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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Rasim Somer Diler;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Bulletin of Clinical...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Bulletin of Clinical...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Boltzmann, Melanie; Rüsseler, Jascha;

    Background Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were used to investigate training-related changes in fast visual word recognition of functionally illiterate adults. Analyses focused on the left-lateralized occipito-temporal N170, which represents the earliest processing of visual word forms. Event-related brain potentials were recorded from 20 functional illiterates receiving intensive literacy training for adults, 10 functional illiterates not participating in the training and 14 regular readers while they read words, pseudowords or viewed symbol strings. Subjects were required to press a button whenever a stimulus was immediately repeated. Results Attending intensive literacy training was associated with improvements in reading and writing skills and with an increase of the word-related N170 amplitude. For untrained functional illiterates and regular readers no changes in literacy skills or N170 amplitude were observed. Conclusions Results of the present study suggest that the word-related N170 can still be modulated in adulthood as a result of the improvements in literacy skills.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: C, Fraefel; S, Song; F, Lim; P, Lang; +4 Authors

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) plasmid vectors have promise for genetic intervention in the brain, but several problems caused by the helper virus have compromised their utility. To develop a helper virus-free packaging system for these vectors, the DNA cleavage/packaging signals were deleted from a set of cosmids that represents the HSV-1 genome. Following cotransfection into cells, this modified cosmid set supported replication and packaging of vector DNA. However, in the absence of the DNA cleavage/packaging signals, the HSV-1 genome was not packaged, and consequently vector stocks were free of detectable helper virus. In the absence of helper virus, the vectors efficiently infected rat neural cells in culture or in the brain with minimal cytopathic effects. beta-galactosidase-positive cells were observed for at least 1 month in vivo, and vector DNA persisted for this period. This system may facilitate studies on neuronal physiology and potential therapeutic applications.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 1996
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Journal of Virology
    Article . 1996 . Peer-reviewed
    License: ASM Journals Non-Commercial TDM
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 1996
      Data sources: PubMed Central
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Journal of Virology
      Article . 1996 . Peer-reviewed
      License: ASM Journals Non-Commercial TDM
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/

    Error processing is an important aspect of learning. The detection and online correction of an error as well as error-based adaptation of subsequent movements enables humans to improve behavior. For this improvement, it is necessary to differentiate between relevant and irrelevant errors. Behavioral adaptations are only reasonable when an error is attributed to one's own behavior and therefore regarded as relevant for subsequent adjustments, whereas irrelevant errors caused by unsystematic external influences should be disregarded. Here, we ask whether error predictions as indexed by the error-related negativity (Ne/ERN) can be used to differentiate relevant and irrelevant errors in movements with a complex visuomotor mapping. Using event-related potentials, we compared the neural activation between relevant (self-induced/internal) errors and irrelevant (externally manipulated) errors in a virtual goal-oriented throwing task. Results show that the Ne/ERN responds more strongly to self-induced errors, while the feedback-related negativity (FRN) more strongly correlates with externally manipulated errors. Moreover, subsequent behavioral adjustments were larger in the relevant compared to the irrelevant error trials. We conclude that predictive processes, marked by the Ne/ERN, can subserve error attribution in naturalistic, complex visuomotor tasks like throwing.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Vision; O...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Journal of Vision; OpenAPC Global Initiative
    Article . Conference object . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY NC ND
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Vision; O...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Journal of Vision; OpenAPC Global Initiative
      Article . Conference object . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Weiran, Deng; Cungeng, Yang; Vijayanand, Alagappan; Lawrence L, Wald; +2 Authors

    AbstractThe signal loss susceptibility artifact is a major limitation in gradient‐echo MRI applications. Various methods, including z‐shim techniques and multidimensional tailored radio frequency (RF) pulses, have been proposed to mitigate the through‐plane signal loss artifact, which is dominant in axial slices above the sinus region. Unfortunately, z‐shim techniques require multiple steps and multidimensional RF methods are complex, with long pulse lengths. Parallel transmission methods were recently shown to be promising for improving B1 inhomogeneity and reducing the specific absorption rate. In this work, a novel method using time‐shifted slice‐select RF pulses is presented for reducing the through‐plane signal loss artifact in parallel transmission applications. A simultaneous z‐shim is obtained by concurrently applying unique time‐shifted pulses on each transmitter. The method is shown to reduce the signal loss susceptibility artifact in gradient‐echo images using a four‐channel parallel transmission system at 3T. Magn Reson Med 61:255–259, 2009. © 2009 Wiley‐Liss, Inc.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2009
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
    Article . 2009 . Peer-reviewed
    License: Wiley Online Library User Agreement
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2009
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
      Article . 2009 . Peer-reviewed
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Christopher, Tolleson; Srivatsan, Pallavaram; Chen, Li; John, Fang; +6 Authors

