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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Chounet, François;

    Pour comprendre les enjeux li´es `a l’endettement public dans la cr´edibilit´e des accords mon´etairesdans le cas de l’entre-deux-guerres, nous ´etudierons l’influence de l’endettement public sur l’´etalon-or,de sa fondation dans la seconde moiti´e du XIXe si`ecle, `a son abandon au cours de la grande d´epression.La qualit´e des finances publiques, en particulier l’endettement public, fut d´eterminante dans la capacit´ed’une nation `a adh´erer `a cet accord mon´etaire. L’endettement public joua aussi un rˆole d´ecisif dans lafin de ces syst`emes mon´etaires, `a l’issue de la Grande Guerre et lors de la grande d´epression. Dans unsecond temps, notre d´emarche consistera `a comprendre les m´ecanismes qui conduisirent l’endettementpublic `a ˆetre en partie responsable de la fin de l’´etalon de change-or et de l’´emergence de nouveauxblocs mon´etaires dans les ann´ees trente. Face `a la grande d´epression, les modalit´es d’organisation et defonctionnement de cet accord mon´etaire, rendirent impossible son maintien. Si les variables ´economiqueset politiques furent d´eterminantes dans son abandon, celles d’endettement public jou`erent aussi. Apr`esavoir d´ecrit les modalit´es de sortie de l’´etalon de change-or, nous montrerons les m´ecanismes th´eoriquesqui lient les crises mon´etaires et les crises d’endettement et les appliquerons `a la grande d´epression. Nous´etudierons en particulier le cas de la France. Nous montrerons `a l’aide d’un mod`ele de dur´ee, l’influencede la dette publique dans le maintien des parit´es-or pendant la crise. Enfin, nous verrons comment denouveaux blocs mon´etaires se form`erent. To understand the challenges linked to public debt in credibility of monetary agreementsbetween the World Wars, we shall study influence of public debt on the gold standard, from its founda-tion in the second half of the XIXth century to end during the Great Depression. The quality of publicfinances, in particular the public debt, was determining in the capacity of a nation to subscribe to thismonetary agreement. The public debt also had a decisive role in the end of these monetary systems, atthe end of World War I and during the Great Depression. In a second part, our approach will consistin understanding mechanisms which led public debt to be partly accountable for the end of the gold-exchange standard and the rise of new monetary blocks in the thirties. Facing the Great Depression, themodalities of organization and functioning of this monetary agreement, made impossible to sustain it. Ifeconomic and political variables were determining in its end, variables linked to public debt played too.Having described modalities of release of gold-exchange standard, we shall show the theoretical mecha-nisms which link monetary crisis and debts crisis and we will applied them to the Great Depression. Wewill study in particular the case of France. We shall show using a duration model, influence of publicdebt in preservation of gold parity during the crisis. Finally, we shall see how new monetary blocks formed.

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    Hyper Article en Ligne
    Other literature type . 2016
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    Oskar Bordeaux
    Doctoral thesis
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Rasim Somer Diler;
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Bulletin of Clinical...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Guan, Qianwen;

