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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Kontogeorgakopoulos, Alexandros; Tzevelekos, Panagiotis; Cadoz, Claude; Kouroupetroglou, Georgios;

    International audience; We propose a numerical simulation for the physical model of the zournas, a Greek traditional double-reed woodwind musical instrument, following the mass-interaction CORDIS-ANIMA formalism. The functional components of the instrument are implemented using original CORDIS-ANIMA modules, while special attention has been given to the flow characteristics of the reed.

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    Other literature type . 2008
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    Authors: Alexeev, I. I.; Belenkaya, E. S.; Bobrovnikov, S. Yu.; Kalegaev, V. V.; +2 Authors

    We study the topological structure of the magnetosphere for northward IMF. Using a magnetospheric magnetic field model we study the high-latitude response to prolonged periods of northward IMF. For forced solar wind conditions we investigate the location of the polar cap region, the polar cap potential drop, and the field-aligned acceleration potentials, depending on the solar wind pressure and IMF <i>B<sub>y</sub></i> and <i>B<sub>x</sub></i> changes. The open field line bundles, which connect the Earth's polar ionosphere with interplanetary space, are calculated. The locations of the magnetospheric plasma domains relative to the polar ionosphere are studied. The specific features of the open field line regions arising when IMF is northward are demonstrated. The coefficients of attenuation of the solar wind magnetic and electric fields which penetrate into the magnetosphere are determined.

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    Annales Geophysicae
    Article . 2008
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      Annales Geophysicae
      Article . 2008
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    Authors: Stawiarski, Marcin;

    International audience; This article aims to investigate musico-literary intermediality in William H. Gass's works by examining both "A Fugue", a passage from The Tunnel (1995) and his novella The Pedersen Kid (1961). The paper focuses on Gass's conception and use of language, musicality and musicalization. One of the questions raised is to what extent texts that do not necessarily present a direct link to music can be given a musical reading. By analyzing Gass's novella the article demonstrates that the intermedial context conveys semiotic meanings that may allow a better understanding of the contents relating to initiation and rites of passage that the story draws upon, thus providing a new reading of Gass's text. On a more general level, the article reflects upon the textual effects produced by musico-literary intermediality and their impact on time structures in fiction.

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    Authors: Jonquet, Clement; Cerri, Stefano A.;

    International audience; This paper defines and exemplifies a new computational abstraction called i-dialogue which aims to model communicative situations such as those where an agent conducts multiple concurrent conversations with other agents. The i-dialogue abstraction is inspired both by the dialogue abstraction proposed by O'Donnell in 1985 and by the STROBE model by Cerri in 1996. Idialogue models conversations among processes by means of fundamental constructs of applicative/functional languages (i.e., streams, lazy evaluation and higher order functions). The i-dialogue abstraction is adequate for representing multi-agent concurrent asynchronous communication such as it can occur in service providing scenarios on today's Web or Grid. A Scheme implementation of the i-dialogue abstraction has been developed and is available.

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    Other literature type . Conference object . 2005
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      Other literature type . Conference object . 2005
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    Authors: O'Connor, Mary-Frances; Wellisch, David K; Stanton, Annette L; Eisenberger, Naomi I; +2 Authors

    Complicated Grief (CG) occurs when an individual experiences prolonged, unabated grief. The neural mechanisms distinguishing CG from Noncomplicated Grief (NCG) are unclear, but hypothesized mechanisms include both pain-related activity (related to the social pain of loss) and reward-related activity (related to attachment behavior). Bereaved women (11 CG, 12 NCG) participated in an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging scan, during grief elicitation with idiographic stimuli. Analyses revealed that whereas both CG and NCG participants showed pain-related neural activity in response to reminders of the deceased, only those with CG showed reward-related activity in the nucleus accumbens (NA). This NA cluster was positively correlated with self-reported yearning, but not with time since death, participant age, or positive/negative affect. This study supports the hypothesis that attachment activates reward pathways. For those with CG, reminders of the deceased still activate neural reward activity, which may interfere with adapting to the loss in the present.