    <b><i>Background:</i></b> Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus internus is established as efficacious for dystonia, yet the optimal target within this structure is not well defined. Published evidence suggests that spatial normalization provides a better estimate of DBS lead location than traditional methods based on standard stereotactic coordinates. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> We retrospectively reviewed our pallidal implanted dystonia population. Patient imaging scans were morphed into an MRI atlas using a nonlinear image registration algorithm. Active contact locations were projected onto the atlas and clusters analyzed for the degree of variance in two groups: (1) good and poor responders and (2) cervical (CD) and generalized dystonia (GD). <b><i>Results:</i></b> The average active contact location between CD and GD good responders was distinct but not significantly different. The mean active contact for CD poor responders was significantly different from CD responders and GD poor responders in the dorsoventral direction. <b><i>Conclusions:</i></b> A normalized imaging space is arguably more accurate in visualizing postoperative leads. Despite some separation between groups, this data suggests there was not an optimal pallidal target for common dystonia patients. Degrees of variance overlapped due to a large degree of individual target variation. Patient selection may ultimately be the key to maximizing patient outcomes. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Stereotactic and Fun...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2014
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Stereotactic and Fun...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2014
      Data sources: PubMed Central
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Brandon C Lane; Robert Scranton; Aaron A Cohen-Gadol;
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    Operative Neurosurgery
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      Operative Neurosurgery
      Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Sam Vickery; Simon B Eickhoff; Patrick Friedrich;

    Hemispheric asymmetries can be seen as one of the evolutionary adaptations that allowed the human brain to muster more complex cognitive processes than other primates. In this vein, the study published by Cheng et al. [1] presents a pivotal investigation of both the regional and connectional asymmetries within the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) in human, chimpanzee, and macaque. By investigating 4 sub-divisions of the IPL across the three species, Cheng and colleagues showed that the macroanatomical and connectional architecture of the IPL became more asymmetric throughout the primate lineage. While macaques show little to no structural asymmetries, chimpanzees display a more asymmetric architecture but with both leftward and rightward asymmetries in various connections. In contrast, the human IPL displayed the highest number of asymmetries among the three species with a clear tendency towards more lateralization. This evolutionary trend towards a more lateralized organization of the IPL may have accompanied an improved command of tool-use, stronger forelimb asymmetries, and the increasing complexity of communicative behavior.

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    Neuroscience Bulletin
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      Neuroscience Bulletin
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    Authors: Xia, Frances; Kheirbek, Mazen A.;

    Mood and anxiety disorders are complex heterogeneous syndromes that manifest in dysfunctions across multiple brain regions, cell types, and circuits. Biomarkers using brain-wide activity patterns in humans have proven useful in distinguishing between disorder subtypes and identifying effective treatments. In order to improve biomarker identification, it is crucial to understand the basic circuitry underpinning brain-wide activity patterns. Leveraging a large repertoire of techniques, animal studies have examined roles of specific cell types and circuits in driving maladaptive behavior. Recent advances in multiregion recording techniques, data-driven analysis approaches, and machine-learning-based behavioral analysis tools can further push the boundary of animal studies and bridge the gap with human studies, to assess how brain-wide activity patterns encode and drive emotional behavior. Together, these efforts will allow identifying more precise biomarkers to enhance diagnosis and treatment.

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    Europe PubMed Central
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    Trends in Neurosciences
    Article . 2020 . Peer-reviewed
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      Trends in Neurosciences
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    Authors: Neuhaus, Andres;