    International audience; Previous work shows that listeners tend to perceive an illusory vowel inside consonant clusters that are illegal in their native language [1],[2]. But few studies have been concerned with the perception of tones in connection with L2 phonotactics, specifically for L1 speakers of tone languages. This study examines how L1 speakers of a tone language (Mandarin) perceive the clusters of an L2 language without tone (Russian). The issue that we address is how the perception of L2 phonotactics relates to the perception of tones. Some studies of loanwords showed that speakers of languages preferring simple CV syllable structure insert an illusory vowel as well as an illusory tone inside illegal consonant clusters [5], [6]. Our study investigates experimentally the interaction of phonotactic and prosodic adaptation for Mandarin L1. For this purpose we tested the perception of non-native clusters by monolingual Mandarin speakers. The experiment was conducted in Beijing, with 24 participants especially recruited from among monolingual speakers with minimal exposure to a foreign language. The stimuli were non-words produced by a Russian native speaker, containing CC sequences and controls (see table 1). The participants were asked to transcribe each stimulus they heard in Pinyin, including tones. Different types of transcription errors (e.g. epenthesis, metathesis) were observed and analyzed statistically. In this abstract I report only the general result, and I focus on the transcription of tones. The most frequent transcription included vowel epenthesis in the clusters. The illusory vowel is always perceived as short central [ɤ] (akta->akɤta), except after a labial (ipta->iputa). In the controls, the vowel /a/ between clusters is perceived as /a/ when it precedes a stressed syllable (katápa). When it follows a stressed syllable (ákata), it is perceived as central /ɤ/. This response reflects the fact that in Russian, an unstressed vowel preceding stress is less reduced than an unstressed vowel elsewhere in the word [3]. Thus, Mandarin listeners can still perceive a moderately reduced [a] in pre-tonic position, but report a fully reduced vowel in post-tonic position. Of the 24 participants, only 8 could transcribe tones. This is because Pinyin transcription, though commonly used, rarely includes tones. Moreover, the participants do not have more than high school education and do not write regularly. The results of the 8 speakers are summarized and discussed below. Word position and position with respect to stress. In the Russian stimuli, the stressed syllable is realized with an F0 peak. The listeners' responses thus correspond to the low F0 in the pre-stressed syllable, and to the falling F0 on the post-stressed syllable, respectively (fig. 1). Vowel quality. Overall, vowel quality, whether of illusory vowels or of real vowels, does not influence the perception of illusory tones (p>0.05). Consonant type. There is a significant difference of tone perception in relation to phonotactics in initial, pre-stressed clusters. Listeners reported high tone on the illusory vowel significantly more often in stop-stop (e.g., ktápa) than in stop-nasal clusters (p0.05), on a real vowel. In the clusters, where no vowel is actually produced, the audible F0 movement is very fast, rising toward the peak of the stressed vowel. The start of the F0 rise is influenced by the consonant type [4]: after a voiceless stop F0 rises in the following vowel, while after a sonorant stop F0 falls. In the controls (katápa), F0 starts low on the unstressed vowel, and rises into the following stressed syllable. The participants seem to respond to this systematic rise, rather than to the subtler effects of consonant-type.

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    Other literature type . Conference object . 2016
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      Other literature type . Conference object . 2016
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    Authors: L K, Tyler; P, Bright; P, Fletcher; E A, Stamatakis;

    Dissociations of nouns and verbs following brain damage have been interpreted as evidence for distinct neural substrates underlying different aspects of the language system. Some neuroimaging studies have supported this claim by finding neural differentiation for nouns and verbs [Brain 122 (1999) 2337] while others have argued against neural specialisation [Brain 119 (1996) 159; Brain 124 (2001) 1619]. We suggest that one reason why these inconsistencies may have arisen is because the morphological structure of nouns and verbs has been ignored. In an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study we test the hypothesis that the neural processing of nouns and verbs differs when they are inflected. We contrasted the processing of regularly inflected nouns (dogs) with regularly inflected verbs (hitting), and found that the LIFG was more strongly activated in processing regularly inflected verbs compared to regularly inflected nouns. Moreover, regions of LIFG that were more active in the fMRI study for inflected verbs partially overlapped with the lesions in patients who have particular problems with verb morphology. Taken together with previous studies, these results suggest that noun and verb stems do not differ in terms of their representation, but when verbs are morphologically complex they differentially engage those neural systems which are involved in processes of morpho-phonology and syntax.

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    Neuropsychologia
    Article
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    Neuropsychologia
    Article . 2004 . Peer-reviewed
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    Neuropsychologia
    Article . 2004
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      Neuropsychologia
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      Neuropsychologia
      Article . 2004 . Peer-reviewed
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      Neuropsychologia
      Article . 2004
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    Authors: C, Fraefel; S, Song; F, Lim; P, Lang; +4 Authors

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) plasmid vectors have promise for genetic intervention in the brain, but several problems caused by the helper virus have compromised their utility. To develop a helper virus-free packaging system for these vectors, the DNA cleavage/packaging signals were deleted from a set of cosmids that represents the HSV-1 genome. Following cotransfection into cells, this modified cosmid set supported replication and packaging of vector DNA. However, in the absence of the DNA cleavage/packaging signals, the HSV-1 genome was not packaged, and consequently vector stocks were free of detectable helper virus. In the absence of helper virus, the vectors efficiently infected rat neural cells in culture or in the brain with minimal cytopathic effects. beta-galactosidase-positive cells were observed for at least 1 month in vivo, and vector DNA persisted for this period. This system may facilitate studies on neuronal physiology and potential therapeutic applications.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 1996
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    Journal of Virology
    Article . 1996 . Peer-reviewed
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      Other literature type . 1996
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      Journal of Virology
      Article . 1996 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Weiran, Deng; Cungeng, Yang; Vijayanand, Alagappan; Lawrence L, Wald; +2 Authors

