- tert -butyl-2-(4′-fluoropropynylphenyl)-2-methyl-1,1-dioxo-1,3-dithiane (1) and cis / trans -5- tert -butyl-2-(4′-fluoropropynylphenyl)-2-methyl-1,1,3,3-tetroxo-1,3-dithiane (2) were selected for radiolabeling and initial evaluation as in vivo imaging agents for positron emission tomography (PET). Both compounds exhibited identical high in vitro binding affinities ( K i =6.5 nM). Appropriate tosylate-substituted ethynyl precursors were prepared by multistep syntheses involving stepwise sulfur oxidation and chromatographic isolation of desired trans isomers. Radiolabeling was accomplished in one step using nucleophilic [ 18 F]fluorination. In vivo biodistribution studies with trans -[ 18 F] 1 and trans -[ 18 F]2 showed significant initial uptake into mouse brain and gradual washout, with heterogeneous regional brain distributions and higher retention in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum and lower retention in the striatum and pons–medulla. These regional distributions of the new radioligands correlated with in vitro and ex vivo measures of standard radioligands binding to the ionophore- and benzodiazepine-binding sites of GABA A receptor in rodent brain. A comparison of these results with previously prepared radiotracers for other neurochemical targets, including successes and failures as in vivo radioligands, suggests that higher-affinity compounds with increased retention in target brain tissues will likely be needed before a successful radiopharmaceutical for human PET imaging can be identified.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2007
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Nuclear Medicine and Biology
    Article . 2008 . Peer-reviewed
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2007
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Nuclear Medicine and Biology
      Article . 2008 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: M R, Herbert; D A, Ziegler; C K, Deutsch; L M, O'Brien; +9 Authors

    High-functioning autistic and normal school-age boys were compared using a whole-brain morphometric profile that includes both total brain volume and volumes of all major brain regions. We performed MRI-based morphometric analysis on the brains of 17 autistic and 15 control subjects, all male with normal intelligence, aged 7-11 years. Clinical neuroradiologists judged the brains of all subjects to be clinically normal. The entire brain was segmented into cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem and ventricles. The cerebrum was subdivided into cerebral cortex, cerebral white matter, hippocampus-amygdala, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus plus putamen, and diencephalon (thalamus plus ventral diencephalon). Volumes were derived for each region and compared between groups both before and after adjustment for variation in total brain volume. Factor analysis was then used to group brain regions based on their intercorrelations. Volumes were significantly different between groups overall; and diencephalon, cerebral white matter, cerebellum and globus pallidus-putamen were significantly larger in the autistic group. Brain volumes were not significantly different overall after adjustment for total brain size, but this analysis approached significance and effect sizes and univariate comparisons remained notable for three regions, although not all in the same direction: cerebral white matter showed a trend towards being disproportionately larger in autistic boys, while cerebral cortex and hippocampus-amygdala showed trends toward being disproportionately smaller. Factor analysis of all brain region volumes yielded three factors, with central white matter grouping alone, and with cerebral cortex and hippocampus-amygdala grouping separately from other grey matter regions. This morphometric profile of the autistic brain suggests that there is an overall increase in brain volumes compared with controls. Additionally, results suggest that there may be differential effects driving white matter to be larger and cerebral cortex and hippocampus-amygdala to be relatively smaller in the autistic than in the typically developing brain. The cause of this apparent dissociation of cerebral cortical regions from subcortical regions and of cortical white from grey matter is unknown, and merits further investigation.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Brainarrow_drop_down
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    Brain
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    Brain
    Article . 2003 . Peer-reviewed
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    Brain
    Article . 2003
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Brainarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Brain
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      Brain
      Article . 2003 . Peer-reviewed
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      Brain
      Article . 2003
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Linterman, Kathryn S.; Palmer, David N.; Kay, Graham W.; Barry, Lucy A.; +5 Authors