    Die Schizophrenie zählt auch nach über hundert Jahren intensiver psychiatrischer Forschung zu denjenigen Erkrankungen, die sich einer objektiven Diagnosestellung durch Biomarker entziehen. Neben der klinisch im Vordergrund stehenden produktiven Symptomatik sind kognitive Störungen in den Mittelpunkt des wissenschaftlichen Interesses gerückt. Für die Domäne der selektiven Aufmerksamkeit wurden auf behavioraler, elektrophysiologischer und bildgebender Ebene konsistente Defizite bei schizophrenen Patienten beschrieben. Gegenstand der vorliegenden Studien ist daher die Untersuchung neurophysiologischer Marker verschiedener selektiver Aufmerksamkeitsprozesse auf ihre mögliche Verwendbarkeit als Marker der Schizophrenie. Die hier vorliegenden Arbeiten befassen sich mit der Analyse Ereignis-korrelierter Potentiale des Attention Network Test bei schizophrenen Patienten. Neben der Untersuchung früher Prozesse der selektiven Aufmerksamkeit wurde hier vor allem auf die Charakterisierung neurophysiologischer Korrelate exekutiver Funktionen fokussiert. Ein früher Indikator selektiver Aufmerksamkeit besteht in der N1-Komponente des visuellen Ereignis-korrelierten Potentials (engl. event-related potential, ERP). Hier fanden sich deutliche Defizite der N1-Amplitude bei schizophrenen Patienten sowohl hinsichtlich der Abhängigkeit von der Salienz im Rahmen der exogenen N1-Konstituente als auch hinsichtlich der Abhängigkeit von selektiven Aufmerksamkeitsinhalten als Korrelat der endogenen N1-Konstituente. Quellenanalytische Methoden legen dabei den Verdacht auf einen zumindest auf Ebene der funktionellen Neuroanatomie deutlichen Zusammenhang zwischen Defiziten der exogenen und endogenen Konstituenten nahe. Diese Ergebnisse lassen darauf schließen, dass ERP- Indikatoren ‚höherer’ kognitiver Funktionen, wie hier am Beispiel der selektiven Aufmerksamkeit untersucht, durch Defizite der sensorischen Informationsverarbeitung konfundiert werden können. Bei der Untersuchung exekutiver Defizite wurde auf die P3-Komponente als Indikator evaluativer, exekutiver Prozesse fokussiert. Hier fand sich ein robustes Defizit der P3-Komponente, dass quellenanalytisch durch ein zu Grunde liegendes Defizit im anterioren cingulären Kortex erklärt werden kann. Insbesondere wurde ein stabiles Modulationsdefizit der parietalen P3-Amplitude identifiziert, das im Vergleich mit einer klinischen Kontrollpopulation eine gewisse Spezifität für die Schizophrenie zu besitzen scheint. Weiterhin konnte eine Unabhängigkeit dieses P3-Defizits von der Erkrankungsdauer nachgewiesen werden. Funktional könnten diese Defizite in einer Störung der Kontextprozessierung visueller Reize begründet sein, die für eine kohärente Objektrepräsentation notwendig ist. Diese Befunde legen nahe, dass die weitere Charakterisierung dieses spezifischen Defizits einen relevanten Wissenszuwachs in der Beschreibung neurophysiologischer Marker der Schizophrenie besitzen könnte. Neben hypothesengeleiteten Ansätzen der neurophysiologischen Biomarkerforschung wurde ein primär Daten-geleiteter Ansatz zur ERP-Analyse gewählt, der perspektivisch zu einer automatisierten Krankheitsklassifikation führen könnte, die unabhängig von oder in Ergänzung zu klinischen Befunderhebungen durchführbar ist. Die Auswahl der ERP-Parameter N1 und P3 erfolgte dabei hypothesengeleitet anhand der bisherigen Forschungsergebnisse. Mit Hilfe maschineller Lernalgorithmen wurde eine Kombination aus ERP-Parametern identifiziert, anhand derer in der vorliegenden Stichprobe eine einfach verblindete Krankheitsklassifikation mit ca. 80% Sensitivität und Spezifität möglich war. Anhand der vorliegenden Forschungsergebnisse konnte insbesondere mit der Modulation der parietalen P3-Amplitude ein neurophysiologischer Parameter identifiziert werden, der gewisse Gütekriterien für biologische Marker psychischer Störungen erfüllt. Die vorliegenden Forschungsergebnisse liefern erste Hinweise für eine Krankheitsspezifität der parietalen P3-Modulation und für eine Unabhängigkeit vom Stadium der Erkrankung. Insgesamt weisen die vorgestellten Befunde auf spezifische neurophysiologische Defizite der Schizophrenie hin und illustrieren deren hohes Potential zur Verwendung als potentieller Krankheitsmarker. Konsequente Fortsetzungen des hier vorgestellten Forschungsansatzes bestehen in der Durchführung genetischer Assoziationsstudien sowie in longitudinalen Studien vor allem an Patienten mit einem putativen Prodromalstadium einer Schizophrenie. Methodische Optimierungen sind mit dem Einsatz weiterer Paradigmen sowie einer single trial-Analyse möglich. Die unterschiedlichen Zugänge der Hypothesen-geleiteten und der Daten-basierten ERP-Analyse können hierbei sinnvoll kombiniert werden, um die Belastbarkeit der erhobenen Befunde zu prüfen. After a century of intensive research, schizophrenia still belongs to those disorders that cannot be objectively diagnosed by the use of biomarkers. Besides the positive symptoms that usually define the clinical picture of exacerbated schizophrenia, psychiatric research increasingly investigate cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia. For the domain of selective attention, consistent deficits have been reported using behavioral, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging approaches. The studies reported here focus on the characterization neurophysiologic indicators of selective attention processes and their potential use as biomarkers of schizophrenia. Specifically, early sensory and late cognitive event-related potentials (ERPs) associated with the Attention Network Test in schizophrenia were investigated. The so-called N1 as an indicator of early selective attention processes was found to be reduced in schizophrenia. Both stimulus salience and top-down control processes contributed to this deficit, indicating a contribution of both exogenous and endogenous N1 constituents to this deficit. Source analyses suggest a neuroanatomical overlap between both constituents, indicating that late cognitive ERPs might be partially confounded by deficits of sensory information processing. Investigations of higher cognitive functions focused on the P3-component as an indicator of evaluative, executive processes. Here, a robust P3 amplitude modulation deficit was found that was associated with a current density deficit of anterior cingulate cortex. Specifically, a study that included a clinical population as disease controls suggests that this P3 amplitude modulation deficit seems to be specifically associated with schizophrenia. Further, an independence of disease state could be demonstrated. Together, these studies suggest that a continued characterization of this specific P3 amplitude modulation deficit could considerably contribute to the identification of neurophysiologic markers of schizophrenia. Along with the hypothesis-driven approach, a data-driven analysis was performed that could lead to an automated disease classification on a single-subject level. For this approach, N1 and P3 components were extracted und analyzed by means of machine learning algorithms. This method lead to the identification of 4 ERP parameters that sufficed to correctly classify schizophrenia patients and healthy controls with ca. 80 % specificity and sensitivity. In summary, the current studies identified a modulation deficit of parietal P3 amplitude that fulfilled some, but not all, quality criteria of biological markers of psychiatric disorders. Consequently, genetic association studies and longitudinal studies with prodromal patients should follow to further assess the suitability of the identified ERP marker as an endophenotypical marker. Methodological optimizations are possible with the use of further paradigms and single-trial analyses. Hypothesis- and data- driven analyses may serve as complementary approaches to test the reliability of study results.