    AbstractThe signal loss susceptibility artifact is a major limitation in gradient‐echo MRI applications. Various methods, including z‐shim techniques and multidimensional tailored radio frequency (RF) pulses, have been proposed to mitigate the through‐plane signal loss artifact, which is dominant in axial slices above the sinus region. Unfortunately, z‐shim techniques require multiple steps and multidimensional RF methods are complex, with long pulse lengths. Parallel transmission methods were recently shown to be promising for improving B1 inhomogeneity and reducing the specific absorption rate. In this work, a novel method using time‐shifted slice‐select RF pulses is presented for reducing the through‐plane signal loss artifact in parallel transmission applications. A simultaneous z‐shim is obtained by concurrently applying unique time‐shifted pulses on each transmitter. The method is shown to reduce the signal loss susceptibility artifact in gradient‐echo images using a four‐channel parallel transmission system at 3T. Magn Reson Med 61:255–259, 2009. © 2009 Wiley‐Liss, Inc.

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    Other literature type . 2009
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    Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
    Article . 2009 . Peer-reviewed
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      Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
      Article . 2009 . Peer-reviewed
      License: Wiley Online Library User Agreement
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    Authors: Stéphanie M, Morand; Monika, Harvey; Marie-Hélène, Grosbras;

    It is well established that human faces induce stronger involuntary orienting responses than other visual objects. Yet, the timing of this preferential orienting response at the neural level is still unknown. Here, we used an antisaccade paradigm to investigate the neural dynamics preceding the onset of reflexive and voluntary saccades elicited by human faces and nonface visual objects, normalized for their global low-level visual properties. High-density event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in observers as they performed interleaved pro- and antisaccades toward a lateralized target. For reflexive saccades, we report an ERP modulation specific to faces as early as 40-60 ms following stimulus onset over parieto-occipital sites, further predicting the speed of saccade execution. This was not linked to differences in the programming of the saccadic eye movements, as it occurred early in time. For the first time, we present electrophysiological evidence of early target selection to faces in reflexive orienting responses over parieto-occipital cortex that facilitates the triggering of saccades toward faces. We argue for a 2-stage process in the representation of a face in involuntary spatial orienting with an initial, rapid implicit processing of the visual properties of a face, followed by subsequent stimulus categorization depicted by the N170 component.

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    Cerebral Cortex
    Article
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    Cerebral Cortex
    Article . 2012
    Cerebral Cortex
    Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
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      Cerebral Cortex
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      Cerebral Cortex
      Article . 2012
      Cerebral Cortex
      Article . 2012 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: A. R. Breen; A. R. Breen; A. R. Breen; S. J. Tappin; +6 Authors

    Simultaneous observations of the slow solar wind off the southeast limb of the Sun were made in May 1999 using optical measurements from the C2 and C3 LASCO coronagraphs on board the SOHO spacecraft and radio-scattering measurements from the MERLIN and EISCAT facilities. The observations show the slow solar wind accelerating outwards from 4.5 solar radii (R), reaching a final velocity of 200-300 km s<sup>-1</sup> by 25-30 R. The acceleration profile indicated by these results is more gentle than the average profile seen in earlier LASCO observations of larger scale features, but is within the variation seen in these studies.<br><br><b>Key words: </b>Interplanetary physics (solar wind plasma; sources of the solar wind; instruments and techniques)

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    Annales Geophysicae
    Article
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    Annales Geophysicae
    Article . 2000 . Peer-reviewed
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    Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO)
    Other literature type . 2018
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    Hyper Article en Ligne
    Other literature type . 2000
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    Hal-Diderot
    Other literature type . 2000
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    Annales Geophysicae
    Article . 2000 . Peer-reviewed
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      Annales Geophysicae
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      Annales Geophysicae
      Article . 2000 . Peer-reviewed
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      Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO)
      Other literature type . 2018
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      Other literature type . 2000
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      Hal-Diderot
      Other literature type . 2000
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      Annales Geophysicae
      Article . 2000 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Christopher, Tolleson; Srivatsan, Pallavaram; Chen, Li; John, Fang; +6 Authors