    The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs; Batten disease) are inherited neurodegenerative lysosomal storage diseases with common clinical features of blindness and seizures culminating in premature death. Gene-therapy strategies for these diseases depend on whether the missing activity is a secreted lysosomal protein taken up by neighboring cells, or an intramembrane protein that requires careful targeting. Therapies are best developed in animal models with large complex human-like brains. Lentiviral-mediated gene delivery to neural cell cultures from normal sheep and sheep affected with an NCL resulted in green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression in neurons and neuroblasts, more efficiently than in astrocytes. Similar transgene expression was obtained from two constitutive promoters, the viral MND promoter and the human EF1α promoter. In vivo studies showed stable and persistent GFP expression throughout the cell bodies, axons, and dendrites from intracortical injections and indicated ependymal and subependymal transduction. The sheep showed no ill effects from the injections. These data support continuing gene-therapy trials in the sheep models of Batten disease.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Human Gene Therapyarrow_drop_down
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    Human Gene Therapy
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2011
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Human Gene Therapy
    Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Mary Ann Liebert TDM
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Human Gene Therapyarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Human Gene Therapy
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2011
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Human Gene Therapy
      Article . 2011 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Mukta Vaidya; Robert D. Flint; Po T. Wang; Alexander J. Barry; +14 Authors

    Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) translate brain signals into control signals for an external device, such as a computer cursor or robotic limb. These signals can be obtained either noninvasively or invasively. Invasive recordings, using electrocorticography (ECoG) or intracortical microelectrodes, provide higher bandwidth and more informative signals. Rehabilitative BMIs, which aim to drive plasticity in the brain to enhance recovery after brain injury, have almost exclusively used non-invasive recordings, such electroencephalography (EEG) or magnetoencephalography (MEG), which have limited bandwidth and information content. Invasive recordings provide more information and spatiotemporal resolution, but do incur risk, and thus are not usually investigated in people with stroke or traumatic brain injury (TBI). Here, in this paper, we describe a new BMI paradigm to investigate the use of higher frequency signals in brain-injured subjects without incurring significant risk. We recorded EEG in TBI subjects who required hemicraniectomies (removal of a part of the skull). EEG over the hemicraniectomy (hEEG) contained substantial information in the high gamma frequency range (65-115 Hz). Using this information, we decoded continuous finger flexion force with moderate to high accuracy (variance accounted for 0.06 to 0.52), which at best approaches that using epidural signals. These results indicate that people with hemicraniectomies can provide a useful resource for developing BMI therapies for the treatment of brain injury.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ eScholarship - Unive...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2019
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
    Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: IEEE Copyright
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ eScholarship - Unive...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2019
      Data sources: PubMed Central
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
      Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
      License: IEEE Copyright
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    Authors: Myoung, Jinjong; Bahk, Young Yil; Kang, Hyun Seok; Dal Canto, Mauro C.; +1 Authors

    Intracranial infection of Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) induces demyelination and a neurological disease in susceptible SJL/J (SJL) mice that resembles multiple sclerosis. While the virus is cleared from the central nervous system (CNS) of resistant C57BL/6 (B6) mice, it persists in SJL mice. To investigate the role of viral persistence and its accompanying immune responses in the development of demyelinating disease, transgenic mice expressing the P1 region of the TMEV genome (P1-Tg) were employed. Interestingly, P1-Tg mice with the B6 background showed severe reductions in both CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses to capsid epitopes, while P1-Tg mice with the SJL background displayed transient reductions following viral infection. Reduced antiviral immune responses in P1-Tg mice led to >100- to 1,000-fold increases in viral persistence at 120 days postinfection in the CNS of mice with both backgrounds. Despite the increased CNS TMEV levels in these P1-Tg mice, B6 P1-Tg mice developed neither neuropathological symptoms nor demyelinating lesions, and SJL P1-Tg mice developed significantly less severe TMEV-induced demyelinating disease. These results strongly suggest that viral persistence alone is not sufficient to induce disease and that the level of T-cell immunity to viral capsid epitopes is critical for the development of demyelinating disease in SJL mice. Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) is a member of the Cardiovirus genus within the Picornaviridae family. TMEV is a common enteric pathogen among wild mice and rarely causes a neurological disease. However, intracerebral (i.c.) infection in susceptible mice, e.g., SJL/J (SJL) mice, reproducibly induces a chronic immune-mediated demyelinating disease, providing an excellent infectious model for multiple sclerosis (10, 25). The precise mechanism of TMEV-induced demyelinating disease (TMEV-IDD) is unknown. However, virus-specific T cells, various proinflammatory chemokines (e.g., monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and interferon-inducible protein 10), and cytokines (e.g., gamma interferon [IFN-] and tumor necrosis factor alpha) in the central nervous system (CNS) are believed to play a critical role (reviewed in references 26 and 44) in this disease process. In addition, the presence of persistent viral infection may lead to demyelinating disease by directly causing host cell lysis (51), which releases sequestrated CNS autoantigens, resulting in the activation of autoreactive T cells (39). The persistence of viral antigens also is believed to perpetuate a massive inflammatory milieu in the CNS by continuously activating virus-specific T cells (25, 33). Thus, it is conceivable that viral persistence is essential for the development of TMEV-IDD. This possibility is consistent with the observation that spontaneously occurring variant viruses with relatively low pathogenicity display reduced levels of viral persistence in the CNS (27), implying that viral persistence is a critical susceptibility factor. Furthermore, genetic studies show that viral persistence levels in the CNS correlate with demyelinating disease levels (7, 34).