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    Authors: Rasim Somer Diler;
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    Authors: Boltzmann, Melanie; Rüsseler, Jascha;

    Background Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were used to investigate training-related changes in fast visual word recognition of functionally illiterate adults. Analyses focused on the left-lateralized occipito-temporal N170, which represents the earliest processing of visual word forms. Event-related brain potentials were recorded from 20 functional illiterates receiving intensive literacy training for adults, 10 functional illiterates not participating in the training and 14 regular readers while they read words, pseudowords or viewed symbol strings. Subjects were required to press a button whenever a stimulus was immediately repeated. Results Attending intensive literacy training was associated with improvements in reading and writing skills and with an increase of the word-related N170 amplitude. For untrained functional illiterates and regular readers no changes in literacy skills or N170 amplitude were observed. Conclusions Results of the present study suggest that the word-related N170 can still be modulated in adulthood as a result of the improvements in literacy skills.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: C, Fraefel; S, Song; F, Lim; P, Lang; +4 Authors

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) plasmid vectors have promise for genetic intervention in the brain, but several problems caused by the helper virus have compromised their utility. To develop a helper virus-free packaging system for these vectors, the DNA cleavage/packaging signals were deleted from a set of cosmids that represents the HSV-1 genome. Following cotransfection into cells, this modified cosmid set supported replication and packaging of vector DNA. However, in the absence of the DNA cleavage/packaging signals, the HSV-1 genome was not packaged, and consequently vector stocks were free of detectable helper virus. In the absence of helper virus, the vectors efficiently infected rat neural cells in culture or in the brain with minimal cytopathic effects. beta-galactosidase-positive cells were observed for at least 1 month in vivo, and vector DNA persisted for this period. This system may facilitate studies on neuronal physiology and potential therapeutic applications.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 1996
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Journal of Virology
    Article . 1996 . Peer-reviewed
    License: ASM Journals Non-Commercial TDM
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 1996
      Data sources: PubMed Central
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Journal of Virology
      Article . 1996 . Peer-reviewed
      License: ASM Journals Non-Commercial TDM
      Data sources: Crossref
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