    <b><i>Background:</i></b> Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus internus is established as efficacious for dystonia, yet the optimal target within this structure is not well defined. Published evidence suggests that spatial normalization provides a better estimate of DBS lead location than traditional methods based on standard stereotactic coordinates. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> We retrospectively reviewed our pallidal implanted dystonia population. Patient imaging scans were morphed into an MRI atlas using a nonlinear image registration algorithm. Active contact locations were projected onto the atlas and clusters analyzed for the degree of variance in two groups: (1) good and poor responders and (2) cervical (CD) and generalized dystonia (GD). <b><i>Results:</i></b> The average active contact location between CD and GD good responders was distinct but not significantly different. The mean active contact for CD poor responders was significantly different from CD responders and GD poor responders in the dorsoventral direction. <b><i>Conclusions:</i></b> A normalized imaging space is arguably more accurate in visualizing postoperative leads. Despite some separation between groups, this data suggests there was not an optimal pallidal target for common dystonia patients. Degrees of variance overlapped due to a large degree of individual target variation. Patient selection may ultimately be the key to maximizing patient outcomes. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2014
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Other literature type . 2014
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    Authors: Brandon C Lane; Robert Scranton; Aaron A Cohen-Gadol;
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    Operative Neurosurgery
    Article . 2021 . Peer-reviewed
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      Operative Neurosurgery
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Chounet, François;

    Pour comprendre les enjeux li´es `a l’endettement public dans la cr´edibilit´e des accords mon´etairesdans le cas de l’entre-deux-guerres, nous ´etudierons l’influence de l’endettement public sur l’´etalon-or,de sa fondation dans la seconde moiti´e du XIXe si`ecle, `a son abandon au cours de la grande d´epression.La qualit´e des finances publiques, en particulier l’endettement public, fut d´eterminante dans la capacit´ed’une nation `a adh´erer `a cet accord mon´etaire. L’endettement public joua aussi un rˆole d´ecisif dans lafin de ces syst`emes mon´etaires, `a l’issue de la Grande Guerre et lors de la grande d´epression. Dans unsecond temps, notre d´emarche consistera `a comprendre les m´ecanismes qui conduisirent l’endettementpublic `a ˆetre en partie responsable de la fin de l’´etalon de change-or et de l’´emergence de nouveauxblocs mon´etaires dans les ann´ees trente. Face `a la grande d´epression, les modalit´es d’organisation et defonctionnement de cet accord mon´etaire, rendirent impossible son maintien. Si les variables ´economiqueset politiques furent d´eterminantes dans son abandon, celles d’endettement public jou`erent aussi. Apr`esavoir d´ecrit les modalit´es de sortie de l’´etalon de change-or, nous montrerons les m´ecanismes th´eoriquesqui lient les crises mon´etaires et les crises d’endettement et les appliquerons `a la grande d´epression. Nous´etudierons en particulier le cas de la France. Nous montrerons `a l’aide d’un mod`ele de dur´ee, l’influencede la dette publique dans le maintien des parit´es-or pendant la crise. Enfin, nous verrons comment denouveaux blocs mon´etaires se form`erent. To understand the challenges linked to public debt in credibility of monetary agreementsbetween the World Wars, we shall study influence of public debt on the gold standard, from its founda-tion in the second half of the XIXth century to end during the Great Depression. The quality of publicfinances, in particular the public debt, was determining in the capacity of a nation to subscribe to thismonetary agreement. The public debt also had a decisive role in the end of these monetary systems, atthe end of World War I and during the Great Depression. In a second part, our approach will consistin understanding mechanisms which led public debt to be partly accountable for the end of the gold-exchange standard and the rise of new monetary blocks in the thirties. Facing the Great Depression, themodalities of organization and functioning of this monetary agreement, made impossible to sustain it. Ifeconomic and political variables were determining in its end, variables linked to public debt played too.Having described modalities of release of gold-exchange standard, we shall show the theoretical mecha-nisms which link monetary crisis and debts crisis and we will applied them to the Great Depression. Wewill study in particular the case of France. We shall show using a duration model, influence of publicdebt in preservation of gold parity during the crisis. Finally, we shall see how new monetary blocks formed.