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2008
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    Journal of Virology
    Article . 2008 . Peer-reviewed
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      Europe PubMed Central
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      Journal of Virology
      Article . 2008 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Ovsienko, Valentin; Schwartz, Richard; Tabachnikov, Serge;

    The pentagram map is a projectively natural iteration defined on polygons, and also on objects we call twisted polygons (a twisted polygon is a map from Z into the projective plane that is periodic modulo a projective transformation). We find a Poisson structure on the space of twisted polygons and show that the pentagram map relative to this Poisson structure is completely integrable in the sense of Arnold-Liouville. For certain families of twisted polygons, such as those we call universally convex, we translate the integrability into a statement about the quasi-periodic motion for the dynamics of the pentagram map. We also explain how the pentagram map, in the continuous limit, corresponds to the classical Boussinesq equation. The Poisson structure we attach to the pentagram map is a discrete version of the first Poisson structure associated with the Boussinesq equation. Comment: revised version: errors and typos corrected, Theorem 4 improved

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    Communications in Mathematical Physics
    Article . 2010 . Peer-reviewed
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    Article . 2008
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      Communications in Mathematical Physics
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    Authors: Hans-Peter Frey; Anita M. Schmid; Jeremy W. Murphy; Sophie Molholm; +2 Authors

    AbstractWe often face the challenge of simultaneously attending to multiple non‐contiguous regions of space. There is ongoing debate as to how spatial attention is divided under these situations. Whereas, for several years, the predominant view was that humans could divide the attentional spotlight, several recent studies argue in favor of a unitary spotlight that rhythmically samples relevant locations. Here, this issue was addressed by the use of high‐density electrophysiology in concert with the multifocal m‐sequence technique to examine visual evoked responses to multiple simultaneous streams of stimulation. Concurrently, we assayed the topographic distribution of alpha‐band oscillatory mechanisms, a measure of attentional suppression. Participants performed a difficult detection task that required simultaneous attention to two stimuli in contiguous (undivided) or non‐contiguous parts of space. In the undivided condition, the classic pattern of attentional modulation was observed, with increased amplitude of the early visual evoked response and increased alpha amplitude ipsilateral to the attended hemifield. For the divided condition, early visual responses to attended stimuli were also enhanced, and the observed multifocal topographic distribution of alpha suppression was in line with the divided attention hypothesis. These results support the existence of divided attentional spotlights, providing evidence that the corresponding modulation occurs during initial sensory processing time‐frames in hierarchically early visual regions, and that suppressive mechanisms of visual attention selectively target distracter locations during divided spatial attention.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2014
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    European Journal of Neuroscience
    Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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      Europe PubMed Central
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      European Journal of Neuroscience
      Article . 2014 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: B. Ogan Mancarci; Lilah Toker; Shreejoy J. Tripathy; Brenna Li; +3 Authors