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    Authors: Kim, S.; Huey, L. G.; Stickel, R. E.; Pierce, R. B.; +9 Authors

    International audience; Gas phase HCl was measured from the marine boundary layer (MBL) to the lower stratosphere from the NASA DC-8 during five science flights (41 h) of the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-Phase B (INTEX-B) field campaign. In the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UT/LS, 8?12 km) HCl was observed to range from a few tens to 100 pptv due to stratospheric influence with a background tropospheric level of less than 2 pptv. In the 8?12 km altitude range, a simple analysis of the O3/HCl correlation shows that pure stratospheric and mixed tropospheric/stratospheric air masses were encountered 30% and 15% of the time, respectively. In the mid troposphere (4?8 km) HCl levels were usually below 2 pptv except for a few cases of stratospheric influence and were much lower than reported in previous work. These data indicate that background levels of HCl in the mid and upper troposphere are very low and confirm its use in these regions as a tracer of stratospheric ozone. However, a case study suggests that HCl may be produced in the mid troposphere by the dechlorination of dust aerosols. In the remote marine boundary layer HCl levels were consistently above 20 pptv (up to 140 pptv) and strongly correlated with HNO3. Cl atom levels were estimated from the background level of HCl in the MBL. This analysis suggests a Cl concentration of ~3×103 atoms cm?3, which corresponds to the lower range of previous studies. Finally, the observed HCl levels are compared to predictions by the Real-time Air Quality Modeling System (RAQMS) to assess its ability to characterize the impact of stratospheric transport on the upper troposphere.

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    Authors: Herckes, P.; Leenheer, J. A.; Collett Jr., J. L.;

    International audience; Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) samples were collected during a three week winter period in Fresno (CA). A composite sample was characterized by isolating several distinct fractions and characterizing them by infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. More than 80% of the organic matter in the aerosol samples was recovered and characterized. Only 35% of the organic matter was water soluble with another third soluble in dichloromethane and the remainder insoluble. Within the isolated water soluble material, hydrophobic acid and hydrophilic acids plus neutrals fractions contained the largest amounts of carbon. The hydrophobic acids fraction appears to contain significant amounts of lignin type structures, spectra of the hydrophilic acids plus neutrals fraction are indicative of carbohydrates and secondary organic material. The dichloromethane soluble fraction contains a variety of organic compound families typical of many previous studies of organic aerosol speciation, including alkanes, alkanols, alkanals and alkanoic acids. Finally the water and solvent insoluble fraction exhibits a strong aromaticity as one would expect from black or elemental carbon like material; however, these spectra also show a substantial amount of aliphaticity consistent with linear side chains on the aromatic structures.

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    Authors: Perez Tisserant, Emmanuelle;

    International audience

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    Authors: Bzdok, Danilo; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas;

    International audience; The nature of mental illness remains a conundrum. Traditional disease categories are increasinglysuspected to misrepresent the causes underlying mental disturbance. Yet, psychiatrists andinvestigators now have an unprecedented opportunity to benefit from complex patterns in brain,behavior, and genes using methods from machine learning (e.g., support vector machines, modernneural-network algorithms, cross-validation procedures). Combining these analysis techniques with awealth of data from consortia and repositories has the potential to advance a biologically groundedredefinition of major psychiatric disorders. Increasing evidence suggests that data-derived subgroupsof psychiatric patient can better predict treatment outcomes than DSM/ICD diagnoses. In a new eraof evidence-based psychiatry tailored to single patients, objectively measurable endophenotypescould allow for early disease detection, individualized treatment selection and dosage adjustment toreduce the burden of disease. This primer aims to introduce clinicians and researchers to theopportunities and challenges in bringing machine intelligence into psychiatric practice.