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    Hyper Article en Ligne
    Other literature type . 2016
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    Oskar Bordeaux
    Doctoral thesis
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    Authors: Rasim Somer Diler;
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    Authors: Guan, Qianwen;

    International audience; Previous work shows that listeners tend to perceive an illusory vowel inside consonant clusters that are illegal in their native language [1],[2]. But few studies have been concerned with the perception of tones in connection with L2 phonotactics, specifically for L1 speakers of tone languages. This study examines how L1 speakers of a tone language (Mandarin) perceive the clusters of an L2 language without tone (Russian). The issue that we address is how the perception of L2 phonotactics relates to the perception of tones. Some studies of loanwords showed that speakers of languages preferring simple CV syllable structure insert an illusory vowel as well as an illusory tone inside illegal consonant clusters [5], [6]. Our study investigates experimentally the interaction of phonotactic and prosodic adaptation for Mandarin L1. For this purpose we tested the perception of non-native clusters by monolingual Mandarin speakers. The experiment was conducted in Beijing, with 24 participants especially recruited from among monolingual speakers with minimal exposure to a foreign language. The stimuli were non-words produced by a Russian native speaker, containing CC sequences and controls (see table 1). The participants were asked to transcribe each stimulus they heard in Pinyin, including tones. Different types of transcription errors (e.g. epenthesis, metathesis) were observed and analyzed statistically. In this abstract I report only the general result, and I focus on the transcription of tones. The most frequent transcription included vowel epenthesis in the clusters. The illusory vowel is always perceived as short central [ɤ] (akta->akɤta), except after a labial (ipta->iputa). In the controls, the vowel /a/ between clusters is perceived as /a/ when it precedes a stressed syllable (katápa). When it follows a stressed syllable (ákata), it is perceived as central /ɤ/. This response reflects the fact that in Russian, an unstressed vowel preceding stress is less reduced than an unstressed vowel elsewhere in the word [3]. Thus, Mandarin listeners can still perceive a moderately reduced [a] in pre-tonic position, but report a fully reduced vowel in post-tonic position. Of the 24 participants, only 8 could transcribe tones. This is because Pinyin transcription, though commonly used, rarely includes tones. Moreover, the participants do not have more than high school education and do not write regularly. The results of the 8 speakers are summarized and discussed below. Word position and position with respect to stress. In the Russian stimuli, the stressed syllable is realized with an F0 peak. The listeners' responses thus correspond to the low F0 in the pre-stressed syllable, and to the falling F0 on the post-stressed syllable, respectively (fig. 1). Vowel quality. Overall, vowel quality, whether of illusory vowels or of real vowels, does not influence the perception of illusory tones (p>0.05). Consonant type. There is a significant difference of tone perception in relation to phonotactics in initial, pre-stressed clusters. Listeners reported high tone on the illusory vowel significantly more often in stop-stop (e.g., ktápa) than in stop-nasal clusters (p0.05), on a real vowel. In the clusters, where no vowel is actually produced, the audible F0 movement is very fast, rising toward the peak of the stressed vowel. The start of the F0 rise is influenced by the consonant type [4]: after a voiceless stop F0 rises in the following vowel, while after a sonorant stop F0 falls. In the controls (katápa), F0 starts low on the unstressed vowel, and rises into the following stressed syllable. The participants seem to respond to this systematic rise, rather than to the subtler effects of consonant-type.

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    Other literature type . Conference object . 2016
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      Other literature type . Conference object . 2016
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    Authors: L K, Tyler; P, Bright; P, Fletcher; E A, Stamatakis;

    Dissociations of nouns and verbs following brain damage have been interpreted as evidence for distinct neural substrates underlying different aspects of the language system. Some neuroimaging studies have supported this claim by finding neural differentiation for nouns and verbs [Brain 122 (1999) 2337] while others have argued against neural specialisation [Brain 119 (1996) 159; Brain 124 (2001) 1619]. We suggest that one reason why these inconsistencies may have arisen is because the morphological structure of nouns and verbs has been ignored. In an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study we test the hypothesis that the neural processing of nouns and verbs differs when they are inflected. We contrasted the processing of regularly inflected nouns (dogs) with regularly inflected verbs (hitting), and found that the LIFG was more strongly activated in processing regularly inflected verbs compared to regularly inflected nouns. Moreover, regions of LIFG that were more active in the fMRI study for inflected verbs partially overlapped with the lesions in patients who have particular problems with verb morphology. Taken together with previous studies, these results suggest that noun and verb stems do not differ in terms of their representation, but when verbs are morphologically complex they differentially engage those neural systems which are involved in processes of morpho-phonology and syntax.

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    Neuropsychologia
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    Neuropsychologia
    Article . 2004 . Peer-reviewed
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    Neuropsychologia
    Article . 2004
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