    Establishing the molecular diversity of cell types is crucial for the study of the nervous system. We compiled a cross-laboratory database of mouse brain cell type-specific transcriptomes from 36 major cell types from across the mammalian brain using rigorously curated published data from pooled cell type microarray and single-cell RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) studies. We used these data to identify cell type-specific marker genes, discovering a substantial number of novel markers, many of which we validated using computational and experimental approaches. We further demonstrate that summarized expression of marker gene sets (MGSs) in bulk tissue data can be used to estimate the relative cell type abundance across samples. To facilitate use of this expanding resource, we provide a user-friendly web interface at www.neuroexpresso.org. Visual Abstract

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2017
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    bioRxiv
    Preprint . 2016
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    eNeuro
    Article . Preprint
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    eNeuro
    Article . 2017 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Kontogeorgakopoulos, Alexandros; Tzevelekos, Panagiotis; Cadoz, Claude; Kouroupetroglou, Georgios;

    International audience; We propose a numerical simulation for the physical model of the zournas, a Greek traditional double-reed woodwind musical instrument, following the mass-interaction CORDIS-ANIMA formalism. The functional components of the instrument are implemented using original CORDIS-ANIMA modules, while special attention has been given to the flow characteristics of the reed.

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    Authors: Csaba Kerepesi; Balázs Szalkai; Bálint Varga; Vince Kornél Grolmusz;

    Abstract The human braingraph, or connectome is a description of the connections of the brain: the nodes of the graph correspond to small areas of the gray matter, and two nodes are connected by an edge if a diffusion MRI-based workflow finds fibers between those brain areas. We have constructed 1015-vertex graphs from the diffusion MRI brain images of 392 human subjects and compared the individual graphs with respect to several different areas of the brain. The inter-individual variability of the graphs within different brain regions was discovered and described. We have found that the frontal and the limbic lobes are more conservative, while the edges in the temporal and occipital lobes are more diverse. Interestingly, a “hybrid” conservative and diverse distribution was found in the paracentral lobule and the fusiform gyrus. Smaller cortical areas were also evaluated: precentral gyri were found to be more conservative, and the postcentral and the superior temporal gyri to be very diverse. Similar studies concerning the human genome discovered more and less conservative sections of the DNA, opening up entirely new fields in genomics. We think that the present study is the first step in this direction in human connectomics. The clinical significance of the conservativity of a given cerebral area could be the higher sensitivity for traumas and developmental or neuro-degenerative events than the less conservative areas.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Neuroscience Lettersarrow_drop_down
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    Neuroscience Letters
    Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Neuroscience Lettersarrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Neuroscience Letters
      Article . 2018 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Xuehe, Li; Yong-Woon, Jung; Scott E, Snyder; Joseph, Blair; +4 Authors

    Abstract As potential new ligands targeting the binding site of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor ionophore, trans -5- tert -butyl-2-(4′-fluoropropynylphenyl)-2-methyl-1,1-dioxo-1,3-dithiane (1) and cis / trans -5- tert -butyl-2-(4′-fluoropropynylphenyl)-2-methyl-1,1,3,3-tetroxo-1,3-dithiane (2) were selected for radiolabeling and initial evaluation as in vivo imaging agents for positron emission tomography (PET). Both compounds exhibited identical high in vitro binding affinities ( K i =6.5 nM). Appropriate tosylate-substituted ethynyl precursors were prepared by multistep syntheses involving stepwise sulfur oxidation and chromatographic isolation of desired trans isomers. Radiolabeling was accomplished in one step using nucleophilic [ 18 F]fluorination. In vivo biodistribution studies with trans -[ 18 F] 1 and trans -[ 18 F]2 showed significant initial uptake into mouse brain and gradual washout, with heterogeneous regional brain distributions and higher retention in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum and lower retention in the striatum and pons–medulla. These regional distributions of the new radioligands correlated with in vitro and ex vivo measures of standard radioligands binding to the ionophore- and benzodiazepine-binding sites of GABA A receptor in rodent brain. A comparison of these results with previously prepared radiotracers for other neurochemical targets, including successes and failures as in vivo radioligands, suggests that higher-affinity compounds with increased retention in target brain tissues will likely be needed before a successful radiopharmaceutical for human PET imaging can be identified.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2007
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Nuclear Medicine and Biology
    Article . 2008 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Elsevier TDM
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2007
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      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Nuclear Medicine and Biology
      Article . 2008 . Peer-reviewed
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