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    Authors: Ciesielski, Maciej; Askar, Serkan; Gomez-Prado, Daniel; Guillot, Jeremie; +1 Authors

    International audience; An original technique to transform functional representation of the design into a structural representation in form of a data flow graph (DFG) is described. A canonical, word-level data structure, Taylor Expansion Diagram (TED), is used as a vehicle to effect this transformation. The problem is formulated as that of applying a sequence of decomposition cuts to a TED that transforms it into a DFG optimized for a particular objective. A systematic approach to arrive at such a decomposition is described. Experimental results show that such constructed DFG provides a better starting point for architectural synthesis than those extracted directly from HDL specifications.

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    Authors: Kontogeorgakopoulos, Alexandros; Tzevelekos, Panagiotis; Cadoz, Claude; Kouroupetroglou, Georgios;

    International audience; We propose a numerical simulation for the physical model of the zournas, a Greek traditional double-reed woodwind musical instrument, following the mass-interaction CORDIS-ANIMA formalism. The functional components of the instrument are implemented using original CORDIS-ANIMA modules, while special attention has been given to the flow characteristics of the reed.

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    Authors: Alexeev, I. I.; Belenkaya, E. S.; Bobrovnikov, S. Yu.; Kalegaev, V. V.; +2 Authors

    We study the topological structure of the magnetosphere for northward IMF. Using a magnetospheric magnetic field model we study the high-latitude response to prolonged periods of northward IMF. For forced solar wind conditions we investigate the location of the polar cap region, the polar cap potential drop, and the field-aligned acceleration potentials, depending on the solar wind pressure and IMF <i>B<sub>y</sub></i> and <i>B<sub>x</sub></i> changes. The open field line bundles, which connect the Earth's polar ionosphere with interplanetary space, are calculated. The locations of the magnetospheric plasma domains relative to the polar ionosphere are studied. The specific features of the open field line regions arising when IMF is northward are demonstrated. The coefficients of attenuation of the solar wind magnetic and electric fields which penetrate into the magnetosphere are determined.

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    Annales Geophysicae
    Article . 2008
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      Annales Geophysicae
      Article . 2008
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    Authors: Stawiarski, Marcin;

    International audience; This article aims to investigate musico-literary intermediality in William H. Gass's works by examining both "A Fugue", a passage from The Tunnel (1995) and his novella The Pedersen Kid (1961). The paper focuses on Gass's conception and use of language, musicality and musicalization. One of the questions raised is to what extent texts that do not necessarily present a direct link to music can be given a musical reading. By analyzing Gass's novella the article demonstrates that the intermedial context conveys semiotic meanings that may allow a better understanding of the contents relating to initiation and rites of passage that the story draws upon, thus providing a new reading of Gass's text. On a more general level, the article reflects upon the textual effects produced by musico-literary intermediality and their impact on time structures in fiction.

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    Authors: Jonquet, Clement; Cerri, Stefano A.;

    International audience; This paper defines and exemplifies a new computational abstraction called i-dialogue which aims to model communicative situations such as those where an agent conducts multiple concurrent conversations with other agents. The i-dialogue abstraction is inspired both by the dialogue abstraction proposed by O'Donnell in 1985 and by the STROBE model by Cerri in 1996. Idialogue models conversations among processes by means of fundamental constructs of applicative/functional languages (i.e., streams, lazy evaluation and higher order functions). The i-dialogue abstraction is adequate for representing multi-agent concurrent asynchronous communication such as it can occur in service providing scenarios on today's Web or Grid. A Scheme implementation of the i-dialogue abstraction has been developed and is available.

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    Authors: O'Connor, Mary-Frances; Wellisch, David K; Stanton, Annette L; Eisenberger, Naomi I; +2 Authors

    Complicated Grief (CG) occurs when an individual experiences prolonged, unabated grief. The neural mechanisms distinguishing CG from Noncomplicated Grief (NCG) are unclear, but hypothesized mechanisms include both pain-related activity (related to the social pain of loss) and reward-related activity (related to attachment behavior). Bereaved women (11 CG, 12 NCG) participated in an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging scan, during grief elicitation with idiographic stimuli. Analyses revealed that whereas both CG and NCG participants showed pain-related neural activity in response to reminders of the deceased, only those with CG showed reward-related activity in the nucleus accumbens (NA). This NA cluster was positively correlated with self-reported yearning, but not with time since death, participant age, or positive/negative affect. This study supports the hypothesis that attachment activates reward pathways. For those with CG, reminders of the deceased still activate neural reward activity, which may interfere with adapting to the loss in the present.

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    Authors: Kim, S.; Huey, L. G.; Stickel, R. E.; Pierce, R. B.; +9 Authors

    International audience; Gas phase HCl was measured from the marine boundary layer (MBL) to the lower stratosphere from the NASA DC-8 during five science flights (41 h) of the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-Phase B (INTEX-B) field campaign. In the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UT/LS, 8?12 km) HCl was observed to range from a few tens to 100 pptv due to stratospheric influence with a background tropospheric level of less than 2 pptv. In the 8?12 km altitude range, a simple analysis of the O3/HCl correlation shows that pure stratospheric and mixed tropospheric/stratospheric air masses were encountered 30% and 15% of the time, respectively. In the mid troposphere (4?8 km) HCl levels were usually below 2 pptv except for a few cases of stratospheric influence and were much lower than reported in previous work. These data indicate that background levels of HCl in the mid and upper troposphere are very low and confirm its use in these regions as a tracer of stratospheric ozone. However, a case study suggests that HCl may be produced in the mid troposphere by the dechlorination of dust aerosols. In the remote marine boundary layer HCl levels were consistently above 20 pptv (up to 140 pptv) and strongly correlated with HNO3. Cl atom levels were estimated from the background level of HCl in the MBL. This analysis suggests a Cl concentration of ~3×103 atoms cm?3, which corresponds to the lower range of previous studies. Finally, the observed HCl levels are compared to predictions by the Real-time Air Quality Modeling System (RAQMS) to assess its ability to characterize the impact of stratospheric transport on the upper troposphere.

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    Authors: Herckes, P.; Leenheer, J. A.; Collett Jr., J. L.;

    International audience; Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) samples were collected during a three week winter period in Fresno (CA). A composite sample was characterized by isolating several distinct fractions and characterizing them by infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. More than 80% of the organic matter in the aerosol samples was recovered and characterized. Only 35% of the organic matter was water soluble with another third soluble in dichloromethane and the remainder insoluble. Within the isolated water soluble material, hydrophobic acid and hydrophilic acids plus neutrals fractions contained the largest amounts of carbon. The hydrophobic acids fraction appears to contain significant amounts of lignin type structures, spectra of the hydrophilic acids plus neutrals fraction are indicative of carbohydrates and secondary organic material. The dichloromethane soluble fraction contains a variety of organic compound families typical of many previous studies of organic aerosol speciation, including alkanes, alkanols, alkanals and alkanoic acids. Finally the water and solvent insoluble fraction exhibits a strong aromaticity as one would expect from black or elemental carbon like material; however, these spectra also show a substantial amount of aliphaticity consistent with linear side chains on the aromatic structures.

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    Authors: Perez Tisserant, Emmanuelle;

    International audience

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    Authors: Bzdok, Danilo; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas;

    International audience; The nature of mental illness remains a conundrum. Traditional disease categories are increasinglysuspected to misrepresent the causes underlying mental disturbance. Yet, psychiatrists andinvestigators now have an unprecedented opportunity to benefit from complex patterns in brain,behavior, and genes using methods from machine learning (e.g., support vector machines, modernneural-network algorithms, cross-validation procedures). Combining these analysis techniques with awealth of data from consortia and repositories has the potential to advance a biologically groundedredefinition of major psychiatric disorders. Increasing evidence suggests that data-derived subgroupsof psychiatric patient can better predict treatment outcomes than DSM/ICD diagnoses. In a new eraof evidence-based psychiatry tailored to single patients, objectively measurable endophenotypescould allow for early disease detection, individualized treatment selection and dosage adjustment toreduce the burden of disease. This primer aims to introduce clinicians and researchers to theopportunities and challenges in bringing machine intelligence into psychiatric practice.

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